‘ The Story of Dunlop from Solid Tyres to Motorsport ‘

#AceHistoryNews – Sept.13: From it’s very beginnings it is obvious what Dunlop set out to do, to deliver a better driving experience for drivers and a better riding experience for riders.

history article

‘ Where it all Began at Dunlop ‘

Funnily enough the story does not start on four wheels or even on two, but on three. In 1888 Dunlop’s founder, John Boyd Dunlop, was watching his young son riding his tricycle on solid rubber tyres over cobbled ground. He noticed that his little boy was not going very fast and did not seem very comfortable. In trying to provide his son with a smoother ride and better handling Dunlop took the tricycle, wrapped its wheels in thin rubber sheets, glued them together and inflated them with a football pump. That way he developed the first air cushioning system in history, and laid the foundation for the first pneumatic tyre.

Less than a year later, Dunlop’s invention made its racing debut on two wheels. Enabling a little known rider to easily beat his stronger rivals in a series of bicycle races, thanks to the advantage given by his pneumatic tyres, immediately establishing the role of motor-sports as a feature of the Dunlop heritage.

Dunlop immediately patented his idea and started to develop his invention into a commercial venture, founding what quickly became known as the Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Co. Ltd. In 1890 Dunlop opened its first tyre plant in Dublin, Ireland and three years later its first tyre factory in mainland Europe in Hanau, Germany. By 1895 Dunlop tyres were also being sold in France and Canada, and manufactured in Australia and the USA. By 1898 the business had outgrown its Dublin base, and production was transferred first to Coventry, England and then in 1902 to the 400 acre site in Birmingham, England – later known to the world as Fort Dunlop. In 1910 Dunlop planted its flag in Malaya, establishing 50,000 acres of rubber plantation. In 1913 the first Japanese tyre factory opened its gates in Kobe. In twenty years, Dunlop had made the solid tyre obsolete and grown from pioneer to the first global multinational company. It manufactured worldwide, and sold worldwide.

Its founding father’s entrepreneurial spirit became the ethos of the company, obviously realizing that to be a successful multinational corporation the company would have to remain a pioneer in research and development as well as in business. Dunlop’s objective was and is to continuously produce better products to enhance the performance of vehicles and the driving experience of its drivers.


By the start of World War II, Dunlop was the byword for success in a range of activities – not only tyres where it reigned supreme on and off the racetrack, but also brakes, wheels, golf and tennis balls, flooring, and other industrial rubber products. It was a supremacy that was to last until the end of the 1960s.

In 1984 came the consolidation of Dunlop’s European and US tyre operations with its Japanese business, as part of the Sumitomo group. In 1999 Sumitomo and The Goodyear Tyre & Rubber Company decided on a global alliance, becoming the world’s biggest tyre producer. Dunlop in Europe is now part of that joint venture encompassing six companies and is embedded within Goodyear Dunlop Tyres B.V.

Our technicians and designers in Europe, the USA, and Japan are committed to sharing their expertise with each other for maximum global benefit so that Dunlop manufacturing sites on three continents continue to supply exceptional performance tyres. The strength of the Dunlop brand and company manifests itself in eight main areas which define Dunlop’s ongoing quest to provide drivers and riders with better driving and riding experiences: Motorsport, R & D, Innovation, Test results, OE, tuning, 4×4, and UHP.

Our daily newspaper is here : Ace Worldwide News


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SNIPPETS OF HISTORY: ‘ Great Fire of Chicago Originated in a Barn and Ended Up Destroying 17,450 Buildings ‘

#AceHistory2ResearchNews – UNITED STATES (Chicago) October 08 – On this day in 1871, flames spark in the Chicago barn of Patrick and Catherine O’Leary,

' Chicago Fire 17,000 plus Homeless '

‘ Chicago Fire 17,000 plus Homeless ‘

Igniting a two-day blaze that kills between 200 and 300 people, destroys 17,450 buildings, leaves 100,000 homeless and causes an estimated $200 million (in 1871 dollars; $3 billion in 2007 dollars) in damages.

' Great Chicago Fire Map with Starting Point '

‘ Great Chicago Fire Map with Starting Point ‘

The fire started at about 9:00 P.M, October 8, in or around a small barn that bordered the alley behind 137 DeKoven Street.[ The traditional account of the origin of the fire is that it was started by a cow kicking over a lantern in the barn owned by Patrick and Catherine O’Leary.

In 1893, Michael Ahern, the Chicago Republican reporter who wrote the O’Leary account, admitted he had made it up as colourful copy. 

The barn was the first building to be consumed by the fire, but the official report could not determine the exact cause.

There has, however, been some speculation that would suggest the fire was caused by a person, instead of a cow. Some testimonies stated that a group of men were gambling inside the barn so they would not be seen by others.

The lamp that they were using was accidentally knocked over, which is what started the fire. Little evidence has been presented to prove whether or not this is true.

There has been speculation as to whether the cause of the fire was related to other fires that began the same day.

See Questions about the fire.

The fire’s spread was aided by the city’s use of wood as the predominant building material, a drought prior to the fire, and strong winds from the south-west that carried flying embers toward the heart of the city.

More than ⅔ of the structures in Chicago at the time of the fire were made entirely of wood. Most houses and buildings were topped with highly flammable tar or shingle roofs. All the city’s side-walks and many roads were also made of wood. 

Compounding this problem, Chicago had only received an inch of rain from July 4 to October 9 causing severe drought conditions. 

A picture of American firefighters in the 1770s

A picture of American firefighters in the 1770s (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In 1871, the Chicago Fire Department had a force of 185 fire-fighters with just  17 horse-drawn steam engines to protect the entire city. The initial response by the fire department was quick but due to an error by the watchman, Matthias Schaffer, the fire fighters were sent to the wrong location allowing the fire to grow unchecked 

An alarm sent from the area near the fire also failed to register at the courthouse where the fire watchmen were located.

Additionally, the fire-fighters were tired from having fought numerous small fires and one large fire in the week before. 

These factors combined to turn a small barn fire into a large scale conflagration.


#chicago, #united-states

` US Military Codes Kept Being Broken by the Germans in WWI So Introduced Choctaw ‘

#AceHistory2ResearchNews – When US military codes kept being broken by the Germans in WW1 a Native American tribe came to the rescue. They just spoke their own language – which baffled the enemy – and paved the way for other Native American “code talkers” in WW2.

It’s an irony that probably didn’t go unnoticed by Choctaw soldiers fighting in World War One. While the tribe’s children were being whipped for speaking in their native tongue at schools back home in Oklahoma, on the battlefields of France the Native American language was the much-needed answer to a very big problem.

In the autumn of 1918, US troops were involved in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive on the Western Front. It was one of the largest front-line commitments of American soldiers in WW1, but communications in the field were compromised. The Germans had successfully tapped telephone lines, were deciphering codes and repeatedly capturing runners sent out to deliver messages directly.

Choctaw Code Talkers

“It was a huge problem and they couldn’t figure out a way around it,” says Matt Reed, curator of American Indian Collections at the Oklahoma History Centre, the headquarters of the Oklahoma Historical Society.

The solution was stumbled upon by chance, an overheard conversation between two Choctaw soldiers in the 142nd Infantry Regiment. The pairs were chatting in camp when a captain walked by and asked what language they were speaking.

Realising the potential for communication, he then asked if there were other speakers among the troops. The men knew of Choctaw soldiers at company headquarters. Using a field telephone the captain got the men to deliver a message in their native tongue which their colleagues quickly translated back into English.

 The Choctaw Telephone Squad was born and so was code talking.





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` First Amendment to the ` United States Constitution ‘ Prohibits Making Any Law Abridging the ‘ Freedom of Speech ‘

#AceHistory2Research – UNITED STATES – March 29 – The First Amendment (Amendment I) to the United States Constitution prohibits the making of any law respecting an establishment of religion, impeding the free exercise of religion, abridging the freedom of speech, infringing on the freedom of the press, interfering with the right to peaceably assemble or prohibiting the petitioning for a governmental redress of grievances. It was adopted on December 15, 1791, as one of the ten amendments that comprise the Bill of Rights.

The Bill of Rights was originally proposed as a measure to assuage Anti-Federalist opposition to Constitutional ratification. Initially, the First Amendment applied only to laws enacted by the Congress, and many of its provisions were interpreted more narrowly than they are today. Beginning with Gitlow v. New York (1925), the Supreme Court applied the First Amendment to states—a process known as incorporation—through the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

In Everson v. Board of Education (1947), the Court drew on Founding Father Thomas Jefferson’s correspondence to call for “a wall of separation between church and State”, though the precise boundary of this separation remains in dispute. Speech rights were expanded significantly in a series of 20th and 21st-century court decisions which protected various forms of political speech, anonymous speech, campaign financing, pornography, and school speech; these rulings also defined a series of exceptions to First Amendment protections.

The Supreme Court overturned English common law precedent to increase the burden of proof for defamation and libel suits, most notably in New York Times Co. v. Sullivan (1964). Commercial speech, however, is less protected by the First Amendment than political speech, and is therefore subject to greater regulation.

The Free Press Clause protects publication of information and opinions, and applies to a wide variety of media. In Near v. Minnesota (1931) and New York Times v. United States (1971), the Supreme Court ruled that the First Amendment protected against prior restraint—pre-publication censorship—in almost all cases. The Petition Clause protects the right to petition all branches and agencies of government for action. In addition to the right of assembly guaranteed by this clause, the Court has also ruled that the Amendment implicitly protects freedom of association.


In 1776, the second year of the American Revolutionary War, the Virginia colonial legislature passed a Declaration of Rights that included the sentence “The freedom of the press is one of the greatest bulwarks of liberty, and can never be restrained but by despotic Governments.” Eight of the other thirteen states made similar pledges. However, these declarations were generally considered “mere admonitions to state legislatures”, rather than enforceable provisions.


#congress, #first-amendment, #free-speech, #new-york-times, #thomas-jefferson, #united-states

` Operation Crossroads in 1946 was a Series of `Two Nuclear Weapon Tests ‘ conducted by US ‘

#AceHistory2Research – Operation Crossroads was a series of two nuclear weapon tests conducted by the United States at Bikini Atoll in mid-1946 to investigate the effect of such weapons on naval ships.

The "Baker" explosion, part of Opera...

The “Baker” explosion, part of Operation Crossroads, a nuclear weapon test by the United States military at Bikini Atoll, Micronesia, on july 25th 1946. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

They were the first nuclear detonations after World War II, and the first ever to be publicly announced beforehand and observed by an invited audience, including a large press corps.

A fleet of 95 target ships was assembled in Bikini Lagoon and hit with two detonations of Fat Man plutonium implosion-type nuclear weapons of the type dropped on Nagasaki, each with a yield of 23 kt (96 TJ).

The first test, Able, was an air burst that sank five ships and demonstrated the survivability of ships located more than 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) from the explosion.

The second test, Baker, was an underwater explosion, which effectively destroyed the entire target fleet with radioactive contamination. It was the first case of immediate, concentrated radioactive fallout from a nuclear explosion.

The fallout from Baker and subsequent Bikini tests still renders the area uninhabitable. Glenn Seaborg, the longest-serving chairman of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, called Baker “the world’s first nuclear disaster.”



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EU : `Single European State' did not `End' with the `Holy Roman Empire' it had only Just Begun"

#AceHistory2Research says the History of the EU began with an idea and grew into a Union of minds, this is Courtesy of a Guest and fellow Researcher.

It would be appreciated by him and me that you do not break-up such a superb and informative post and article content. Any Re-Blogs are agreeable and will as usual be approved by the Editor. Thank You          

The idea for a single European state did not end with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire around the turn of the Nineteenth Century. Many individuals set out plans or notions for a united Europe including Leon Trotsky who wrote in 1917:

“The Federated Republic of Europe – the United States of Europe – that is what must be. National autonomy no longer suffices. Economic evolution demands the abolition of national frontiers…Only a Federated Republic of Europe can give peace to the world.

