#OnThisDay April.03: 1996: Croatia Flight USAF CT-43 Crashed into a mountainside whilst on approach to Dubrovnik while on an official trade mission #AceHistoryDesk report 45

#AceHistoryReport – Apr.03: The aircraft, a Boeing 737-200 originally built as T-43A navigational trainer and later converted into a CT-43A executive transport aircraft, was carrying United States Secretary of CommerceRon Brown and 34 other people, including The New York Times Frankfurt bureau chief Nathaniel C. Nash.[1] While attempting an instrument approach to Dubrovnik Airport, the airplane crashed into a mountainside.

#OTD 1996 Croatia USAF CT-43 crash: ‘On April 3, 1996, a United States Air Force Boeing CT-43A (Flight IFO-21) crashed on approach to Dubrovnik, Croatia, while on an official trade mission.

USAF CT-43A crash 1996.jpg

An Air Force Technical Sergeant survived the initial impact, but died en route to a hospital. Everyone else on board died at the scene of the crash.[2]United States Air Force Flight IFO-21A USAFMH-53J Pave Low helicopter hovers near the wreckage of Flight IFO-21. The tail number of the accident aircraft is shortened as 31149.AccidentDateApril 3, 1996SummaryControlled flight into terrain due to pilot error and poorly designed instrument approachSite3 km (1.9 mi) north of Dubrovnik Airport, Dubrovnik, Croatia.
42°35′54″N 18°15′08″EAircraftAircraft typeBoeing CT-43AOperatorUnited States Air ForceRegistration73-1149Flight originZagreb International Airport, Zagreb, CroatiaStopoverTuzla International Airport, Tuzla, Bosnia-HerzegovinaDestinationDubrovnik Airport, Dubrovnik, CroatiaOccupants35Passengers30Crew5Fatalities35 (initially 34)Survivors0 (initially 1, died shortly after rescue)

The aircraft was operated by the 76th Airlift Squadron of the 86th Airlift Wing, based at Ramstein Air Base in Germany. Unlike civilian 737s, the military CT-43A version was not equipped with a flight data recorder nor a cockpit voice recorder.[3]

Contents

Investigation

Zagreb Pleso Airport

Tuzla Airport

Dubrovnik Čilipi Airport

Crash Site St John’s HillLocation of crash site and departure and destination airports

Summary of the NDB approach to runway 12 from the USAF accident report

The official US Air Force accident investigation board report noted several reasons that led the Boeing CT-43A, callsign “IFO-21” (short for Implementation Force),[4] to crash.[5] Chief among the findings was a “failure of command, aircrew error and an improperly designed instrument approach procedure”. The inclement weather was not deemed a substantial contributing factor in the crash.[6]

The Boeing CT-43A used for this flight was formerly a T-43A navigator training aircraft that was converted for distinguished visitor travel. The flight was on an instrument flight rules non-directional beacon (NDB) approach, which is a non-precision type of instrument approach, to Runway 12 when it strayed off course. Non-precision approaches are those that do not incorporate vertical guidance.[7] While NDB approaches are essentially obsolete in the United States, they are still used widely in other parts of the world. Because of their infrequent use in the United States, many American pilots are not fully proficient in performing them (a NASA survey showed that 60% of American transport-rated pilots had not flown an NDB approach in the last year).[3] The investigation board determined that the approach used was not approved for Department of Defense aircraft, and should not have been used by the aircraft crew.[8]The board determined that the particular NDB approach used required two operating ADFs, the instrument used to fly such an approach, on board the aircraft, but this aircraft only had one ADF installed. To successfully fly the approach, one ADF was required to track the outbound course of 119° from the Koločep NDB (KLP), while another ADF was required to observe when the aircraft had flown beyond the CavtatNDB (CV), which marked the missed approach point. The alternative available to the crew was to repeatedly switch their one ADF between the signals at the KLP and CV beacons, though this would add further workload and stress to the crew.[9] Further, the board noted that the approach was rushed, with the aircraft flying at 80 knots (150 km/h) above the proper final approach speed and had not received the proper landing clearance from the control tower.[8]

