#OnThisDay April.03: 1996: Croatia Flight USAF CT-43 Crashed into a mountainside whilst on approach to Dubrovnik while on an official trade mission #AceHistoryDesk report 45

#AceHistoryReport – Apr.03: The aircraft, a Boeing 737-200 originally built as T-43A navigational trainer and later converted into a CT-43A executive transport aircraft, was carrying United States Secretary of CommerceRon Brown and 34 other people, including The New York Times Frankfurt bureau chief Nathaniel C. Nash.[1] While attempting an instrument approach to Dubrovnik Airport, the airplane crashed into a mountainside.

#OTD 1996 Croatia USAF CT-43 crash: ‘On April 3, 1996, a United States Air Force Boeing CT-43A (Flight IFO-21) crashed on approach to Dubrovnik, Croatia, while on an official trade mission.

USAF CT-43A crash 1996.jpg

An Air Force Technical Sergeant survived the initial impact, but died en route to a hospital. Everyone else on board died at the scene of the crash.[2]United States Air Force Flight IFO-21A USAFMH-53J Pave Low helicopter hovers near the wreckage of Flight IFO-21. The tail number of the accident aircraft is shortened as 31149.AccidentDateApril 3, 1996SummaryControlled flight into terrain due to pilot error and poorly designed instrument approachSite3 km (1.9 mi) north of Dubrovnik Airport, Dubrovnik, Croatia.
42°35′54″N 18°15′08″EAircraftAircraft typeBoeing CT-43AOperatorUnited States Air ForceRegistration73-1149Flight originZagreb International Airport, Zagreb, CroatiaStopoverTuzla International Airport, Tuzla, Bosnia-HerzegovinaDestinationDubrovnik Airport, Dubrovnik, CroatiaOccupants35Passengers30Crew5Fatalities35 (initially 34)Survivors0 (initially 1, died shortly after rescue)

The aircraft was operated by the 76th Airlift Squadron of the 86th Airlift Wing, based at Ramstein Air Base in Germany. Unlike civilian 737s, the military CT-43A version was not equipped with a flight data recorder nor a cockpit voice recorder.[3]

Contents

Investigation

Zagreb Pleso Airport

Tuzla Airport

Dubrovnik Čilipi Airport

Crash Site St John’s HillLocation of crash site and departure and destination airports

Summary of the NDB approach to runway 12 from the USAF accident report

The official US Air Force accident investigation board report noted several reasons that led the Boeing CT-43A, callsign “IFO-21” (short for Implementation Force),[4] to crash.[5] Chief among the findings was a “failure of command, aircrew error and an improperly designed instrument approach procedure”. The inclement weather was not deemed a substantial contributing factor in the crash.[6]

The Boeing CT-43A used for this flight was formerly a T-43A navigator training aircraft that was converted for distinguished visitor travel. The flight was on an instrument flight rules non-directional beacon (NDB) approach, which is a non-precision type of instrument approach, to Runway 12 when it strayed off course. Non-precision approaches are those that do not incorporate vertical guidance.[7] While NDB approaches are essentially obsolete in the United States, they are still used widely in other parts of the world. Because of their infrequent use in the United States, many American pilots are not fully proficient in performing them (a NASA survey showed that 60% of American transport-rated pilots had not flown an NDB approach in the last year).[3] The investigation board determined that the approach used was not approved for Department of Defense aircraft, and should not have been used by the aircraft crew.[8]The board determined that the particular NDB approach used required two operating ADFs, the instrument used to fly such an approach, on board the aircraft, but this aircraft only had one ADF installed. To successfully fly the approach, one ADF was required to track the outbound course of 119° from the Koločep NDB (KLP), while another ADF was required to observe when the aircraft had flown beyond the CavtatNDB (CV), which marked the missed approach point. The alternative available to the crew was to repeatedly switch their one ADF between the signals at the KLP and CV beacons, though this would add further workload and stress to the crew.[9] Further, the board noted that the approach was rushed, with the aircraft flying at 80 knots (150 km/h) above the proper final approach speed and had not received the proper landing clearance from the control tower.[8]

The crash site, on a 2,300 ft (700 m) hill, was 1.6 miles (2.6 km) northeast of where the aircraft should have been on the inbound course to the NDB. The published NDB approach brings the inbound aircraft down a valley, and has a minimum descent height of 2,150 ft (660 m) at the missed approach point (where they should have climbed and turned to the right if the runway was not in view), which is below the elevation of the hills to the north. The runway is at 510 ft (160 m) MSL. Five other aircraft had landed prior to the CT-43A and had not experienced any problems with the navigational aids. There was no emergency call from the pilots, and they did not initiate a missed approach, even though they were beyond the missed approach point when they hit the hill at 2:57 PM local time.[3][4]

