` Russia Celebrates Polar Explorer Day May 21 '

#AceHistory2ResearchNews – RUSSIA – May 21 – Starting in 2013, Russia will celebrate Polar Explorer Day every May 21. In December 2012, members of the Federation Council, including Artur Chilingarov, Special Presidential Representative for International Cooperation in the Arctic and the Antarctic, suggested instituting Polar Explorer Day.

During an April 25 question-and-answer session, Russian President Vladimir Putin supported the idea of instituting this professional holiday and suggested beginning already on May 21, 2013.

Officials at the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment believe that specialists who have spent many years in the Arctic and the Antarctic, as well as the residents of Arctic regions, geologists and oceanographers, military personnel, oil and gas prospectors and production workers, can receive polar explorer status.

In all, about two million Russians can apply for this status. Experts believe that the institution of the new professional holiday will raise the prestige of work in the Arctic and the Antarctic, and that this will also help incentivize professionals to relocate to polar regions.The date May 21 was not chosen at random.

On May 21, 1937, the first SP-1 science and research expedition started working at the Polar Drifting Station, which was later renamed the North Pole (SP)-1 Station.In February 1936, the Politburo of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) decided to establish a drifting Arctic research station.The SP-1 drifting station was officially opened on June 6, 1937.

That same day, airplanes, which had delivered the station crew and ten metric tons of freight to the station, took off and headed back for mainland Russia.

The four researchers, Ivan Papanin, Yevgeny Fyodorov, Pyotr Shirshov and Ernst Krenkel, remained on the ice-floe. They came to be known as “Papanin’s Gang.” The expedition was expected to work near the North Pole for 12 months, to conduct numerous experiments and to implement other research projects.

The SP-1 station crew helped provide meteorological support for the air crews of Valery Chkalov and Mikhail Gromov, who flew to the United States non-stop that same year.

They also provided hydrometeorological support for the ill-fated crew of the N-209 / TBA aircraft commanded by Sigizmund Levanevsky, which disappeared without a trace in August 1937, and for subsequent search-and-rescue missions.

On March 6, 1938, the results of the expedition were submitted to participants in a general meeting of the USSR Academy of Sciences and were praised by top leaders.

All four expedition members became Heroes of the Soviet Union. The North Pole 1 station ushered in a new era in the exploration of the Arctic, and its research data became a landmark in the development of science.

Ace Related News:

  1. Courtesy Ria Novosti /Arctic RU – 21/05/2014 – http://tinyurl.com/mazb6dz
  2. Courtesy of VoR – 22/05/2014 – http://tinyurl.com/kyuzybh
  3. Courtesy of Arctic Information – 15/03/2013 http://tinyurl.com/lq4m6pq
  4. Courtesy of First Post – 17/05/2014 – http://tinyurl.com/kt3npbj
  5. Courtesy of The Moscow Times – 22/05/2014 – http://tinyurl.com/m2l7gwu

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#polar-explorers-day, #president-vladimir-putin

` Donbass Roots of Violence and Division But Who Really Founded the Capital but a Welsh Engineer ‘

#AceHistory2Research – UKRAINE – April 22 – When President Vladimir Putin described Donetsk as “Novorossia” in his call-in show late last week and stressed the region’s ties to Russia, he left out the fact that the region’s capital was actually founded by a Welsh engineer and entrepreneur named John Hughes.

Imagine the scene. It is 1870 and a hundred ironworkers from Merthyr Tydfil, Dowlais and Rhymney suddenly find themselves in the wilds of Czarist Russia, in the area we now know as the Ukraine.

“This is Novorossia: Kharkov, Luhansk, Donetsk, Kherson, Mykolaiv, Odessa did not belong to Ukraine in tsarist times,” Putin said. “All these territories were transferred to Ukraine in the 1920’s by the Soviet government.

But what exactly is Donbass, where armed separatists are so determined to create their own autonomous state?

The area over which Russia and Ukraine have locked horns for the past several weeks has an especially complex history, one that may be unknown even to the separatists touting a “People’s Republic of Donetsk” who have captured government buildings and hoisted the self-proclaimed autonomy’s red, black and blue flag on their masts.

Hughes left his mark on Donbass after receiving permission from the Russian tsarist government in 1868 to develop metal works there, and a year later he founded the area as Yuzovka — derived from the Russian pronunciation of Hughes’ name. It was later renamed Donetsk.

The term “Novorossia” goes back even further and denotes territory of modern-day south-eastern Ukraine that was conquered by the Russian Empire from the Crimean Khanate and Ottoman Turkey in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Novorossiya (Russian: Новоро́ссия, Ukrainian: Новоросія; literally New Russia) is a historical term denoting an area north of the Black Sea which was conquered by the Russian Empire at the end of the 18th century.
It included the southern part of the Zaporizhian Sich and the steppes between the Zaporizhian Sich and the northern coast of the Black Sea which had previously been controlled for centuries by the Crimean Khanate and Ottoman Turkey.
Administratively the newly incorporated area became known as the Novorossiysk Governorate with Novorossiysk (present-day Ukrainian city of Dnipropetrovsk, not to be confused with present-day Novorossiysk, Russian Federation) as its capital. In the 19th century Novorossiya was the name of the General Government centred in Odessa, a major port on the north-west coast of the Black Sea.

Novorossiya was changing during the beginning of the 19th century due to the intensive movement of Russians who rapidly created towns, villages and agricultural colonies in the area.

The word Donetsk refers to the Donetsk coal basin, which stretches roughly from the Dnipropetrovsk region in Ukraine to the Rostov region in Russia. It is also just one of many terms for areas of modern-day southeastern Ukraine and south-western Russia with roots in different historical periods, from the 16th century to the Soviet era.

Ace Related History News:
1. http://www.themoscowtimes.com/news/article/donbass-roots-of-violent-division-geography-history-culture/498447.html
2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Novorossiya
3. http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/legacy/waleshistory/2010/06/john_hughes_the_ironmaster_of_yuzovka.html
4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Hughes_(developer)

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#donbass, #donetsk, #novorossia, #president-vladimir-putin, #russia, #ukraine, #ukrainian, #yuzovka