The crash site, on a 2,300 ft (700 m) hill, was 1.6 miles (2.6 km) northeast of where the aircraft should have been on the inbound course to the NDB. The published NDB approach brings the inbound aircraft down a valley, and has a minimum descent height of 2,150 ft (660 m) at the missed approach point (where they should have climbed and turned to the right if the runway was not in view), which is below the elevation of the hills to the north. The runway is at 510 ft (160 m) MSL. Five other aircraft had landed prior to the CT-43A and had not experienced any problems with the navigational aids. There was no emergency call from the pilots, and they did not initiate a missed approach, even though they were beyond the missed approach point when they hit the hill at 2:57 PM local time.[3][4]

Each country is responsible for publishing the approach charts, including minimum descent heights, for its airports, and the investigators noted that the minimum in mountainous terrain in the United States is 2,800 ft (850 m), as compared to the 2,150 ft (660 m) on the chart given to the crew of IFO-21.[9] It was a requirement of the US Air Force to review and approve all charts, and to ban flights into airports for which the charts did not meet the proper American aviation standards.[9] The commander of the 86th Operations Group, Col. John E. Mazurowski,[10] revealed that he had requested (but not yet received) approval to waive the review for Dubrovnik, as the approach had worked for years and the delay of a full review could hamper the interests of the American diplomatic mission.[9]

Outcomes

Dubrovnik Airport was singled out for an improperly designed approach and landing procedure.[9]

A number of US Air Force (USAF) officers were found to have contributed to a failure of command. The general commanding the 86th Airlift Wing, Brig. Gen. William E. Stevens, vice-commander Col. Roger W. Hansen and the commander of the 86th Operations Group, Col. John E. Mazurowski, were all relieved of their posts.[10][11] Mazurowski was later found guilty of a dereliction of duties and was demoted to major, while twelve other officers were reprimanded. [9]

The USAF ordered all military aircraft to be equipped with a flight data recorder and a cockpit voice recorder.[9]

American military aircraft are no longer allowed to fly into airports without explicit approval from the United States Department of Defense, not even for high ranking diplomatic missions.[9]

Legacy

The area of the crash site is identified by a large stainless steel cross on Stražišće peak. Hikers can reach the peak via the “Ronald Brown Path”, which is named in commemoration of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce who died in the crash.[12]

A memorial room has been installed in the Ronald Brown memorial house in the old city of Dubrovnik. It features portraits of the crash victims as well as a guest book.[13]

The head of navigation at Čilipi Airport, Niko Jerkuić, was found dead three days after the accident with a bullet wound to his chest. The police investigation concluded that the case was a suicide.[14]

In popular culture

The crash of IFO-21 was covered in “Fog of War”, a Season 4 (2007) episode of the internationally syndicated Canadian TV documentary series Mayday.[9]

References

  1.  “List of crash victims”. CNN. April 4, 1996.
  2.  “Najpotresnije zrakoplovne nesreće u hrvatskoj povijesti”Index.hr. August 22, 2008.
  3. a b c Hughes, David “USAF, NTSB, Croatia Probe 737 Crash”, Aviation Week & Space Technology, 8 April 1996
  4. a b Transcript of US Department of Defense News briefing held on 7 June 2006 “Results of the Accident Investigation Report of the CT-43 Accident”. Retrieved: 29 November 2008
  5.  Walters, James M.; Sumwalt, Robert L. III (2000). Aircraft Accident Analysis: Final Reports. McGraw Hill.
  6.  “The weather at the time of the approach was reported as 400 feet broken, 2,000 feet overcast, 8 km or about 5 miles visibility, rain, surface winds for 120, 12 knots, because of the weather, the crew is required to fly an instrument approach procedure into Dubrovnik.” Transcript of US Department of Defense News briefing held on 7 June 2006 “Results of the Accident Investigation Report of the CT-43 Accident”. Retrieved: 29 November 2008
  7.  FSF ALAR Briefing Note 7.2 – Constant Angle Nonprecision Approach Flight Safety Foundation
  8. a b DoD news release Archived September 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  9. a b c d e f g h i “Fog of War“. Mayday. Season 4. Episode 8. Cineflix. 2007-06-03. Discovery Channel Canada.
  10. a b “Press Briefing”United States Department of Defense. 1996-05-31. Retrieved 2020-04-22.
  11.  Shenon, Philip (1996-05-31). “Air Force Ousts 3 From Duties In Brown Case”The New York Times. Retrieved 2020-04-22.
  12.  Dubrovnik Online website Archived 2014-03-12 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 17 October 2009
  13.  “Ronald Brown memorial house”. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
  14.  “Avionom je, ipak, najsigurnije (By plane, However, Is The Safest)”Slobodna Dalmacija. 9 September 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-09-09.