Many European, especially Italian, socialists and communists were taken with the idea of European federalism. This was spear-headed by communist writer and political activist, Altiero Spinelli, who was the chief writer behind the Manifesto for a Free and United Europe written not long after the start of the Second World War – and after the War that paper became the basic document of the European Federalist Movement. Spinelli was a powerful shaper of what today has become the EU, being the major force most recently (until his death in 1984) of the move to make the EU a state in and of itself to which Mrs. Thatcher, then Prime Minister of Britain, said “No! No! No!”. Spinelli was able to push forward his centralist ideas by promoting “subsidiarity” which turned out to be a meaningless concept and deception.[16]

Jean Monnet, a Frenchman and a senior figure in the League of Nations, was a proponent of the supranational state. He was disappointed, for instance, that the member nations of the League of Nations could exercise a national veto. In 1931 he published The United States of Europe, a collections of papers which addressed the idea of building a Federal Europe within the framework of the League of Nations. Monnet was supported by another senior member of the League of Nations, Arthur Salter. He was British and every bit as much a supranationalist as Monnet.

Paul-Henri Spaak was one of the “founding fathers” of the EU. He openly described himself as a national socialist (Nazi) and considered Hitler’s achievements “magnificent”. Hermann Goering in 1940 made the first reference to a “European Economic Community” and Kaiser Wilhelm in this same year spoke of a “United States of Europe”

In fact the blueprint for the EU’s Treaty of Rome is believed by some to have been developed by Hitler’s European “architect”, Reinhard Heydrich, who called it “The Reich Plan for the Domination of Europe” (this was widely published in 1942 but copies mysteriously disappeared later so that few now exist)

The following list (tabulated below) can be found in the work cited in the table title. It shows that the EU architects and the Nazis did share concepts and terminology.

Indeed the authors of this work, Rodney Atkinson and Norris McWhirter, went as far as to write:

“To say that the European Union was based on the Nazi version of Europe or that there are parallels would be an understatement. The entire ‘European’ enterprise since the founding of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1951 (and given an enormous boost by the Maastricht Treaty on European Union) is an exact replica of the Nazi’s ideas for Europe…

However, it should be noted that the idea of a single Europe pre-dates Hitler’s Nazism, though this is not to say that the same hidden interests were not supportive of both Nazism and the European movement, perhaps supporting the former to facilitate the latter. But it was Monnet, at least visibly, who was to found and develop the structural beginnings of the EU and to be accredited as “the Father of Europe”.

The Powers Behind the Scenes

There are two contending schools of thought on history. The first, and by far the most popular, is “The Accidental View of History” which holds that history is largely a series of unrelated events or events which are related only by accident or simple cause and effect; the second school of thought is “The Conspiratorial View of History” which holds that superintending forces have directed many of the important events of history.

Is there evidence to suggest that there are “powers behind the scenes” which have supported and financed the organizations and individuals that have promoted the move towarTable 2.0 Comparison of Nazi ideas for Europe with modern policies of the EU. Taken from pages 124-125 of “Treason at Maastricht” (see “Suggestions for Further Study” at the end of this article).



“Europäische Wirtschaftgemeinschaft” (European Economic Community) European Economic Community
Lebensraum (living space) European Space
Collective “access” to basic commodities Common energy, fishing and agricultural policies
European Currency System European Exchange Rate Mechanism
Europabank (Berlin) European Central Bank (Frankfurt)
European Regional Principle Committee of the Regions
Common Labour Policy Social Chapter
Economic and Trading Agreements Single Market
European Industrial Economy Common Industrial Policy
“The transformation of the laws of supply and demand.” Resistance to GATT
“Replacing capital with organised labour” European Works Councils

In September 2000, Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, EU reporter for The Telegraph, wrote a story reporting on recently declassified US government documents showing “that the US intelligence community ran a campaign in the Fifties and Sixties to build momentum for a united Europe. It funded and directed the European federalist movement.”

Mr. Evans-Pritchard wrote:

“Washington’s main tool for shaping the European agenda was the American Committee for a United Europe [ACUE], created in 1948. The chairman was [William] Donovan [head of the American wartime “Office of Strategic Services”, which was later to become the CIA], ostensibly a private lawyer by then.

The vice-chairman was Allen Dulles, the CIA director in the Fifties. The board included Walter Bedell Smith, the CIA’s first director, and a roster of ex-OSS figures and officials who moved in and out of the CIA. The documents show that ACUE financed the European Movement, the most important federalist organisation in the post-war years. In 1958, for example, it provided 53.5 per cent of the movement’s funds.

The European Youth Campaign, an arm of the European Movement, was wholly funded and controlled by Washington…”

Donovan, Smith, and Dulles were all members of the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), a group that along with its British sister-organization, the Royal Institute of International Affairs, and the Bilderbergers, has strongly but secretively supported and financed globalist movements – including National Socialism (Nazism), and International Socialism/Communism – with a view to establishing a “New World Order”.

Joseph Retinger, another of the founding fathers of the EU, was a polish socialist who, though having no visible means of support, travelled between the US, Mexico and Europe during the 1920s and 30s. It was he who recruited the ex-SS Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands to establish the secretive Bilderberg Group. In his diary Retinger wrote:

“In November 1946, I had a very long talk with Mr. Averell Harriman, American Ambassador in London…. Averell Harriman was my sponsor and arranged my visit [to the U.S.]…. At the time (the end of 1946) I found in America a unanimous approval for our ideas among financiers, businessmen and politicians. Mr. Leffingwell, senior partner in J.P. Morgan’s, Nelson and David Rockefeller, Alfred Sloan, Chairman of the Dodge Motor Company … George Franklin, and especially my old friend, Adolf Berle Jr., were all in favor, and Berle agreed to lead the American Section. John Foster Dulles also agreed to help us…. Later on, whenever we needed any assistance for the European Movement, Dulles was among those in America who helped us most.”

All of those men mentioned in this entry were members of the CFR.

The Grand Design of the EU

Paul-Henri Spaak encourage his fellow EU founders that “the most effective way to disguise their project’s political purpose was to conceal it behind a pretense that it was concerned only with economic cooperation, based on dismantling trade barriers: a ‘common market'” (emphasis added) and Jean Monnet supported this dishonest approach.

In the closing words of his memoirs, Monnet wrote:

“The sovereign nations of the past can no longer solve the problems of the present: they cannot ensure their own progress or control their own future. And the Community itself is only a stage on the way to the organised world of tomorrow.” (emphasis added).

And in a communiqué of 22 August 1962 this same man spelled out the grand design of Europe when he wrote:

“It is impossible to solve problems between European States who preserve full sovereignty. We are convinced that our times must see the creation of vast units like the United States and the USSR, and to establish a [world-wide] organisation to ensure co-operation between all those vast units. It is this organization which will create the new world order.” (emphasis added)

It seems beyond doubt now that regionalisation, despite initial promises to the contrary, was and is about the elimination of national sovereignty – and is itself a pre-planned stage toward globalisation (the joining together of regionalised blocs into a world government). The true story behind Europe can be ignored no longer.

A Resurrection of the Holy Roman Empire?

Rome (the Pope) has sought to supplant English Protestantism with Roman Catholicism for many centuries. The power of Rome, founded upon the philosophy of the old Roman Empire, espouses Civil Law and Corpus Juris (Civil Law is also called Roman Canon Law). The Vatican therefore is most supportive of the EU, seeing it as a means of establishing the largest Holy Roman Empire the world has ever seen. Our forebears, being quite aware of this through direct experience, wrote into the British Constitution the “Coronation Oath”, part of which states that the British monarch should “maintain the Protestant Reformed religion established by law.” Some have also expressed concern at the “spiritual” meaning of the symbols used by the EU.

A Brief Review of Treaties and Legislation

Treaty of Rome, 1957 – This treaty’s purpose was…

“to lay the foundations of an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe…the constant improvement of the living and working conditions of the people, the reduction of differences in wealth between regions…”

That is to say, it espoused both socialism and the concept of an ever-increasing union among the nations of Europe. In fact this document was actually a constitution disguised as a treaty because, unlike a treaty, it did not leave the several parties’ national sovereignties intact.

Common Market, 1973 – Section 2 of the European Communities Act (the enabling legislation to enter into the Common Market) set down the principle that British Law would always from then on be subordinate to European Law; that, when the two conflicted, it would be the European and not the British Law that would prevail. Thus the supremacy of Parliament was overthrown.

Single European Act, 1986 – this provided the means by which Britain entered the Single Market of 1992. It eroded Britain’s already-diminished decision-making powers by extending QMV (Qualified Majority Voting) to more areas.

Maastricht Treaty, 1992 – This was the treaty that established the idea of European citizenship and the Euro currency. It also surrendered the Queen’s power in Parliament to an unelected body in Europe.

Amsterdam Treaty, 1998 – the European Union gained a “legal personality” giving it such powers as the ability to sign treaties that bind all its member states; it also gave greater scope to the European Court of Justice, and the Council of Ministers was given powers to punish any member state that persistently breached the treaty.

The Schengen Agreement, 1990 – signatories gave up their right to police their own borders. Borders are an integral part of liberty, both nationally and locally.

Treaty of Nice, 2000 – Further centralised Europe. Britain here gave up its veto in thirty more areas of policy setting.

Structure of the European Union

Presidency – this is largely symbolic in nature

European Commission – Unelected body that meets in secret. Consists of 1-2 commissioners from each nation. This is an extremely powerful body that makes EU law. The Treaty of Rome forbids commissioners to represent the interests of their own nation; they must put the Union first.

European Council – Extremely powerful. Meets in total secrecy. Its deliberations are seldom published and when they are it is only after they have been implemented. Comprises the leaders of the member states and their foreign secretaries.

Council of Ministers – This has the role of developing the EU. It consists of ministers from the member states, which minister attends depends upon the subject being discussed. Due to Qualified Majority Voting it is very difficult for Britain to stop anything it disagrees with. It is not answerable to any elected institution and meets behind closed doors.

European Parliament – this is a part of the EU Government which serves the purpose of creating an appearance of democracy. In reality the EP has very little influence. It does not pass laws, only resolutions and the manner in which it does so is far from just. Its members are called MEPs (Ministers of the European Parliament). It acts more like a discussion group though the Commission has no obligation to follow its recommendations. Although it ratifies the Commission’s laws, in reality it is quite powerless to ultimately prevent such laws being passed: MEPs are often confused and misled, laws can be grouped and voted on by block, and such votes go through before they have time to be discussed (in fact each MEP gets just 90 seconds (at best) per week to speak – their microphone is cut off after their allotted minute and a half), and all MEPs not in attendance are considered to be voting for the law by default!

European Court of Justice – Not an independent judiciary or check on the legislative or executive, but a political court to enforce the several treaties/EU Constitution (i.e. to enforce the Union and its aims).

European Central Bank – The ECB is not accountable to any elected institution and meets in secret. Those states within the single currency effectively lose all control over the amount of money and credit in circulation and the ability to fix interest rates. All these and other powers are centralised into the powerful ECB.[36]

Separation of Powers

One of the most important principles of a free and just government is what is known as “separation of powers” and the concomitant “checks and balances” – this structures governmental powers in such a way as to make it as difficult as possible for any individual or faction to gain overall control of the three powers of government (i.e. having the power to make law, enforce law and adjudicate disputes of the law).

However, with the EU we find that the executive is not elected and holds all the power, and the legislature is elected but has no power! The judiciary is under the control of the executive and thus cannot do anything but enforce the whims of the executive. It has been said that the concentration of powers is the very definition of tyranny.

The EU, Common Law and Natural Rights

The EU is based on Civil Law and a Corpus Juris judicial system. It is in every instance listed in table 1.0 above an exact oppositeof the traditional US and British system of Common Law. The European system is simply not acceptable to anyone who loves freedom under law.

Listed below are some of those areas in EU law and policy where natural rights, upon which Common Law is based, are infringed…

Above the Law

Agents of the EU government cannot be prosecuted. All those who work for the EU have a life time’s immunity from prosecution. The buildings, records and files of the EU cannot be searched. They are above the law.

