` On the 65th Anniversary of `NATO ' Debate over the Organisations Expansion remains Contentious '

#AceHistory2Research – NATO – April 04 – On the 65th anniversary of NATO, the debate over the organization’s expansion remains highly contentious, with some viewing it as a broken promise to Russia after the fall of the Iron Curtain.

NATO, an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty, was signed on April 4, 1949 when the US, Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark, and Iceland joined the members of the Treaty of Brussels to form the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

The idea of the alliance was to provide defence against a prospective Soviet invasion. In the early 1950’s, the focus of the communism vs. capitalism fight shifted to Asia, where a series of bloody proxy wars played a major role in convincing Europeans that the Soviet Union and its allies were extremely dangerous and had to be contained at all costs.

Since the reunification of Germany, NATO has almost doubled in size – from 16 member states in 1990 to 28 currently.

Most senior Russian officials feel tricked by NATO and accuse the West of not following through with its commitments made during German reunification negotiations, when NATO agreed not to expand to the East.

Mikhail Gorbachev, the Soviet president at the time, confirmed that there was a promise not to enlarge NATO, not even “as much as a thumb’s width further to the East.” But this commitment was never formally documented, and since then the alliance has grown drastically.



#brussels, #canada, #denmark, #european, #germany, #iceland, #iron-curtain, #italy, #nato, #north-atlantic-treaty, #norway, #portugal, #russia, #russian, #soviet-union, #us

` NATO’s 78 Day Bombardment of Yugoslavia Documentary Video’

#AceHistory2Research – YUGOSLAVIA – MARCH 24 – Fifteen years after NATO’s 78-day bombardment of Yugoslavia, memories of the bombing still haunt present-day Serbia. NATO killed over 2,000 people, hundreds were civilians, 88 were children. Serbs ask ‘why?’ above all. Why did NATO smash their cities, kill their children, bomb hospitals and schools?

When the NATO bomb campaign began (on March 24th 1999) Jelena Milincic was a student at the University of Belgrade, and just 18 years old.

When the first bombs shook Belgrade she cowered under a table with her mother, sister, and best friend. Remembering this 15 years later, they laugh nervously.

Jelena takes Anissa Naouai on a road trip, to remember the victims, and hear the survivors of NATO’s strike terror.

RT presents ‘Zashto?’ (Why?) on the trauma of terror in Serbia.



#belgrade, #nato, #yugoslavia

` Serbia and Montenegro Mark 15 Years Since` NATO ‘ Bombing of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ‘

#AceHistory2Research – BELGRADE – March 24 – A tragic date is marked on Monday in Serbia and in Montenegro: it’s 15 years since NATO started bombing the territory of these states, which then formed part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

Operation Allied Force, which NATO carried out without the approval of UN Security Council, lasted for 78 days. Objects on the whole territory of Serbia and Montenegro became targets of NATO bomber aircraft and cruise missiles.

The pretext for starting the aggression involving 19 NATO members led by the USA was the failure of talks on Kosovo in Rambouillet, France, and Serbia’s denial to sign the “peace plan”. One of the plan’s paragraphs stipulated the deployment of foreign troops in Kosovo, which practically meant the military occupation of the region.

Map of Vojvodina within Federal Republic of Yu...

Map of Vojvodina within Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992-2003) and Serbia and Montenegro (2003-2006) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

What became the pretext of the attack

The formal pretext for the attack was the discovery in Kosovan village of Racak of a mass grave with bodies of Albanian civilians allegedly shot by Serbian servicemen.

Later it turned out that this was a falsification staged with the assistance of western intelligence services. The major part of the casualties was militants of Kosovo Liberation Army killed in different areas of the region in clashes with Yugoslavian law enforcers.
In the course of NATO attacks, defence facilities of Serbian Air Force, Air Defence units and military industrial facilities were gradually destroyed along with civil infrastructure facilities — bridges, factories, transport hubs, power plants and power transmission lines.

Location of Serbia and Montenegro

Location of Serbia and Montenegro (Photo credit: Wikipedia)


In the course of 11 weeks of NATO Air Force’s operation, a total of 2,300 air attacks on 995 objects were carried out. 1,150 combat airplanes were used in the operation. 420,000 explosive items were thrown, including 20,000 heavy air bombs, 1,300 cruise missiles, 37,000 cluster bombs, many of which were filled with depleted uranium. Over 2,000 civilians became victims of the bombings (mainly on the territory of Kosovo and Metohija), as well as 1,000 servicemen; over 5,000 people were wounded and over a thousand people were reported missing.

The military industrial infrastructure of Serbia was in fact completely destroyed; over 1,500 settlements were dragged down, as well as 60 bridges, 30% of schools, and about 100 monuments.