External links

#AceHistoryDesk report ……….Published: Apr.03: 2021:

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports by https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all our posts, also links can be found at here for Twitter and Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

#airline, #crash, #croatia

#OnThisDay April.02: 1865: At approximately 7:00 a.m. on that Sunday Ulysses S. Grant’s army attacked Confederate lines at Petersburg, Virginia #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – Apr.02: By mid-afternoon, Confederate troops had begun to evacuate the town.

#OTD Today in History – April 2: 1865: ‘The Union victory ensured the fall of Richmond, the capital of the Confederacy, located just twenty-five miles north of Petersburg’

President Jefferson Davis received word of the events in Petersburg while attending services at St. Paul’s Church in Richmond. He abandoned the capital late that night on a train bound for Danville, Virginia. 

I think it is absolutely necessary that we should abandon our position tonight…

Telegram from Robert E. Lee, in Petersburg, to Jefferson Davis, in Richmond, April 2, 1865. 1

Petersburg, Va. General view. Timothy H. O’Sullivan, photographer, [1865]. Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints. Prints & Photographs Division

Richmond, meanwhile, burned, as fires set by fleeing Confederates and looters raged out of control. Davis was eventually captured by Union soldiers, but not until May 10, 1865.2Richmond, Va. Ruins of Richmond & Danville Railroad Bridge. Alexander Gardner, photographer, [1865]. Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints.Prints & Photographs DivisionRichmond, Va. Street in the Burned District. 1865. Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints. Prints & Photographs Division

  1. Telegram from Robert E. Lee, in Petersburg, to Jefferson Davis, in Richmond, April 2, 1865, quoted in The Civil War Day By Day: An Almanac, 1861-1865, E.B. Long with Barbara Long (1971; reprint, New York: Da Capo Press, 1971), 663. (Return to text)
  2. Ibid., 663, 664.(Return to text)

Learn More

  • Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints includes numerous photographs of the siege of Petersburg and Richmond in 1865. To narrow the selection, try searching the collection on Petersburg AND UnionPetersburg AND Confederate, or Richmond AND burned
  • By 1861 telegraph lines networked much of the United States and were an important means of wartime communication. Less than twenty years earlier, on May 24, 1844, the first telegram was sent by inventor Samuel F. B. Morse. See the Samuel F. B. Morse Papers at the Library of Congress, 1793 to 1919 for more information about the invention of the telegraph.
  • Long after the fall of Richmond, the Confederate States of America echoed on in Southern culture. Julia A. Wood’s 1877 sheet music, Virginia Cotillions (which pays homage to Confederate heroes Jeff Davis, Robert E. Lee, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, P. G. T. Beauregard, James Longstreet, and “Jeb” Stuart) is found in Music for the Nation: American Sheet Music, ca. 1870 to 1885, consisting of tens of thousands of pieces of sheet music registered for copyright during the post-Civil War era. The cotillion was a popular ballroom dance in both the antebellum and post-Civil War periods.
  • Search on Petersburg and Richmond to view maps, charts, and atlases depicting battles, troop positions and movements, engagements, and fortifications in  Civil War Maps

#AceHistoryDesk report ………Published: Apr.02: 2021:

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#confederate, #petersburg, #virginia

#OnThisDay March.31: 1761: #Earthquake & North Atlantic tsunami of Portugal occurred in the Atlantic Ocean, south of the Iberian Peninsula. This violent shock which struck just after noon on March 31, 1761, was felt across many parts of Western Europe #AceHistoryDesk report

#OnThisDay 1761 Lisbon #Earthquake Its direct effects were even observed far north in Scotland and Amsterdam, and to the south in the Canary Islandsof Spain.

The estimated surface-wave magnitude 8.5 event was the largest in the region, and the most significant earthquake in Europe since the Great Lisbon earthquake of 1755.1761 Lisbon earthquake and Transatlantic tsunami

For other uses, see Lisbon earthquake (disambiguation).