Power of Arrest

A portion of the principle of the separation of powers can be seen in the concept of a warrant for arrest. When the police (a part of the executive branch of government) want to arrest someone they must go to a judge (a part of the judicial branch of government) and receive a warrant to do so. This means they need to convince the judge that they have a reasonable cause to make an arrest. The judge, hopefully independent of the executive as a member of the independent judicial branch of government, will have to agree before the arrest warrant is issued.

The EU has effectively dismantled this important check on government tyranny and at a European level to boot. New extradition procedures empower the EU with the “European Arrest Warrant” which strips the British Government of doing anything to stop European officers from coming into the country and taking whomsoever they want away for incarceration. They do not even need to possess the warrant. There does not even need to be a warrant! The British Government will be powerless to stop them (as eventually with all EU laws).

The Right to Own and Control Property

In his classic and (in the opinion of this writer) inspired book, The Law, Frédéric Bastiat, the French economist (1801-1850), states:

“Life, faculties, production – in other words, individuality, liberty, property – this is man. And in spite of the cunning of artful political leaders, these three gifts from God precede all human legislation, and are superior to it…”

Under Common Law depriving people of their property can only be justified as a punishment for a criminal offence wherein the offender has been found guilty of seeking to illegally deprive, or actually depriving, another of his property, life (person) or liberty.

Indeed, governments are set up to protect property rights in the first place and it is the right to own and control property that facilitates every other freedom (see end note . The right to own and control property precedes and is superior to government. Governments that unjustly violate property rights are ignoring one of the prime purposes for their existence in the first place.

So what is the EU’s take on the right to own and control property? From the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union we read that:

“no one may be deprived of his or her possessions, except in the public interest…

And the Charter of Fundamental Rights (Article 52) allows the EU to limit rights “where necessary” in the “general interest” of the EU. It is the European Court that will decide what is both “necessary” and what exactly constitutes the “general interest”.

There is no such person as a “public interest”; what this means is that the EU Government will deprive people of possessions when they so choose – for they will decide what the public interest is.

The Right to Free Speech (and to criticise the EU)

The European Court of Justice has ruled that it may lawfully suppress political criticism of its institutions and leading figures; that dissent can be restricted to “protect the rights of others” and punish those who “damaged the institution’s image and reputation”

The Advocate-General of the ECJ gave a legal opinion (ref. case C-274/99) that criticism of the EU was akin to blasphemy. Punishing someone for allegedly criticising the EU, whether such allegations were proven or not, were (said he) not an infringement of free speech.[45]

Another example of the EU’s attitude toward freedom of speech is their Weights and Measures (Metrication Amendments) Regulations 2001 which will make it a criminal offence to even so much as mention imperial measurements at work or in any official capacity.[46]

The EU is also creating “new crimes” whereby it can make illegal expressions it deems to be “xenophobic” or “racist”. Terms it will define of course.

The Right to be Left Alone

The right to be left alone, emanating from if not synonymous with the right to liberty, is one of the most crucial freedoms in a free society. Again, the EU has little respect for this right and the privacy of its citizens.

Europol, the new European Police force, is not accountable to an elected body. It answers to a committee formed by the Council of Ministers. It has a much wider function than fighting crime, being possessed of the ability to store information on a central database(provisions for which were made under the Maastricht Treaty) on anyone (criminal or not), including a record of an individual’s political and religious affiliations.

Historical precedence has shown that ID cards and other ways of recording personal information have always been abused – if not by the government that established it, then by a successor. Anonymity is an important part of the right to be left alone. Contrary to popular belief information-storing and ID cards do not decrease crime, they serve only to control and impede law-abiding people in their rights and liberty.[47]

Worrying powers have already been exercised when in 2002 the Council of Ministers instructed police to place on their database suspected political “troublemakers” with a view to preventing them from leaving their home countries and attending protests directed at EU summits.[48]

Common Law presupposes that everything is permitted that is not expressly forbidden by law whereas the Civil Law of Europe takes the view that everything is illegal unless expressly permitted by law. Under Common Law all men are presumed innocent and given the benefit of the doubt, under Civil Law all people are seen as potential criminals, presumed guilty and given no benefit of doubt. Hence the right to be left alone, the right to anonymity, is in total harmony with Common Law but in diametric opposition to Civil Law.

The Right of Self-Defence

Like Hitler, Mussolini and other tyrants, the EU wants all its citizens disarmed. The final right of people to remove their government by force of arms is hardly possible when they have had their right to keep and bear arms removed from them. On this subject Henry St. George Tucker wrote:

“This may be considered as the true palladium of liberty . . . . The right of self defense is the first law of nature. . . . Wherever . . . the right of the people to keep and bear arms is, under any colour or pretext whatsoever, prohibited, liberty, if not already annihilated, is on the brink of destruction.” 

The right to keep and bear arms is enshrined in the English Bill of Rights (1689) which, in part, reads: “The subjects…may have arms for their defence suitable to their condition and as allowed by law.” This is a declaration of a lawful right and is not subject to infringement by governments of the day; its inclusion was and is for the very purpose of protecting from such infringement

The Right of Free Association

The EU is also looking to fund political parties with taxpayers’ money, a proposal that is so clearly wrong it is a wonder anyone could support it. Although the EU claims this will bring more democracy and transparency (which it will not) the real effect of state funding will be that the EU will control which parties are legal and which are not.

One Polish MP, currently an observer Member of the European Parliament, gave this warning when he found out about the proposed EU statute on European political parties:  exactly what the Communists did in Poland…They didn’t ban elections: we had elections all the time…All they did was to ban the opposition parties from contesting the elections. And do you know what their official excuse was? Exactlythe same as this. They said it was to stop fascist parties. Only pretty soon that came to apply to everyone except the Communists and their Agrarian allies.” (emphasis added)

This voice of experience should be a wake-up call to us all regarding the true nature of the EU.

The Right to Trial by Jury

This is not the only reference in this essay to trial by jury, and deliberately so. It’s a crucial freedom. In addition to what has already been written, let’s read what Churchill said on the matter:

“…the great principle of Habeas Corpus and Trial by Jury…are the supreme protection invented by the British people for ordinary individuals against the state. The power of the executive to cast a man into prison without formulating any charge known to the law, and particularly to deny him judgment by his peers for an indefinite period, is in the highest degree odious, and is the foundation of all totalitarian governments.” (emphasis added)

Provisions exist in the Amsterdam Treaty for the Corpus Juris legal system. This can be introduced by Qualified Majority Voting even if the British Parliament is totally against it. The British Government has already been trying to abolish trial by jury for certain offences, no doubt as a preparatory stage to accepting Corpus Juris.

The European Public Prosecutor (set up by Corpus Juris) will initially have powers over cases involving fraud against the budget of the EU but which will later extend to all criminality (or what the EU deems criminal).[54]

The House of Lords, not to mention many lawyers and liberty groups, are opposed to the abolition of these rights protected in the Magna Carta, which might explain at least one of the reasons why the Government is so keen to rid itself of that House and introduce judicial “reform”.

Economic Independence – A Pillar of National Sovereignty

Joining the EURO means Britain’s gold reserves go to Germany and into the vaults of the EU’s Central Bank. All other tangible assets such as silver will almost certainly be relinquished. This means that Britain will find itself incapable of regaining its own independence! Political agreements can be torn up, but should we ask for our gold back one day would it be given? The answer is no – the terms state the transfer is irreversible.[55]

The EU has not had its own accounts signed off by auditors in eight years; the EU is rife with fraud and corruption.[56] Should we trust the EU to make economic decisions for us?

Economic Benefits of the EU – Fact or Fantasy?

This is another area where what is stated by pro-Europeans, or what is commonly accepted, simply contradicts the facts…

Most of our trade is not with Europe. The value of exports and services to the EU is just 16% of UK Gross Domestic Product (GDP).[57]

We do not have the majority of our investments in Europe. The EU costs us a lot more money by being in than out; costs on food alone have been reported as £940 more per family per year than they would be if we were outside the EU. Britain pays far more into the EU than it gets back. Britain’s involvement in the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) was economically disastrous (and unemployment increased by 1.2 million) and it will be worse under full-blown Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) with the Euro as our currency.[58] Let’s not forget that the burdensome VAT is also a tax of European origin.

The majority of British businesses do not support a single currency. Both the Institute of Directors and the Federation of Small Businesses (by far the largest business organisation in the UK with 185,000 members) oppose the Euro.[59] In fact the FSB recently held an Annual Conference where the votes were 104,568 in favour of not signing the EU Constitution (5,292 voted were in favour).[60]

According to one survey the cost to firms would reach £51 billion to convert to the Euro.[61] The bottom line on why the Euro and economy cannot work is because what is being done is chiefly political and not economic.[62]

One more myth to address here is that of unemployment. Leaving the EU will not cause mass unemployment. Distorted reports and false claims that big companies would leave Britain if we came out of the EU have been spread by certain groups and interests who seem to care very little for the truth. One such pro-EU group, called Britain in Europe, leaked a report from the National Institute of Economic and Social Research and claimed it showed eight million jobs in Britain would be lost if Britain left the EU. The director of the Institute, Martin Weale, condemned Britain in Europe‘s distortion of the research as…

“pure Goebbels. In many years of academic research I cannot recall such a wilfull distortion of the facts…Britain in Europe‘s claims are absurd. Nobody could plausibly believe the figures. As the experience of the 1960s indicates, there is no reason why being outside the EU should necessarily involve mass unemployment.” (emphasis added)[63]

The Shadow of Communism

Some, and with considerable justification, have compared the EU to the Soviet Union.[64] Perhaps the most well-known statement came from Mikhail Gorbachev (see quotation below).

Christopher Story of the London-based Soviet Analyst described Romano Prodi’s manifesto of 2000, setting out the Commission’s agenda for the subsequent five years, as:

“purely a Communist program, which is why Mikhail Gorbachev, when he visited London shortly thereafter, in March of that year, was correct in describing the EU as ‘the new European Soviet’. One does not need an advanced degree in Leninist studies to see this.”[65]

Dr. Uno Silberg, PhD and Chairman of the Estonian Movement NO to the European Union, has tabulated comparisons between the European Union and the Soviet Union, and reports that “in the eyes of many Estonians the present EU is nothing less than a disguised Soviet Union.”[66] And they should know.

Staying in Estonia, we find Christopher Bollyn of the American Free Press reporting:

Former Estonian Prime Minister Edgar Savisaar, and others, has compared the EU with the Soviet Union. “The forced propaganda of the European Union is reminiscent of the Soviet Union’s methods and brainwashing,” Rolf Parve, wrote in Kesknädal, the weekly paper of the Center Party.

“Moscow and Brussels differ only in one point,” professor Igor Gräzin, one of the leading anti-EU voices in Estonia says: “The Soviet Union theoretically allowed nations to leave the union. Brussels is creating organs, however, which would kill that idea in the bud.”[67]

Beyond direct comparisons there is also the evidence of communist influence in the EU itself (both now and in its founding). One only has to look to EU leaders and officials to see ties to the KGB and a whole other assortment of dubious connections and damning evidence.[68]

Military Independence – A Pillar of National Sovereignty

Commitments to unified military action were made under Article 5 of the Amsterdam Treaty. The EU Constitution, as it presently stands, under Article 15, would require total obedience to the EU:

“the Union’s competence in matters of common foreign and security policy shall cover all areas and all questions relating to the Union’s security. Member states shall actively and unreservedly support the Union’s common foreign and security policy in a spirit of loyalty and mutual solidarity and shall comply in this area.” (emphasis added)

Common Law, Constitutions and Governments: Is The EU Legal in Britain?

The rights affirmed in the Magna Carta will be null and void if Britain forms a political union with the EU. The Magna Carta ensures that these rights (including presumption of innocence and the right to trial by jury) should be possessed “fully and completely, for themselves and their heirs from us and our heirs, in all matters and in all places for ever.” To enter the EU is to act in opposition to the British Constitution.