According to Serbian experts, material losses after the bombings depending on the calculation methods totalled $60-100 billion.
The bombings stopped June 9, 1999, when representatives of Yugoslavian army and NATO in Macedonian city of Kumanovo signed a military technical agreement on the withdrawal of troops and police units of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from Kosovo and on deployment of international troops on Kosovo’s territory.

A day later, UN Security Council adopted the corresponding resolution number 1244. According to it, 37,200 servicemen of Kosovo Force (KFOR) from 36 countries were deployed on the territory of the southern Serbian province. As a result of the NATO military expansion against Yugoslavia, Kosovo declared its independence in Pristina on February 17, 2008.

Monument to the victims of 1999 NATO bombing o...

Monument to the victims of 1999 NATO bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia victims from the city of Niš, Serbia. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)


Indirect consequences of the NATO attack can be noted on people’s health. The radiation level in several localities in southern Serbia (mainly in Kosovo and Metohija), which were hit by depleted uranium in 1999 (112 areas in total, according to Serbian Army’s General Staff), still exceeds critical standards. Scientists link the cancer incidence rate in the country with NATO bombings. This year, some 40,000 new cases of cancer are forecasted in Serbia, the total population of which amounts to 7.2 million people. This grim forecast was made by Slobodan Cekaric, the head of the Serbian Society against Cancer.

He said that a 15-year-long latent period in the development of cancer diseases is ending in 2014. After that, the signs of illnesses caused by the impact of radioactive materials will start coming to surface. The bombs dropped on the territory of Serbia contained depleted uranium which causes cancer, respiratory and allergic diseases, neurological disorders, reproductive problems and impaired development of children.

A report published by the Doctor Milan Jovanovic Batut National Institute of Public Health in 2007 warned about “a quiet epidemic of malignant diseases” in Serbia. Thus, men’s morbidity with prostate cancer increased by 60% from 1999 to 2005. Other cancer-induced diseases are also on the rise both among men and women. Cancer is one of the main causes of death around the globe, claiming about 8 million human lives annually. However, malignant diseases in Serbia grow at a higher rate than in Western Europe, increasing from year to year, Serbian doctors say.

The situation is particularly alarming in southern Serbia which was worst hit by NATO bombs. According to Radomir Kovacevic, the head of the radiological protection department of the Doctor Dragomir Karajovic Institute, people who live in the uranium-polluted areas, run the risk of falling ill with lymph cancer, leukemia, breast and lung cancer.

Courtesy of TASS and Russian Media and News  



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#acehistory2research, #acehistorynews, #ahn2014, #kosovo, #kosovo-force, #kosovo-liberation-army, #kumanovo, #montenegro, #nato, #nato-bombing-of-yugoslavia, #serbia, #serbia-and-montenegro, #yugoslavia

Fifteen Years ago `NATO ' invaded ` Yugoslavia ' and left their Mark and their Memories '

#AceHistory2Research – YUGOSLAVIA – 22 March – Fifteen years after NATO invaded Yugoslavia, memories of the 78-day bombing are still haunting present-day Serbia. Above all, people ask why the alliance brought them death and destruction. RT presents its documentary ‘Zashto?’ from the war-torn country.


On March 24, 1999, when NATO started its ruthless bombing campaign against Yugoslavia, Jelena Milincic was a student at the University of Belgrade, and just 18 years old.

When the first strikes hit in the evening, she, her mother, sister, and best friend cowered under a table.

Remembering this now, 15 years later, they laugh.

Back then, it was terrifying.

For the next three months, the relentless air-strikes became part of Jelena’s – and many other people’s – lives.

“In ’99, I was 16 and I was studying in a theatre school. I had no idea that a country in central Europe was being bombed for three months,” RT America journalist Anissa Naouai says in the film.

Operation Allied Force, as it was code-named, lasted until June 10, 1999. Tragically, NATO’s aggression resulted in more than 2,000 civilian deaths, including 88 children.

The authors of ‘Zashto?’ – which means “Why?” in English – Serbian Jelena Milincic and American Anissa Naouai traveled through former Yugoslavia to Belgrade, Kosovo, and Montenegro. They spoke to people who endured the atrocities and horrors of the war and lost loved ones.

“We were just looking for important, heartfelt stories. Serbia is not a very large country, and everywhere we went we found people who were personally affected by the bombings, and feel the war’s impact to this day,” said Milincic, a Serbian journalist.

“Our goal was to show the aspects of the conflict that you did not see in the news, the stories of civilians affected by the events,” Milincic added.

To watch the documentary ‘Zashto?’ tune in to RT on March 24.

RT (Exclusive) 1443125_yt_zashto_promo__480p (1).mp4



#american, #nato, #rt, #serbian, #yugoslavia