1761 Lisbon earthquake is located in North Atlantic

1761 Lisbon earthquake (North Atlantic)Local dateMarch 31, 1761Local time12:01 pm WETDuration8 minutesMagnitude8.5 MsEpicenter34.5°N 13.0°WAreas affectedAtlantic OceanMax. intensityIX (Violent)Tsunami2.4 meters (Transatlantic)AftershocksYes

Records of this disaster are sparse as the Portuguese Government censored much information in order to avoid panic in the already ruined city. 

Contents

Tectonic setting

The Azores-Gibraltar Fault form part of the complex and poorly defined plate boundary between the African and Eurasian plates that converge at a rate of 3.8 mm/yr. Here, a collection of strike-slip and thrust faultsaccommodate motion between the two plates, including the Horseshoe Fault, Marques Pombal Fault, Gorringe Bank Fault and Cádiz Subduction Zone.[1]

The earthquake is thought to have been sourced from a thrust fault located beneath the Coral Patch Seamount with an estimated rupture dimension of 200 km by 50 km.[2] The Coral Patch Thrust Fault is a component in the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary.[3] From an analysis of the reported duration of shaking, the rupture was suggested to propagate northwards, from the northern end of the 1755 rupture. This earthquake is likely to be a result of stress transfer from the 1755 event.[4] Based on measuring the tsunami run-up height, the estimated tsunami magnitude for this earthquake is 8.5, and is unlikely to be larger than the 1755 event.[5]

Earthquake

At noon on March 31, the Portuguese city Lisbon was rocked by an earthquake that lasted up to three minutes. Ruins in the city left by the 1755 earthquake collapsed while frightened residents ran outside. Shipping vessels offshore felt jolts during the earthquake. It was felt in many Spanish cities including Madrid and Aranjuez. Other European locations that felt the earthquake include Bayonne, Bordeaux and Roussillon in France, Amsterdam in The Netherlands, Cork, Ireland, and the Azores Islands.[6]

Much of the damage in Lisbon was directed at older houses, and buildings already compromised by the 1755 earthquake. The city shook for at least five minutes. Piles of debris from the previous quake collapsed. The nearby mountain ranges were affected by rockslides. Shaking damaged a prison, and some 300 inmates managed to escape.[7] Surprisingly, no lives were lost in Lisbon but the damage was greater than 20,000 moidores. On the Modified Mercalli intensity scale, the earthquake reached an estimated VI (Strong) to VII (Very strong). The greatest destruction was in Setúbal and Vila Franca. In Porto, the city suffered heavy damage worse than those sustained in 1755, resulting in several people being killed. In Madeira, rockfalls were triggered, tumbling into the sea and destroying a church. Four people died as a result, with two being crushed while fishing when boulders tumbled on them.[7]

In Madrid, ground motions went on for five to 23 minutes. Some houses shook violently causing furniture to topple. Frightened residents ran out of their houses for fear of them collapsing. This prompted an inquiry from the Council of Castile and Diocese of Cartagena to obtain more information about the earthquake.[7]

In Fort Augustus, Scotland, the water level at Loch Ness rose some two feet (0.6 m) and then subsided. The unusual lake behavior continued for forty-five minutes to an hour. In Amsterdam, the chandelier of a church started vibrating in the afternoon, possibly caused by the earthquake.[6]

Cork, Ireland saw strong shaking, more violent than the 1755 quake.[7]

Tsunami

One hour and 25 minutes after the earthquake was felt in Lisbon, waves measuring up to eight feet (2.4 m) was observed approaching the coast and damaging ships. The sea retreated and advanced repeatedly even 13 hours after the earthquake, continuing into the night.[8]

Along the coasts of Spain, changes to the sea were witnessed but there were no records of the tsunami arriving, nor their heights.[citation needed]

In Barbados, waves between 18 inches (0.45 m) and four feet (1.2 m) that swept along the coast were attributed to the earthquake.[7][8]

On Terceira Island in the Azores, the tsunami picked up boats and smashed them against the rocky coastline.[citation needed]