This document, the Magna Carta, is the foundation of our Constitution and it cannot be broken[69] by Parliament. It is a covenant between the Constitutional Head (the Sovereign monarch) and the subjects. Common Law and this covenant pre-date Parliament and are therefore not subject to abolition by that body. The purpose of Parliament is to give expression to Common Law, to strengthen that expression butnever to weaken or suppress it).

Let’s put this principle another way because it is vital we understand it if we are to avoid confusion and deceit by unscrupulous political rulers, bodies and movements…

The Common Law represents the natural rights and sovereignty of citizens, these pre-date and are superior to both constitutions and governments.

Just constitutions are based on Common Law whereby they affirm by declaration the natural rights and freedoms of man. Constitutions also establish a structure for government and a framework in which government may fulfil its responsibility and purpose (namely to protect the Common-Law rights of the governed). Governments are therefore inferior to constitutions and Common Law, being born of and bound by them.

Though the people of Britain by revolution may change the Constitution, the Government may not. Parliament exists only to give expressionto those rights affirmed in a constitution. Its duty is thus to deal with procedural and not substantive law (i.e. it cannot abolish or create rights; it cannot yield sovereignty).

Under the British Constitution it is understood that…

“Parliament…has…the right to make or unmake any law whatever; and, further, that no person or body is recognized by the law of England as having a right to override or set aside the legislation of Parliament.”[70]

The principle that no Parliament may bind its successors is clearly violated by signing agreements which claim to trump the supremacy of Parliament and bind future generations to laws they cannot revisit. In this connection it should be noted that the EU itself acts under a doctrine called acquis communautaire (the text of which has been reported as at least 80-100 thousand pages, some sources giving a figure of 320,000 type-written pages as far back as 1998!) which holds that once a power, or area of legislative authority, is gained it never again gives it back. The EU cannot become less centralist, only more centralist. It is in diametric conflict with the British Constitution and the authority and very nature of Parliament.

Some have also argued that Parliament has shared sovereignty, or that it has been pooled. This is a contradiction in terms; sovereignty is an exclusive attribute. You either have it or you do not.[71] Furthermore, sovereignty resides in the individual and, as such, Parliament represents that sovereignty. It cannot yield it or give it away. It is not in their power to surrender it because it does not belong to them. To use an analogy, it would be rather like an employee of a company going to a meeting with another company and selling off or merging his employer’s company without any authority or instruction to do so.

Many other points could be raised here too, such as the fact that the Maastricht Treaty was only valid in Europe if ratified by all countries involved. It was not.[72] Another point, in addition to those already discussed, is our own Act of Union which again has been violated by the Maastricht Treaty and invalidated both the union of Scotland and the rest of the UK as well as Parliament’s own authority.[73]

It is evident from the material above that those seeking to bring Britain into political union with Europe, unwittingly or not, may well be committing acts which are both illegal and treasonable[74] in addition to being unlawful.

The EU Constitution

“The European constitution…shall have primacy over the law of the Member States.” (Article 10.1, proposed EU Constitution)

Romano Prodi, President of the EU Commission, in an address to members of the European Parliament said:

“Europe must assume responsibility for peace and development in the world…With a single voice we can wield real influence. Only united can we put our own humanist stamp on globalisation and infuse it with Europe’s social values…I am convinced that we need a constitution to mark the birth of Europe as a political entity…[The Union] is not an alliance between States or a federation. It is an advanced supranational democracy that needs to be strengthened.” (emphasis added) [75]

Ashley Mote – MEP, author, broadcaster and constitutional historian – says of the proposed Constitution for Europe: “Essentially, it is not a constitution at all. It is little more than an elaborate attempt to legitimise the seizure of power by a ruling elite,” (emphasis added) and he goes on to list six of the fundamental defects in the document:

“It is vague, grandiose, imprecise, deliberately complex, confusing and extremely long.

It is proscriptive rather than enabling. It makes law, instead of creating a framework for law-making.

It offers no effective checks and balances to control future law-makers.

It consolidates power for a system of government by a self-perpetuating bureaucracy.

It puts that elite group above the law to be imposed on everyone else.

It turns the member states from theoretical masters of the house of Brussels into its servants.”[76]

The Constitution also designates the Euro as the currency of the Union, which means Britain’s opt-out of the Euro becomes meaningless if it signs up for the Constitution.[77]

Article 58 of the Constitution reaffirms previous provisions when it provides for a member state to be reduced to colony status, with no voting rights but all obligations to the EU still in force, when she is considered by others to have violated “human rights” and “the rule of law”. Of course, these latter terms are undefined and will be interpreted as the EU’s arbitrary will decides.[78]

The so-called “exit clause” for member states to withdraw from the EU includes a two-year forced waiting period during which the member state loses all decision-making powers in the EU and during which the Union can exercise such powers as it sees fit upon the rebel state.[79]

Any MP who votes to accept the EU Constitution, with its irreversibility (or “pretence” thereof), will be in breach of their Oath of Allegiance which is to defend the Queen as sovereign – and she can remain sovereign only if she is the head of a sovereign state (i.e. an independent, self-determining state which is subordinate to no other).[80]

Treason at Westminster

“Few men have been desperate enough to attack openly, and barefaced, the Liberties of a free People. Such avowed Conspirators can rarely succeed: The Attempt would destroy itself. Even when the Enterprize is begun and visible, the End must be hid, or denied. It is the Business and Policy of Traytors, so to disguise their Treason with plausible Names, and so to recommend it with popular and bewitching Colours, that they themselves shall be adored, while their Work is detested, and yet carried on by those that detest it.

“Thus one Nation has been surrendered to another under the fair Name of mutual Alliance: The Fortresses of a Nation have been given up, or attempted to be given up, under the frugal Notion of saving Charges to a Nation; and Commonwealths have been trepanned into Slavery, by Troops raised or increased to defend them from Slavery…”[81]

The above was originally written in 1720. Little has changed since then. Through the complicity of prominent and influential figures and factions in the Conservative and Labour Party, both employing deceitful and wholly corrupt means,[82] the UK has not only joined but become further entrenched in the EU.

Perhaps we will draw to an end with the now infamous words of Prime Minister Edward Heath. As Prime Minister, in the House of Commons on 25th February, 1970, in the build up to EEC entrance, Heath said: “There will not be a blueprint for a federal Europe.”

Yet in 1991 he was asked: “the single currency; a United States of Europe; was that in your mind when you took Britain in?”. Edward Heath replied, “Of course, yes.” (emphasis added)[83]

And in a White Paper published in July 1971 concerning Britain’s entrance into the supposedly for-trade-only Common Market:

“There is no question of any erosion of essential national sovereignty…There are some in this country who fear that in going into Europe, we shall in some way sacrifice independence and sovereignty. These fears I need hardly say are completely unjustified.” (emphasis added)

Time has shown this to be false. What is more, documents released later showed this statement to have been an outright lie.[84]

Have Ministers been deceiving the British public? As early as 1962 Ministers were formally instructed regarding Common-Market membership:

“Ministers should in public speeches avoid accepting specific commitments or giving explanations of the Government’s general commitments which might prove embarrassing when the final terms (of membership) become known in detail.”[85]

And what about those who want to reform the EU from within? It is simply not possible. The way the EU is structured, our increasing minority status, and a host of other factors spelled out in this essay, stop this from being in any way achievable. The Hansard Society has said:

“Any attempts by any government to try to amend Community legislation to its own wishes are doomed to failure…Parliament has little, if any, input upon the process of European law-making…” (emphasis added)[86]

Conclusion and a Plea

The opening quotation of this article is from Andrew Fletcher of Saltoun. He spoke great wisdom in those words. Truly, unless we first love our own, we can never truly love another; unless we put first our own kin and country in the dispensing of our charity and duty, we will never truly develop the character and feelings necessary to “love [and treat] all equally”. This is a natural truth founded upon free will (itself the reason for sovereignty’s existence) and cannot be forced by political means.

Britain, in stark contrast to Europe, has had a long tradition of liberty of the individual. Today, despite our own domestic problems, our oversea investments are far larger than any European nation; two thirds of all “European” investment into the USA come from Britain; Britain is second to only the United States in terms of investing overseas; over half of all commercially viable inventions discovered in the last sixty years have come out of Britain; British firms were the purchasers of nearly half of international acquisitions and mergers in the first part of 1999 alone. We are the fourth largest economy in the world. This is a triumph of a good system. Yes, it could be improved. Yes, there are problems. But there will be many more problems if we join the EU and, what is more, we will not possess the power to put them right.

Everything Common Law stands for, everything patriots have ever fought for, and everything freemen have ever loved and dreamed of, is now under threat of extinction. Will Britain remain a free nation? That is what hangs in the balance. Don’t let anyone convince you otherwise.

End Notes

  1. “Rights are not gifts from one man to another, nor from one class of men to another; for who is he who could be the first giver, or by what principle, or on what authority, could he possess the right of giving?…It is impossible to discover any origin of rights otherwise than in the origin of man; it consequently follows that rights appertain to man in right of his existence only, and must therefore be equal to every man.” (Thomas Paine, Dissertations on First Principles of Government; emphasis added). Hence Paine explains that the philosophy of Civil Law is unnatural, and that rights are natural (they exist by virtue of nature or God, not because others have granted them to us); he also concludes that they must therefore be equal to all.

  2. “[I]n spite of the cunning of artful political leaders, these three gifts from God [the natural right to individuality (life), liberty, and property] precede all human legislation, and are superior to it. Life, liberty, and property do not exist because men have made laws. On the contrary, it was the fact that life, liberty, and property existed beforehand that caused men to make laws in the first place.” (Frédéric Bastiat, The Law, pp. 2; emphasis added). To understand why the right to own and control property is necessary in order to exercise any other right, and why no society can truly be free, or rights secure, where there is no right to own and control property please read Clarence B. Carson’s excellent article The Property Basis of Rights available on-line at

  3. Stand Fast By Our Constitution, Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company, pp. 139.

  4. The word “sovereignty” has reference to that which is supreme or the highest. Sovereignty exists within the individual because of his free will and so his natural right and power to make his own decisions and to act upon them. It is this power in the individual that, when delegated to government, gives life and authority to the power of government to make and enforce laws. “There are,” said Thomas Paine, “but two divisions into which power can be arranged. First, that of willing or decreeing the laws; secondly, that of executing or putting them in practise. The former corresponds to the intellectual faculties of the human mind which reasons and determines what shall be done; the second, to the mechanical powers of the human body that puts that determination into practise.” (Thomas Paine, Dissertations on First Principles of Government)

  5. As quoted by Eugene W. Castle in Billions, Blunders and Baloney, p. 259 (as referenced by Ezra Taft Benson in his address, United States Foreign Policy given at the Farm Bureau Banquet in Preston, Idaho, June 21st 1968 – see “Suggestions for Further Study” below).

  6. Ezra Taft Benson, United States Foreign Policy given at the Farm Bureau Banquet in Preston, Idaho, June 21st 1968 (see “Suggestions for Further Study” below).

  7. Ibid.

  8. Ibid.

  9. In AD 438 the Roman Senate rubber-stamped the Theodosian Code. This code of laws was created by a group of jurists appointed by both the Eastern Roman Emperor (Theodosius II) and the Western Roman Emperor (Valentinian III). J. Reuben Clark said “[These laws] had provisions covering such so-called modern concepts…as price fixing, black markets, excessive taxation, socialized medicine [a national health service], conscription of labor, anti-semitism, inflation, corruption in government bureaus, the relationship between Church and State – all phrases familiar to our ears. Under these laws the entire population was organized as in one vast army. All, including the highest officials, were strictly classified, and even the least had a station. In substance this meant that everyone did what he was told, and did not act without permission. There was a great body of secret police to report disobedience; there was a ‘special’ secret police appointed to watch the ordinary secret police. These laws were framed to provide security. We of today have heard the same kind of security talk. But, in fact, all this bred not security, but scarcity of grain, of materials, of men. The mere making of laws, even in an absolute despotism, does not change the great laws of nature and economics – neither then nor now, for there can be no permanent stability where men are not free. In fewer than forty years from the issuance of the Theodosian Code the Empire of the West fell, notwithstanding the operation, under complete autocratic powers, of economic devices enacted to promote the welfare of the people and to preserve the empire; some of these devices were the same ones that we have been told will rebuild our economic structure and preserve our free institutions. These devices failed with Rome; they will ultimately fail with us.” (Stand Fast By Our Constitution, Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company, pp. 140-141).