At Mount’s Bay in Cornwall, a tsunami of up six feet (1.8 m) advanced five times at 5 p.m. for an hour. In the Isles of Scilly, the sea rose up to four feet (1.2 m) at the time waves were seen in Cornwall. Penzance saw waves up to six feet (1.8 m) arriving in the early evenings five times. At Newlyn, the sea rose nearly six feet. Along the Irish coasts, the same phenomena were observed. At Kinsale, at about 6 p.m., the sea rose suddenly 2 feet (0.6 m) and retreated rapidly in 4 minutes, this being repeated, though to a less extent, several times. At Carrick, at 4 pm, the surface of the River Suir rose one foot (0.3 m). in five minutes. At Dungarvan, the sea ebbed and flowed five times between 4 and 9 pm. At Waterford, the sea advanced 30 feet (9 m) along the shore, while at Ross, County Wexford, a violent agitation of the river occurred at 7 p.m.[8][9]

See also

References

  1.  Wronna, Martin; Baptista, Maria Ana; Miranda, Jorge Miguel (2019). “Reanalysis of the 1761 transatlantic tsunami”Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences19 (2): 337–352. doi:10.5194/nhess-2018-30.
  2.  M. A. Baptista (2019). “Tsunamis Along the Azores Gibraltar Plate Boundary”Pure and Applied Geophysics117: 1713–1724. doi:10.1007/s00024-019-02344-8.
  3.  Roy Barkan, Uri S. ten Brink, Jian Lin (2009). “Far field tsunami simulations of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake: Implications for tsunami hazard to the U.S. East Coast and the Caribbean” (PDF). Marine Geology264: 109–122. doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2008.10.010.
  4.  Robert Muir-WoodArnaud Mignan (2009). “A Phenomenological Reconstruction of the Mw9 November 1st 1755 Earthquake Source. In: The 1755 Lisbon Earthquake: Revisited”Geotechnical, Geological, and Earthquake Engineering7: 121–146. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-8609-0_8.
  5.  Baptista, M. & Miranda, Jym & Luis, Joaquim (2006). “In Search of the 31 March 1761 Earthquake and Tsunami Source”Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America96: 713–721. doi:10.1785/0120050111.
  6. a b National Geophysical Data Center / World Data Service (NGDC/WDS): NCEI/WDS Global Significant Earthquake Database. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. “Significant Earthquake Information PORTUGAL: LISBON”doi:10.7289/V5TD9V7K. Retrieved 2021-02-01.
  7. a b c d e Borlase, William (1 January 1761). LXV. Some account of the extraordinary agitation of the waters in Mount’s-bay, and other places, on the 31st of March 1761: In a letter to the Reverend Dr. Charles Lyttelton, Dean of Exeter, from the Reverend William Borlase, M. A. F. R. S. The Royal Society.
  8. a b c NCEI Global Historical Hazard Database. “Tsunami Event Information SW PORTUGAL”www.ngdc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2021-02-01.
  9.  M. A. Baptista and J. M. Miranda (2009). “Revision of the Portuguese catalog of tsunamis” (PDF). Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences9 (1).

#AceHistoryDesk report ……Published: Mar.31: 2021:

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports by https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all our posts, also links can be found at here for Twitter and Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

#otd, #tsunami

On #ThisDayinHistory 1927, American aviator Charles A. Lindbergh takes off from New York’s Roosevelt Field on the world’s first solo, nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean and the first ever nonstop flight between New York to Paris #AceHistoryDesk reports

#AceHistoryNews – May.20: Lindbergh was a dark horse when he entered a competition to fly nonstop from New York to Paris: He ordered a small monoplane, configured it to his own design, and christened it the Spirit of St. Louis in tribute to his sponsor–the St. Louis Chamber of Commerce #AceHistoryDesk reports

https://t.me/HistoricalPics/8577: His greatest challenge was staying awake; he had to hold his eyelids open with his fingers and hallucinated ghosts passing through the cockpit: The next afternoon, after flying 3,610 miles in 33 1/2 hours, Lindbergh landed at Le Bourget field in Paris, becoming the first pilot to accomplish the solo, nonstop transatlantic crossing………………….Lindbergh’s achievement made him an international celebrity and won widespread public acceptance of the airplane and commercial aviation. #LuckyLindy #Historytakesflight #SpiritofStLouis #CharlesLindbergh #Aviation #OTD

#Brittius says …… From an airfield, it became a race track for trotters, now it is a shopping mall area.

http://www.airfields-freeman.com/NY/Airfields_NY.htm

https://www.google.com/maps/place/Roosevelt+Field/@40.7380528,-73.6100746,15.96z/data=!4m5!3m4!1s0x89c27d7c3799f1b1:0xe6dbab6579494bb6!8m2!3d40.7380631!4d-73.6128077