  10. Not many decades after the Fall of the Western Roman Empire the Byzantine (Eastern Roman Empire) under Emperor Justinian established a new set of laws called the Justinian Code. This set of laws became law throughout all the Eastern Empire in AD 529. When the Empire fell in AD 1453 the philosophy spread west across all Europe as the Byzantines fled the Moslems. Thus the Justinian Code became the system of continental Europe. It is said that the laws of the Justinian Code, a Corpus Juris system, were so many that they filled 2000 books (around 3 million verses). Whereas the absolute power of the ruler was implicit in the Theodosian Code, it was boldly stated in the Justinian Code.

  11. “Here are the principal points of People’s Law [Common Law] as practiced by the Anglo-Saxons (see Colin Rhys Lovell,English Constitutional and Legal History [New York: Oxford University Press, 1962], pp. 3-50): 1. They considered themselves a commonwealth of freemen. 2. All decisions and the selection of leaders had to be with the consent of the people…3. The laws by which they were governed were considered natural laws given by divine dispensation…4. Power was dispersed among the people and never allowed to concentrate in any one person or group. Even in time of war, the authority granted to the leaders was temporary and the power of the people to remove them was direct and simple. 5. Primary responsibility for resolving problems rested first with the individual, then the family, then the tribe or community, then the region, and finally, the nation. 6. They were organized into small, manageable groups where every adult had a voice and vote. They divided the people into units of ten families who elected a leader; then fifty families who elected a leader; then a hundred families who elected a leader; and then a thousand families who elected a leader. 7. They believed the rights of the individual were considered unalienable and could not be violated without risking the wrath of divine justice as well as civil retribution by the people’s judges. 8. The system of justice was structured on the basis of severe punishment unless there was complete reparation to the person who had been wronged…treason… [was] considered [a] capital offense… 9. They always attempted to solve problems on the level where the problem originated. If this was impossible they went no higher than was absolutely necessary to get a remedy. Usually only the most complex problems involving the welfare of the whole people, or a large segment of the whole people, ever went to the leaders for solution.” (The 5,000-Year Leap, Dr. W. Cleon Skousen [USA: National Center for Constitutional Studies, 1981], pp. 12-14).

  12. “…men in our kingdom shall have and hold all the aforesaid liberties, rights and concessions well and peacefully, freely and quietly, fully and completely, for themselves and their heirs from us and our heirs, in all matters and in all places for ever.” (Magna Carta, AD 1215). Those rights include the right to due process of law, the right to trial by jury, and the right to be presumed innocent until proven guilty.

  13. “Jefferson’s great ambition at that time was to promote a renaissance of Anglo-Saxon primitive institutions on the new continent. Thus presented, the American Revolution was nothing but the reclamation of the Anglo-Saxon birthright…” (Gilbert Chinard, Thomas Jefferson: The Apostle of Americanism, 2nd ed. Rev. [Ann Arbor, Mich.: The University of Michigan Press, 1975], pp. 86). It is interesting to note that the members of the committee set up to design the Seal of the United States (Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and Benjamin Franklin) originally intended one side of the seal to show the Children of Israel in the wilderness and the other side to show Hengist and Horsa (according to tradition the first Anglo-Saxons in England). These ideas proved too detailed for a small seal and a simpler design was agreed upon. The Founders were well acquainted with Common Law and that both the Israelites and Anglo-Saxons were governed by it.

  14. “For more than six hundred years – that is, since Magna Carta, in 1215 – there has been no clearer principle of English or American constitutional law, than that, in criminal cases, it is not only the right and duty of juries to judge what are the facts, what is the law, and what was the moral intent of the accused; but that it is also their right, and their primary and paramount duty, to judge of the justice of the law, and to hold all laws invalid, that are, in their opinion, unjust or oppressive, and all persons guiltless in violating, or resisting the execution of, such laws.” (An Essay on the Trial by Jury, 1852, Lysander Spooner; see Vigilance: A Defence of British Liberty, pp. 70-71; see also “Suggestions for Further Study” below). The power of the jury is greater than that of government; without the jury’s consent no person can ever be punished, no unjust law ever applied, and no just law ever misapplied. To take away trial by jury exposes every citizen to a government that acts as both judge and jury – it may do whatever it wants with none to check it! For a brief article on the importance and powers of the jury, see Trial By Jury: An Essential Safeguard For a Free Society available on-line at http://www.freedom-central.net/trialbyjury.htmlIn Europe and under European Law there is no genuine trial by jury anywhere.

  15. Leon Trotsky, October 30th, 1917, at Smolny, Petrograd. As quoted in John Reed’s book, 10 Days That Shook the World.

  16. Godfather of the European Union: Altiero Spinelli by Lindsay Jenkins available on-line at:http://www.brugesgroup.com/mediacentre/?article=104.

  17. The Great Deception: The Secret History of the European Union by Christopher Booker and Richard North, p. 4-17 (see “Suggestions for Further Study” below).

  18. This information taken from Vigilance: A Defence of British Liberty by Ashley Mote (see “Suggestions for Further Study” below).

  19. Some of the papers present at Heydrich’s meeting at the University of Berlin in 1942 included such ominous titles as: “The Economic Face of New Europe”, “Development of the EEC”, “European Agriculture”, “European Transport”, “A European Currency”, “European Trade and Economic Treaties”, “Is Europe a Geographical Concept or a Political Fact?” – words that are all familiar to us today of course. For more information on the EU, Nazi Germany and Reinhard Heydrich read Phillip Day’s excellent article, The German European Economic Community? available on-line athttp://www.campaignfortruth.com/Eclub/101002/germaneec.htm. The original papers have recently been translated into English and made freely available on-line at:

  20. For more information on the authors’ views on the subject of Nazi origins of the EU see their work Treason at Maastricht, page 123 and also chapter 18. (see “Suggestions for Further Study” below)

  21. See The Great Deception: The Secret History of the European Union by Christopher Booker and Richard North, p. 18-30, Chapter 2, “The Nazi Cul-de-Sac: 1933-1945” (see “Suggestions for Further Study” below). See also the on-line article,The Fascist Inheritance in the European and Blair Projects by Edward Spalton. (see “Suggestions for Further Study” below).

  22. It seems well documented that certain figures and interests involved with building up the Nazis also financed and supported the movement to build a united Europe. The connection between these conspiring parties and the EU is addressed elsewhere in this essay. For their connections to Nazism readers may wish to study Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler by Antony C. Sutton; the text of this book is freely available on-line at http://reformed-theology.org/html/books/wall_street/.

  23. For an introduction to the conspiratorial view of history the author recommends A. Ralph Epperson’s The Unseen Handpublished by Publius Press. Once you’ve read this you will never view history the same way again. Available for purchase from Amazon UK at http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0961413506/.

  24. See Global Tyranny…Bloc by Bloc by William F. Jasper, “The New American” magazine, Vol. 17, No. 8, April 9th, 2001. Available on YouTube at:
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7TenIjbnqO0&feature=channel.or in written form here:http://web.archive.org/web/20041212071621/www.stoptheftaa.org/artman/publish/article_8.shtml.

  25. For more information on Bilderbergers and other groups try http://www.bilderberg.org which has a huge list of articles and links on the matter. Also, The Chronological History of the New World Order by D.L. Cuddy, Ph.D, gives a more general listing of dates and quotations charting the globalist agenda from the beginning of the 20th century; viewable on-line at:
    http://www.silentmajority.co.uk/eurorealist/nwochronology. Inclusion of these links should not be taken to mean that the author of the essay you are now reading agrees with everything written or linked to on these sites. Readers may also be interested in the Portman Papers in this connection (see “Suggestions for Further Study” below).

  26. For more information on Retinger and others behind the development of the EU, see Rogues’ Gallery of EU Founders by William F. Jasper; availabe on-line at: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0JZS/is_14_20/ai_n25093084/. www.stoptheftaa.org looks at the way the same efforts are being made in America and Canada to establish an EU-style superstate – under the guise of economic treaties, and supported by some of the same characters and organizations that have been involved with the founding and growth of the EU.

  27. “Europe’s nations should be guided towards the superstate without their people understanding what is happening. This can be accomplished by successive steps each disguised as having an economic purpose, but which will eventually and irreversibly lead to federation.” (Communiqué, 30 April 1952, by Jean Monnet, emphasis added). For Paul-Henri Spaak reference see The “New European Soviet” by Vilius Brazenas quoting The Great Deception: The Secret History of the European Union (see “Suggestions for Further Study” below for both sources).

  28. For a full history of the European Union read The Great Deception: The Secret History of the European Union by Christopher Booker and Richard North (see “Suggestions for Further Study” below). A free paper entitled The Bilderberg Group and the project of European unification (by Mike Peters) is also available for download (in text format)athttp://www.bilderberg.org/bblob.rtf. According to WorldNetdaily.com’s story, “Guess who’s at super-secret Bilderberg meeting today: Italy hosts 50th-anniversary confab of mysterious society of world leaders” (Friday, June 4th) – available on-line at http://www.wnd.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=38783 – attendees from the EU included Frits Bolkestein, Commissioner for the Internal Market in the European Commission; Tommaso Padoa-Schioppa, Director, European Central Bank; Rockwell A. Rockwell A. Schnabel, US Ambassador to the EU; Jean-Claude Trichet, President of the European Central Bank; Antonio M. Vitorino, Justice and Home Affairs Commissioner of the European Union; and Gijs M. de Vries, EU Counter Terrorism Co-ordinator.

  29. “Pope John XXIII envisaged a European religio-political monster which he called ‘the Greatest [Roman] Catholic superstate the world has ever known’. (The Papal Nuncio in Brussels was later to describe the EU as ‘a [Roman] Catholic confederation of States’). United within the ancient boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire by the common spiritual bond of religion, in a burgeoning and booming industrial economy, situated geographically in the world’s most productive industrial complex, it would march onto the scene of world history – so said Pope John XXIII – as ‘the greatest single human force ever seen by man.'” (Professor Arthur Noble, The Conspiracy Behind The European Union: What Every Christian Should Know, delivered at the Annual Autumn Conference of the United Protestant Council in London, Saturday, November 7, 1998; emphasis added. Complete address available online athttp://www.ianpaisley.org/article.asp?ArtKey=conspiracy). As far back as 1975 Shirley Williams, a British Labour minister and later the co-founder of the Social Democrats, commented: “We will be joined to a Europe in which the Catholic religion will be the dominant faith, and in which the application of the Catholic Social Doctrine will be the major factor in everyday political and economic life.” For more information the reader is referred to The Principality and Power of Europe: Britain and the Emerging Holy European Empire by Adrian Hilton (see “Suggestions for Further Study” below).

  30. For example, see http://www.inplainsite.org/html/european_union.html

  31. Qualified Majority Voting is the practice whereby each member state is assigned a number of votes weighted approximately by population. Britain has 29 votes (from May 2004) out of 345, and 258 votes are required to enact legislation. QMV is extending to more and more areas of legislation as the EU grows – supposedly to prevent “total paralysis” – and Britain has no chance of defending its interests when they differ from EU member states (which they invariably will due to our differing system, traditions and values). We have much to lose. Some assurances have been given that a veto (i.e. no QMV) will apply to important areas such as defence but the truth is there are many “back-doors” through which QMV can impose any and every law upon us, not to mention the compromises the Government seems to be all too willing to engage in (see “Britain yields to EU over criminal justice” by Ambrose Evans-Pritchard and George Jones, The Telegraph, May 19th 2004, on-line at: http://www.openeurope.org.uk/media-centre/article.aspx?newsid=238).

  32. “When the Maastricht Treaty was before Parliament John Major forced it through by ruthless whipping and unacceptable personal pressures. It surrendered sovereign powers of the Queen in Parliament to an unelected body in Europe without a clear mandate from the electorate.” (Sir Peter Smithers, former Secretary General of the Council of Europe, in a letter to the Daily Telegraph, 4th January 2000).

  33. Borders and Liberty by Andrew P. Moriss, “The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty”, July 2004, and available on-line at:http://www.thefreemanonline.org/featured/borders-and-liberty/. In connection with this article by Andrew Moriss, the author of this essay strongly feels that a country should be established along federal and not national lines. In using these terms the reader should not be blinded by modern usage (which is often wrong). In this essay the author has used “national” to contrast with “supranational”, and espouses nationalism in its non-political sense. The author, however, remains committed to the idea of a union of distinct states or provinces within a country such as existed under the original US Government which was a federal (but since has increasingly become a national) government. Such divisions would no doubt be by county or regions of counties in the United Kingdom.

  34. “One Conservative minister, writing about his first visit to an EU ministerial conference, remarked that on entering the conference chamber he was given a copy of the final communiqué. When he pointed out that the subjects had not yet been discussed he was told: ‘Oh no, sir, the decisions have already been made. You are here only to sign the communiqué.'” (see Vigilance: A Defence of British Liberty, pp. 12; see “Suggestions for Further Study” below)

  35. “Individual MEPs are not an essential, nor even an important, part [of the EU]. We are interchangeable bit-part actors, spear-carriers, participating in a mockery of the parliamentary process. Oratory plays no part. Reason plays no part. Conviction plays no part. Our votes cannot change a directive. We are there merely to furnish an illusion of democracy, providing a veneer to conceal what is a fundamentally undemocratic process.” (Jeffrey Titford, MEP, speaking of his experience of the European Parliament as quoted in Vigilance: A Defence of British Liberty, pp. 27; emphasis added. See “Suggestions for Further Study” below)

  36. For more information on the ECB please read A Sceptical Introduction to the European Union (see “Suggestions for Further Study” below).

  37. “In all tyrannical governments the supreme magistracy, or the right of both making and of enforcing laws, is vested in one and the same man, or one and the same body of men; and whenever these powers are united together, there can be no public liberty…But where the legislative and executive are in distinct hands, the former will take care not to entrust the latter with so large a power, as may tend to the subversion of its own independence and therewith of the liberty of the subject.” (Sir William Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of England). Compare this with what Montesqueieu said: “When the legislative and executive powers are united in the same person, or in the same body of magistrates, there can be no liberty; because apprehensions may arise, lest the same monarch or senate [legislature] should enact tyrannical laws, to execute them in a tyrannical manner…Again, there is no liberty, if the judiciary power be not separated from the legislative and executive. Were it joined with the legislative, the life and liberty of the subject would be exposed to arbitrary control, for the judge would then be the legislator. Were it joined to the executive power, the judge might behave with violence and oppression.”(Charles de Montesquieu, The Spirit of the Laws, Great Books of the Western World, vol. 38 [Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 1952], p. 70)

  38. Referring to the European Parliament, Ashley Mote writes “In the unlikely event that a resolution is voted down, under a procedure known as ‘conciliation’, the vote is overturned and the original reinstated. The parliament itself has no legislative powers.” (Vigilance: A Defence of British Liberty, pp. 27; see “Suggestions for Further Study” below)

  39. “The accumulation of all powers, legislative, executive, and judiciary, in the same hands, whether of one, a few, or many, and whether hereditary, self-appointed, or elective, may justly be pronounced the very definition of tyranny.” (James Madison, Federalist Papers, No. 47).

  40. In the Corpus Juris document published by the EU it reads, in part, “…designed to ensure, in a largely unified European legal area, a fairer, simpler, and more efficient system of repression.” (page 40, paragraph 3). The document also makes reference to professional judges (26), indefinite detention (20,iii), loss of double jeopardy and thus presumption of innocence (27,ii), loss of the right of the accused to be informed of evidence against him (29,iii), secret trials (34), extradition (21,I,b). This document alone exposes the real tyrannical nature of the EU.

  41. “In the territory of each member State and whatever their nationality, officials and other servants of the Communities shall…be immune from legal proceedings in respect of acts performed by them in their official capacity, including their words spoken or written. They shall continue to enjoy this immunity after they have ceased to hold office…” (Chapter V, Article 12 of Protocol 36 on the Privileges and Immunities of the European Communities, Treaty on European Union; 8 April 1965). These privileges are also included in the EU Constitution under Article III-340 which states: “The Union shall enjoy in the territories of the Member States such privileges and immunities as are necessary for the performance of its tasks, under the conditions laid down in the Protocol of 8 April 1965 on the privileges and immunities of the European Communities. The same shall apply to the European Investment Bank.”

  42. See “EU Arrest Warrant Comes Into Force”, European Institute of Protestant Studies, taken from The British Church Newspaper, January 9th 2004, available on-line at: http://www.ianpaisley.org/new_details.asp?ID=183

  43. Chapter II, Art. 17; see also The Human Rights Act 1998, incorporated within British law, Protocol 1, Art. 1.

  44. See “Watch What You Say” by John Hilliker, Philadelphia Trumpeter, July 2001, available on-line at:http://www.olusa.com/politics/free-speech-dying.htm.

  45. “Now It’s Blasphemy to Mock Europe” by Ambrose Evans-Pritchard in The Spectator, 18th November, 2000. This article can be read for free on-line but you will need to subscribe first: http://www.spectator.co.uk.

  46. S.I. 2001, No. 85. The exact areas where this infringement of free speech occurs is in public health, public safety, administration and trade. Read the House of Lords debate of March 20th, 2001 athttp://www.bwmaonline.com/Political%20-%20Motion%20on%20March%2020th.htm.

  47. One Government-supported “reason” for ID cards in the UK is to combat social security fraud. This is interesting as Richard Thomas, the new Information Commissioner and Head of the UK Data Protection Office recently said: “A second justification [for ID cards] is social security fraud. Well, the empirical evidence is that the vast bulk of social security fraud is caused by fraud about people’s circumstances, not about their identity…” (“ID Cards ‘will be boon for forgers'” by Alan Travis, home affairs editor, The Guardian, January 8, 2003); full article available on-line from Guardian Unlimited at:
    http://politics.guardian.co.uk/homeaffairs/story/0,11026,870470,00.html. For an excellent argument against ID cards see Sean Gabb’s pamphlet, Identity Cards: Some Brief Objections available online athttp://www.seangabb.co.uk/flcomm/flc087.htm; see also a short article by the author at http://www.freedom-central.net/idcards.html which also references many resources for further research.

  48. Government Paves Way for EU Identity Cards by Marc Glendening, Tribune, August 1st 2003; full article available on-line at: http://www.democracy-movement.org.uk/main/tribuneAug03.html.

  49. Henry St. George Tucker, in his edition of Blackstone’s Commentaries, Vol. 1, p. 300 (1803).

  50. For more information please read All The Way Down The Slippery Slope: Gun Prohibition in England and Some Lessons for Civil Liberties in Amercia by Joseph E. Olsen and David B. Kopel, on-line at:http://www.guncite.com/journals/okslip.html.

  51. “Why I am going to the European Court” by Daniel Hannan, MEP; from Freedom Today, May/June 2004, p. 25. View article online at http://www.hannan.co.uk/news.htm.

  52. Winston Churchill, minute to the Home Secretary, 21st November 1943.

  53. Section II, Chapter 8, heading (d): “Measures for countering fraud against the financial interests of the Community.” The House of Lords interviewed two EU representatives who stated that Corpus Juris could be, and would be, introduced under Article 280 of the Amsterdam Treaty (see pages 84-85 of the 9th Report, House of Lords, 1998).

  54. EU Commission proposals (Directorate General XX) detail EU criminal code and procedure. Article 26.1 provides for cases (with sentences up to seven years) to be heard by courts “consisting of professional judges, excluding simple jurors and lay magistrates.”

  55. Protocol annexed to Maastricht Treaty of 1992. Article 30 requires Britain, on her entrance into the EMU, to transfer £8000 million of gold and dollar reserves to the ECB in Frankfurt, Germany. This cannot be reversed once done. Article 42 of this same Protocol allows for all remaining reserves to be transferred if a majority of the other EMU countries ask for it – Britain could not veto this.

  56. In 1999 the entire European Commission was forced to resign due to corruption charges; but most who “resigned” just carried on as normal. The House of Commons’ Public Accounts Committee has the view that corruption is endemic and unreformable in the EU (see PAC report issued 25th August 1999). For more on EU financial corruption see Ashley Mote’s site at: http://www.ashleymote.co.uk.

  57. The Pink Book 2003, United Kingdom Balance of Payments, HM Government, Central Statistics Office, 2004.

  58. See EuroFAQs, The European Union faq, p. 7-9 available as html or pdf on-line at http://www.eurofaq.freeuk.com for full explanations and official sources.

  59. ICM survey of 1000 company chief executives, April 2004.

  60. Sovereignty Journal, April 2004, letter from Donald Martin reporting on FSB Annual Branch Conference held in Blackpool 19th to 21st March 2004.

  61. KPMG Consulting survey based on responses from 300 firms.

  62. “For continental European politicians a single currency is above all a political not an economic issue … In the 19th century there were three failed attempts in parts of Europe to create monetary unions. The German monetary union was fully fledged by the 1870s but it began some 40 years before, initially as a customs union. The Prussian Thaler – as the currency was called – held sway while Bismarck dominated. The French attempt at a Latin Monetary Union started in 1865 and included Belgium, Italy, Greece and Switzerland, and at the time Walter Bagehot warned that if Britain did nothing we would be left out in the cold. We wisely declined to join and never regretted it. In 1873, Sweden, Denmark and Norway started a monetary union which was dissolved in 1924. This albeit limited history shows that monetary unions fail…” (Lord Owen, in The Economist, 24th January 1998; emphasis added).

  63. The Times, 19th February 2000.

  64. Why the New EU is like the Old USSR by Vernon Coleman (quoting Vladimir Bukovsky) available on-line athttp://www.vernoncoleman.com/tneuiltou.htm.

  65. From Euro to Union by William F. Jasper, 28th January 2002, Vol. 18, No. 2 of The New American magazine, available on-line at http://www.usnationhood.com/fromeuro.html. For more information (and also American issues) read “Regional Mergers on the Road to the Global Total State” by the same author, published on-line at:http://www.stoptheftaa.org/artman/publish/article_41.shtml.

  66. The article from which this extract comes no longer seems to be available on-line. There is something akin to it by the same author entitled The Real Purpose of the EU’s Enlargement at: http://www.teameurope.info/node/214. I would suggest contacting Uno Silberg if you want to find the original article (EU and Soviet Union – the same federal socialism).

  67. “Estonians Wary of European Union” by Christopher Bollyn, American Free Press, 20th August 2003; available on-line at: http://www.rumormillnews.com/cgi-bin/archive.cgi?read=35726.

  68. “Avalanche of doubts leaves Prodi bruised” by Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, 10th May 2003, The Telegraph, available on-line at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/05/10/wfile10.xml. See more related information at: http://www.kc3.co.uk/~dt/RProdi.htm.

  69. Defence of the Realm, p. 5; see “Suggestions for Further Study” below.

  70. The Doctrine of Parliamentary Sovereignty, as explained by Professor A.V. Dicey’s accepted and classic definition given in 1885. See The Law of the Constitution by the same author, 10th edition. (1959), p. 67-68.

  71. “Sovereignty for a nation is hard to come by and even more difficult to retain. It cannot be shared, for then sovereignty becomes something else, and, for want of a better word, when sovereignty is lessened the end-product is internationalism. Sovereignty is neither more nor less than self-government.” Ezra Taft Benson, United States Foreign Policy given at the Farm Bureau Banquet in Preston, Idaho, June 21st 1968; emphasis added (see “Suggestions for Further Study” below).