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports & #Brittius says are provided by Sterling Publishing & Media News and all our posts, links can be found at here Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ Ace News Services Posts https://t.me/acenewsdaily and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com or you can follow our breaking news posts on AceBreakingNews.WordPress.Com or become a member on Telegram https://t.me/acebreakingnews all private chat messaging on here https://t.me/sharingandcaring

On #ThisDayinHistory in 1973, America’s eight-year intervention in the Vietnam War had ended. Two mo nths after the signing of the Vietnam peace agreement, the last U.S. combat troops left South Vietnam as Han oi freed remaining American POWs held in North Vietnam

#AceHistoryNews – Mar.29: Two months after the signing of the Vietnam peace agreement, the last U.S. combat troops left South Vietnam as Hanoi freed remaining American POWs held in North Vietnam #AceHistoryDesk reports

https://t.me/HistoricalPics/8212Pictured here is the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, a 2-acre U.S. national memorial in Washington D.C. that honors service members of the U.S. armed forces who fought in the Vietnam War, service members who died in service in Vietnam/South East Asia and service members who were unaccounted for (missing in action, MIA) during the war. More than 8.7 million Americans served in Vietnam, and more than 58,000 died: The total number of soldiers that remain unaccounted for is 1,600. Is there anyone specific in your life who you’re honoring on this #VietnamWarVeteransDay? #VietnamWar #War #USHistory #MilitaryHistory #Veterans 📷: Peter Marlow/ Magnum Photos #OTD #AceHistoryNews

#Brittius says …..Until Obama started running his mouth about rounding up veterans and taking guns, and all the other rubbish, I had almost completely forgotten that war. I would like to return to, forgetting the war. Time hazed much out, but every now and then, it comes back, and none of it is any good. Oil. That is what the war was all about, a select few made millions of dollars. LBJ, and the fake Gulf of Tonkin resolution about an attack that never happened. 58,220 US lives lost, for oil, and an imagined attack that the president must have gloated over. I want my youth back. I want to forget that war.

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports & #Brittius says are provided by Sterling Publishing & Media News and all our posts, links can be found at here https://t.me/acenewsdaily and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com or you can follow our breaking news posts on AceBreakingNews.WordPress.Com or become a member on Telegram https://t.me/acebreakingnews

On #ThisDayinHistory 1945, the U.S. flag is raised on Iwo Jima. During the bloody Battle for Iwo Jima, U.S. Marines from the 3rd Platoon, E Company, 2nd Battalion, 28th Regiment of the 5th Division took the crest of Mount Suribachi, the island’s highest peak and most strategic position, and raised the U.S. flag #AceHistoryNews reports

#AceHistoryNews – Feb.23: American soldiers fighting for control of Suribachi’s slopes cheered the raising of the flag, and several hours later more Marines headed up to the crest with a larger flag: Joe Rosenthal, a photographer with the Associated Press, met them along the way and recorded the raising of the second flag along with a Marine still photographer and a motion-picture cameraman #AceHistoryDesk reports

https://t.me/HistoricalPics/8045Rosenthal took three photographs atop Suribachi: Marine photographer Louis Lowery was with them and recorded the event: The first, which showed five Marines and one Navy corpsman struggling to hoist the heavy flag pole, became the most reproduced photograph in history and won him a Pulitzer Prize: Many of these men, including three of the six soldiers seen raising the flag in the famous Rosenthal photo, were killed before the conclusion of the Battle for Iwo Jima in late March………………By March 3, U.S. forces controlled all three airfields on the island, and on March 26 the last Japanese defenders on Iwo Jima were wiped out. Only 200 of the original 22,000 Japanese defenders were captured alive…………More than 6,000 Americans died taking Iwo Jima, and some 17,000 were wounded. #IwoJima #IconicPhotograph #MIlitaryHistory #WWII #1945 #OTD #AceFinanceNews

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports & #Brittius says are provided by Sterling Publishing & Media News and all our posts, links can be found at here https://t.me/acenewsdaily and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com or you can follow our breaking news posts on AceBreakingNews.WordPress.Com or become a member on Telegram https://t.me/acebreakingnews