  72. See Chapter 11, pp. 75-78, of Treason at Maastricht (see “Suggestions for Further Study” below).

  73. In 1706 the people of Scotland effectively decided to share their King and Parliament with England and Wales. Thus was created the United Kingdom. The new Parliament was to be in England, the Scottish Parliament was to no longer exist. The statute which dealt with the terms of this union was called the Act of Union. This vital part of the British Constitution guaranteed that Parliament would not encroach upon the rights of the Scots. If this happened, the Act of Union would be null and void. This would mean the United Kingdom would cease to exist in its present form. It also would mean that Parliament’s authority would cease to exist because that authority originated in the Act. By consenting to the Maastricht Treaty, and thus violating the rights of the Scots, Parliament has invalidated its own authority.

  74. For an explanation of the 8 counts of treason levelled at those involved with signing away British Sovereignty to Europe, see Treason at Maastricht, chapter 4 (pp. 43-51) (see “Suggestions for Further Study” below). For more information on the British Constitution and the EU Constitution’s incompatibility with it, read John Bingley’s excellent The EU Constitution is Incompatible with Ours (see “Suggestions for Further Study” below).

  75. Shaping Tomorrow’s EU, Brussels, 4 April 2002.

  76. From The Proposed EU Constitution is a Weapon of Mass Destruction of all the Member states, an article by Ashley Mote. No longer available on-line but a report of what may have been that speech can be found on-line athttp://www.bullen.demon.co.uk/acml20.htm. Ashley Mote can also be contacted at his site (see above).

  77. The European Constitution against The British Constitution: A Short Critique by Torquil Dick-Erikson, M.A. (Oxon), published by the UK Independence Party, April 2004; pp. 6

  78. Ibid. pp. 15.

  79. Ibid. pp. 15-18.

  80. Ibid. pp. 6.

  81. Number 17, Cato’s Letters, Saturday, February 18, 1720; from The English Libertarian Tradition: From the Writings of John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon in “The Independent Whig” and “Cato’s Letters” [Fox & Wilkes, San Francisco, 1965], p. 52. Cicero’s own words on the matter of treason are also poignant here, said he: “A nation can survive its fools, and even the ambitious. But it cannot survive treason from within. An enemy at the gates is less formidable, for he is known and he carries his banners openly. But the traitor moves among those within the gates freely, his sly whispers rustling through all the alleys, heard in the very hall of government itself. For the traitor appears not traitor – he speaks in the accents familiar to his victims, and he wears their face and their garments, and he appeals to the baseness that lies deep in the hearts of all men. He rots the soul of a nation – he works secretly and unknown in the night to undermine the pillars of a city – he infects the body politic so that is can no longer resist. A murderer is less to be feared.” (in a speech to the Roman Senate, 42 B.C.)

  82. For details on the deception, vote-rigging and other underhanded schemes of British politicians see The Great Deception: The Secret History of the European Union, chapter 8, “The Real Deceit of Edward Heath: 1970-1975” (see “Suggestions for Further Study” below)

  83. Question Time, BBC, speaking to Peter Sissons, 1st November 1991. Heath also said: “There is no danger of a single currency.” (EEC membership information leaflet, 1975).

  84. These quotations on Europe, and many others (all referenced and checked) have been compiled on-line at:http://www.liebreich.com/LDC/HTML/Europe/00-Intro.html.

  85. Minutes of the Cabinet Meeting of 23rd October 1962 (released under 30 Year Rule, 1st January 1993).

  86. The 1996 Inter-Governmental Conference: The Agenda, Democracy and Efficiency and the Role of National Parliaments, House of Commons Select Committee on European Law, 1996.

Suggestions for Further Study


Vigilance: A Defence of British Liberty by Ashley Mote. This book is a must-read. The author presents the case very well and in an easy-to-read manner. This book is the one book that, if everyone read, would truly wake up the people of Britain and the free world to their own blessings and the very real threat of the draconian European Union.
http://www.author.co.uk/vigilance or http://www.ashleymote.co.uk/?p=688
NOTE: You may download and print out for free a text file with excerpts from this book at:

Defence of the Realm by Ashley Mote (booklet). Looks at the cogent argument that the EU treaties, et. al., are actually illegal in Britain. The text of this booklet can also be found in the appendix of the above book.

Treason at Maastricht: The Destruction of the Nation State by Rodney Atkinson and Norris McWhirter. This book is a testament to the patriotic and highly knowledgeable Norris McWhirter who sadly died of a heart attack the same week that it was reported that the Prime Minister had agreed to hold a referendum on the EU Constitution. Norris, together with Rodney Atkinson, brought charges of treason against certain individuals in the British Government. This book looks at the eight treason charges, the British Constitution, the Nazi and Bilderberger involvement in the EU, Winston Churchill’s real vision of a future Europe, and the threat that exists to British and American sovereignty today.

The Last Days of Britain: The Final Betrayal by Lindsay Jenkins (foreword by Norman Lamont)
Detailing the decades of dishonesty as both Labour and Conservative governments have betrayed Britain and her people.

Britain Held Hostage by Lindsay Jenkins (foreword by Frederick Forsyth)
Reveals the truth about who really created the EU and why.

The Great Deception: The Secret History of the European Union by Christopher Booker and Richard North.
One of the most professional and detailed works on the history of European union from 1918 to the present. Thoroughly recommended.

The Principality and Power of Europe: Britain and the Emerging Holy European Empire by Adrian Hilton.
Available from Amazon at: http://www.amazon.com/Principality-Power-Europe-Adrian-Hilton/dp/0951838628/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1265374197&sr=1-2

The Law by Frédéric Bastiat. Classic work on the proper role of law in a just society (book). Held in high regard by Britain and the US but ignored in his own country of France, no doubt because he was no friend to statist continental philosophies.http://www.lfb.com

On-line Articles & Essays

Historical Deceptions: European Union by Joel Skousen (on-line essay). Insightful and informed commentary on the dangers of the EU and how it affects all of us. Taken from World Affairs Brief.

An Essay on the Trial By Jury by Lysander Spooner (on-line essay). Excellent essay on the real importance and role of the jury. Once you’ve read this you’ll never look at trial by jury the same again.

A Sceptical Introduction to the European Union by Richard Greaves (article). As the title suggests, an introduction to the EU touching upon its major institutions, monetary and banking system, Europol, Corpus Juris, and other prominent elements. From The Sovereignty Journal.

Corpus Juris and the Threat to British Common Law Rights (web article)

The “New European Soviet” by Vilius Brazenas (magazine article). Mr. Brazenas at ninety plus remembers most of the major events of the last century. He claims the EU is rapidly descending into totalitarianism and tells us exactly why it could be no different.

The Law is Above You: The Christian Roots of English Common Law by Michael A. Clark and others (web article) http://www.britishisrael.co.uk/showart.php?id=31

Britain’s Unique Heritage of Law Threatened by an E.U. Police State: A Napoleonic System of Repression Now Confirmed in Corpus Juris (web article)

Corpus Juris by Stealth. Long web page with updates on current British-EU topics and how they affect our freedom. (web article)

The Fascist Inheritance in the European and Blair Projects by Edward Spalton. Available on-line athttp://klub.org.pl/pipermail/central-europe_klub.org.pl/2004-August/000115.html.

United States Foreign Policy (speech) by Secretary of Agriculture, Ezra Taft Benson). An elaboration on national sovereignty and the true meaning of nationalism; given at the Farm Bureau Banquet in Preston, Idaho, June 21st1968.

Europe’s New Constitution: Philadelphia It Is Not by Patrick Basham and Marian L. Tupy (web article). A comparison of the proposed EU Constitution and the US Constitution. This article was published by Scripps Howard News Service, March 4, 2003.

The EU Constitution is Incompatible with Ours by John Bingley (speech). A plain and well-argued address pointing out the illegitimate position of the EU Constitution within the context of the British Constitution.


Visit the UKIP shop for all the latest books and DVDs on the EU at 


The June Press 
Excellent source of political, economic and historical publications. Also publishes the fortnightly Eurofactsnewsletter available on-line at: http://www.junepress.com/eurofacts.asp. Highly recommended.

Written and maintained by an independent group of journalists, businessmen, politicians and academics who believe Britain’s membership of the European Union has been a political and economic disaster. 
Very clear and well-presented questions and answers about the EU and Britain. Highly recommended.

The Bruges Group
An all-party independent think tank seeking to stop the centralising of power to Brussels. Many good links and articles. Rt. Hon. Baroness Thatcher is the Honorary President.

The Freedom Association (TFA) 
Readers might also want to study the article Conservative MEPs and the European People’s Party: Time for Divorce, by Martin Ball and Jonathan Collet, available on-line athttp://www.brugesgroup.com/mediacentre/index.live?article=94).

News and Resource Portal for Freedom-loving People Everywhere…
International site listing only the most liberty-loving and reliable sources of information from around the world.


Periodicals & Other Publications

Portman Papers
Excellent professional quarterly focusing on the threat to British sovereignty and the Constitution from the EU and other internationalist forces. Portman Papers is not afraid to go into detail about some of the less-accepted truths other publications avoid. 
Highly recommended.

Other Resources

EuroFAQ’s European Constitution Resource Page
Includes a summary of the powers of the EU Constitution, the Government and EU position, news and information on the EU Constitution and referendum, and other links.

New Alliance Constitution and Documents Archive
The official site of the EU, like its legislation, is somewhat hard to navigate and find what you want. So here’s an excellent link resource from New Alliance where you will find all that you need including links to the various EU treaties and a link to the latest translation of the reader-friendly draft EU Constitution published by EU ABC (you may wish to review the PowerPoint presentation found via that particular link too):http://www.newalliance.org.uk/constdoc.htm. The official EU site is at http://europa.eu.int.

About the Author

D. Andrews is a writer and researcher who lives in England, loves his country and is deeply concerned about the decline of freedom in his own land and the rest of the world.

If you feel there is any misrepresentation, error or omission in this article then please contact the author through the feedback form provided below.

NB: As this article is continually being updated and expanded, please check for the latest version at http://www.freedom-central.net/euandbritain.html if you are not currently reading it from that page. This Version: 17.09.04. Word count: c. 16,300

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#acehistory2research, #altiero-spinelli, #european-federalist-movement, #european-union, #jean-monnet, #nazi, #norris-mcwhirter, #united-states, #united-states-of-europe, #world-war-ii

Snapshot of History: “Banana Wars” and the Preservation of American Interests in the Area

English: US Marines with the captured flag of ...

English: US Marines with the captured flag of Augusto César Sandino in Nicaragua in 1932. 中文: 1932年,美國海軍陸戰隊在尼加拉瓜桑地諾與捕獲奧古斯托塞薩爾的旗幟合照。 Русский: Американские военные в Никарагуа позируют с трофейным флагом партизан сандинистов во время Банановых войн. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

#AceHistoryNews says The Banana Wars were a series of occupations, police actions, and interventions involving the United States in Central America and the Caribbean between the Spanish–American War (1898) and the inception of the Good Neighbour Policy (1934). These military interventions were most often carried out by the United States Marine Corps. The Marines were involved so often that they developed a manual, The Strategy and Tactics of Small Wars, in 1921. On occasion, the Navy provided gunfire support and Army troops were also used.

With the Treaty of Paris, Spain ceded control of CubaPuerto Rico, and the Philippines to the United States. Thereafter, the United States conducted military interventions in PanamaHondurasNicaraguaMexicoHaiti, and the Dominican Republic. The series of conflicts only ended with the withdrawal of troops from Haiti under President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Reasons for these conflicts were varied but largely economic. The conflicts were called “Banana Wars”, a term that arose from the connections between these interventions and the preservation of American commercial interests in the region.

Most prominently, the United Fruit Company had significant financial stakes in production of bananastobaccosugar cane, and various other products throughout the Caribbean, Central America and Northern South America. The U.S. was also advancing its political interests, maintaining a sphere of influence and controlling the Panama Canal which it had recently built, critically important to global trade and naval power.



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“Tradition of New Years Eve and New Years Day”

#AceHistoryNews says the olde traditions seem to keep us healthy and happy every “Christmas and New  Year” and these simply word’s spoken by hundreds and thousands in a few hours time will say just a simple ” Happy and Prosperous New Year” but how did it all come about.

History of New Year’s Eve

New Years Eve ClockNew Year’s Eve is December 31 of every year.  It is celebrated in countries that use the Gregorian calendar with the United States, Australia, British Isles, North & South America, Europe, Scandinavia and (the former) Soviet Union as the main regions in the world who welcome in a new year.

It is exactly at the stroke of midnight on December 31 of the current year that marks the transition to the New Year ahead.  Celebrations may be wild parties or solemn times of prayer.  Some participants will dress up in silly outfits and wear comical hats, drink champagne (or other liquors of their choice) and use traditional items called “noisemakers” to express their joy and hope for the new year ahead.  Unfortunately, with some people this celebratory behavior gets taken a bit too far.  Some people have been known to make improper advances to co-workers at parties, throw their arms around total strangers on the streets or in crowds and well perhaps to other things that would be considered totally unacceptable any other day of the year.

And yet, there are others who attend midnight masses at their church or synagogue; or, get together in large crowds such as New York City’s Time Square to watch the “ball drop.”  In London crowds gather in Trafalgar Square to count down the closing of the old year and welcome in the new. In Atlanta, Georgia (USA) a giant Peach is dropped.  This began as a competition with New York’s Apple.  However, today New York now drops a laser and hand-cut crystal ball.

Some historians feel that our New Year’s Eve celebrations can be traced back to an ancient Roman observance around the time of the Winter Solstice in December called “Saturnalia.”  This pagan holiday was known for totally letting go all discipline and rules for behavior and was known to get out of hand (just like some New Year’s Eve celebrations today).

In the 18th century, New Year’s Eve revelry in cities like Philadelphia, New York, and Baltimore often ended with street demonstrations, violence, and vandalism.  Groups of men and boys were known to toot tin horns, shout, scream,  yell, set off firecrackers, knock down barricades such as fences and gates, break windows and (in a few cases) burglarize the homes of some wealthy citizens in the area.

To help curb the problem of over-zealous celebrators  on December 31, and to protect those who want to bring in the New Year quietly, many cities in the United States started a popular trend called “The First Night” celebrations. The first “First Night” was held in Boston in 1976 to replace the boisterous partying with cultural events, performances,  and  non-alcoholic  beverages with food in an outdoor setting.  

For those who prefer to have a very quiet New Year, many stay home and watch the “dropping ball” or fireworks offered on television stations both locally and/or nationally or worldwide simultaneously.

 Auld Lang Syne is our midi.  The custom of singing this song on New Years Eve goes back to the British Isles from the 18th century when guests ended a party standing in a circle and singing this song.  The custom first was rooted in Scotland, because the lyrics were written in 1788 by Robert Burns, their favorite folk poet of the time.  (Later on another version of this song was used in 1783 in the opera “Rosina” by William Shield.) But most musicologists feel that Auld Lang Syne came from a traditional Scottish folk melody.

What does this song mean?  In the Scottish dialect, auld lang syne  is “old long since” — aka “the good old days.”   The traditional lyrics begin with, “Should old acquaintance be forgot and never brought to mind…”  And the entire song’s message merely means to just forget about the past and look ahead to the new year with hope.  Even the rowdies of parties has often ended with quiet drunks singing this song as a tribute to the past year.  But many of us sing it without really now what we are saying, we just sing it to be part of the auld lang gang of the night! 🙂

Using noise to welcome in a new year goes back to ancient times when it was felt that noise scared off evil spirits.  Imagine what our ancestors would have thought about all the high-tech speakers, amplifiers and such today? To them, the world would be pretty pure with all this noise! 🙂   But very few of us link New Years with evil spirits ( spirits that you drink perhaps but not any other kind), they still feel noisemakers are a must for New Year’s parties.  In Denmark, they “smash in the new year” by banging on the doors of their friends’ homes and throwing pieces of broken pottery against the sides of the houses.  Now if everyone is out doing this, then well…hey is anyone home to even notice?  In Japan,  dancers go from house to house at Oshogatsu making strange noises and rattling and pounding bamboo sticks and banging on drums.  In many parts of the US, firecrackers are set off at midnight to mark the new year.  This is also the main celebration in Viet Nam, Hawaii and South America.


Basically,  an old man or even Father Time is the symbol of  the year that is coming to a close.  And, a baby then becomes the symbol for the new year ahead. 


These serve as metaphors for death of one calendar year and the birth of a new one.

History of New Years Day

Happy New Year 2104January 1 st  is considered New Years Day in today’s society.  But this is a new concept because up until the time of Julius Caesar, the Romans celebrated the New Year in March because it was the first month in the Roman calendar.  However,  January 1 marked the time when the Romans changed their governmental figures and new consuls were inducted into office.  And, they had games and feasting to help celebrate the new officials.  But, they still used March 1 as their official mark of the new year and had a festival to their god, Mars (God of War).  

It was Caesar who changed the Roman New Year’s Day to January 1 in honour of Janus,  (God of all beginnings and gate-keeper of heaven and earth).  Janus was always depicted with two faces: One looking back to the old year (past) and one looking ahead to the new year (future).   One of the customs in the festival honoring Janus was to exchange gifts and then make resolutions to be friendly and good to one another.

When Constantine ruled the Romans and accepted Christianity as their new faith, they kept the Festival of Janus as the New Years Day ( Not March as before) and turned it into a day of prayer and fasting and not parties etc.  It was a day for all good Christians to turn over a new leaf.   However,  the Romans may have accepted January 1 and Janus as the New Year, but many did not accept the turning over a new leaf, prayer and fasting part of it.

However, even in 1582, Great Britain and the English colonies in America still kept  March for the beginning of the year.  (Spring as a beginning?)   It wasn’t until 1752 that Britain (and it’s colonies) adopted the new Gregorian calendar and January 1 as the beginning of the year.  But many Puritans in New England felt Janus was an offensive pagan god and chose to simply ignore January 1 as a New Years Day.  Instead they just made the entire month of January as “The First  Month”  of the months.

And, today no one really considers January 1 a fasting day.  Ironically, for many it is a major day of feasting on junk food and watching football games on television.

How did New Year’s Resolutions all begin?

Once again, we go back to the wild and crazy parties of the ancient Romans. 🙂  They indulged themselves in alcoholic and sexual excess as a way of acting out all the chaos that they hoped a new year would get rid of.  So, the New Year’s festival was a way to start over.  By purging yourself of all this so-called excess energy and confessing your sins,  there was a hope that  you would be much better in the next year ahead.

Now, the Puritans never did approve of all this New Year’s hoopla.  So of course they went for this religious renewal of cleanse, purge, fast,  confess idea.  So they encouraged young people not to waste the new year on foolish things but to use it as an opportunity to make a good change in their lives for the good.  So, like some Christians, they made New Year’s vows or pledges focused on overcoming their own weaknesses, to enhance their god-given talents and to make them better citizens to others.

The custom of making New Year’s Resolutions came into vogue in the 20th century.  But most of it was done with jest and an understanding that they would not be kept (for long anyway) since humans were naturally backsliders by nature to their naughty habits and ways.

The  resolutions today are simply a secular version of the religious vows made in the past toward spiritual perfection.  They are often made with good intentions and broken with a sense of humor and renewed annually.



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“The Trilateral Commission by Jose G James”

#AceGuestPost says this post was provided through our #IloveHistoryandResearch Group on Facebook and shared with the persons agreement.

#AceGuestViews are his own and shared with his full agreement, to be read in its entirety and not to alter the major content. Thank you Editor.


Mr. David Rockefeller formed the Trilateral Commission (TC) in 1973 along with Henry Kissinger and former National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brezezinski. This organization’s membership consists of about 300 to 350 private citizens of Europe, Pacific Asia, and North America, whose announced aim is to form closer cooperation between these three areas of the world. Bill Clinton, George H. W. Bush, Jimmy Carter, Dick Cheney, and Senator Dianne Feinstein are among the current and past membership of the TC, and are associated with the CFR as well. The TC meets annually in Europe, North America, or Asia; and its members, similar to those in the CFR aren’t permitted to say anything about proceedings to the public. Like CFR, the TC publishes a magazine, release annual reports, and denies that it’s a secret society.

Formed by David Rockefellar in 1973

Formed by David Rockefellar in 1973

While most conspiracy theorists believe that the CFR and TC largely consists of individuals with good intent, they point out that the inner circle is indeed obsessed with the agenda of getting a New World Order in place with one global government.
Our research indicates that most of those who join the TC and the CFR are upright people. But it seems as if the higher echelon in these groups isn’t telling all of their members exactly what’s going on behind the scenes, and they are using their input to further their own agenda. We don’t suggest that those in control are evil, because they may believe that what they’re doing is for the betterment of the world. It is a matter of opinion as to the dangers of a New World Order; certainly most Americans would not want that to occur in our view. However, if that is the case, then we must be watchful and follow the actions of both the CFR and TC closely. Obviously, the more we know, the better prepared we’ll be to either support or resist something…

"Ideas Above His Station"

“Ideas Above His Station”

Perhaps a good example of the power and influence of the TC and CFR is the election of Jimmy Carter as the President of the United States. Several months prior to the 1976 Democratic National convention, a Gallup poll found that Mr. Carter had less than 4 percent of the Democratic Party’s support for the nomination. After the TC took Governor Carter under their wing, they mobilized their political power and money of Wall Street bankers, the academic community and the media controllers who were members of the CFR and TC to try to get the governor of Georgia nominated. Almost overnight, Carter was nominated and later became president. This example clearly demonstrates how strong the group’s power is. Accordingly, former senator Barry Goldwater said, “The TC is intended to be the vehicle for multinational consolidation of the commercial and banking interests by seizing control of the politics and government of the United States.” These strong words from former Senator Goldwater, points to the fact that he was one of the staunch opponents of the CFR and TC.

Bildeberg ElitismThe New World Oder essentially applies to the formation of a global ruling organization that would supersede all individual national governments for the betterment of humankind. In other words, all countries would be run by one system that would control the world’s economy, be a peacekeeping entity with its own armed force, and distribute wealth from rich nations to poor ones so that all on earth could have a piece of the proverbial pie. In effect, religions might not continue as separate entities, and perhaps a new worldwide faith would likely come into being. New energy and environmental laws would be enacted; transportation, education, and communication could be controlled by the one government; travel would most likely be restricted; free enterprise and small business might be eliminated, and all taxes would support everyone in the world by redistributing wealth to poorer nations. Global social services, health care, retirement benefits, and birth and population control would be regulated by the ruling entity. Instead of individual governments running their own countries, you’d have on entity ruling the entire world…

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Snapshot of History: “Joseph Desha US Representative and War Hawk of 1812”

English: Kentucky Governor Joseph Desha

English: Kentucky Governor Joseph Desha (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

#AceHistoryNews says Joseph Desha (1768–1842) was a U.S. Representative and the ninth Governor of Kentucky. After serving in the Northwest Indian War, he moved to Mason County, Kentucky and parlayed his military record into several terms in the state legislature. In 1807, he was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the first of six consecutive terms in the U.S. House. He was a war hawk, supporting the War of 1812, and commanded a division at the Battle of the Thames. Leaving the House in 1818, he lost to John Adair in the 1820 gubernatorial election. In 1824, he made a second campaign for governor based on promises of relief for the state’s debtor class. He was elected by a large majority, and debt relief partisans captured both houses of the General Assembly. When the Kentucky Court of Appeals struck down debt relief legislation he favoured, he lobbied the legislature to replace it with a new court. His reputation was damaged when he issued a pardon for his son, who was accused of murder. He also hastened the resignation of Transylvania University resident Horace Holley, whom he considered too liberal.

Desha retired from public life in 1828.

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