Each country is responsible for publishing the approach charts, including minimum descent heights, for its airports, and the investigators noted that the minimum in mountainous terrain in the United States is 2,800 ft (850 m), as compared to the 2,150 ft (660 m) on the chart given to the crew of IFO-21.[9] It was a requirement of the US Air Force to review and approve all charts, and to ban flights into airports for which the charts did not meet the proper American aviation standards.[9] The commander of the 86th Operations Group, Col. John E. Mazurowski,[10] revealed that he had requested (but not yet received) approval to waive the review for Dubrovnik, as the approach had worked for years and the delay of a full review could hamper the interests of the American diplomatic mission.[9]

Outcomes

Dubrovnik Airport was singled out for an improperly designed approach and landing procedure.[9]

A number of US Air Force (USAF) officers were found to have contributed to a failure of command. The general commanding the 86th Airlift Wing, Brig. Gen. William E. Stevens, vice-commander Col. Roger W. Hansen and the commander of the 86th Operations Group, Col. John E. Mazurowski, were all relieved of their posts.[10][11] Mazurowski was later found guilty of a dereliction of duties and was demoted to major, while twelve other officers were reprimanded. [9]

The USAF ordered all military aircraft to be equipped with a flight data recorder and a cockpit voice recorder.[9]

American military aircraft are no longer allowed to fly into airports without explicit approval from the United States Department of Defense, not even for high ranking diplomatic missions.[9]

Legacy

The area of the crash site is identified by a large stainless steel cross on Stražišće peak. Hikers can reach the peak via the “Ronald Brown Path”, which is named in commemoration of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce who died in the crash.[12]

A memorial room has been installed in the Ronald Brown memorial house in the old city of Dubrovnik. It features portraits of the crash victims as well as a guest book.[13]

The head of navigation at Čilipi Airport, Niko Jerkuić, was found dead three days after the accident with a bullet wound to his chest. The police investigation concluded that the case was a suicide.[14]

In popular culture

The crash of IFO-21 was covered in “Fog of War”, a Season 4 (2007) episode of the internationally syndicated Canadian TV documentary series Mayday.[9]

References

  1.  “List of crash victims”. CNN. April 4, 1996.
  2.  “Najpotresnije zrakoplovne nesreće u hrvatskoj povijesti”Index.hr. August 22, 2008.
  3. a b c Hughes, David “USAF, NTSB, Croatia Probe 737 Crash”, Aviation Week & Space Technology, 8 April 1996
  4. a b Transcript of US Department of Defense News briefing held on 7 June 2006 “Results of the Accident Investigation Report of the CT-43 Accident”. Retrieved: 29 November 2008
  5.  Walters, James M.; Sumwalt, Robert L. III (2000). Aircraft Accident Analysis: Final Reports. McGraw Hill.
  6.  “The weather at the time of the approach was reported as 400 feet broken, 2,000 feet overcast, 8 km or about 5 miles visibility, rain, surface winds for 120, 12 knots, because of the weather, the crew is required to fly an instrument approach procedure into Dubrovnik.” Transcript of US Department of Defense News briefing held on 7 June 2006 “Results of the Accident Investigation Report of the CT-43 Accident”. Retrieved: 29 November 2008
  7.  FSF ALAR Briefing Note 7.2 – Constant Angle Nonprecision Approach Flight Safety Foundation
  8. a b DoD news release Archived September 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  9. a b c d e f g h i “Fog of War“. Mayday. Season 4. Episode 8. Cineflix. 2007-06-03. Discovery Channel Canada.
  10. a b “Press Briefing”United States Department of Defense. 1996-05-31. Retrieved 2020-04-22.
  11.  Shenon, Philip (1996-05-31). “Air Force Ousts 3 From Duties In Brown Case”The New York Times. Retrieved 2020-04-22.
  12.  Dubrovnik Online website Archived 2014-03-12 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 17 October 2009
  13.  “Ronald Brown memorial house”. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
  14.  “Avionom je, ipak, najsigurnije (By plane, However, Is The Safest)”Slobodna Dalmacija. 9 September 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-09-09.

External links

#AceHistoryDesk report ……….Published: Apr.03: 2021:

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports by https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all our posts, also links can be found at here for Twitter and Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

#airline, #crash, #croatia

#OnThisDay April.02: 1865: At approximately 7:00 a.m. on that Sunday Ulysses S. Grant’s army attacked Confederate lines at Petersburg, Virginia #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – Apr.02: By mid-afternoon, Confederate troops had begun to evacuate the town.

#OTD Today in History – April 2: 1865: ‘The Union victory ensured the fall of Richmond, the capital of the Confederacy, located just twenty-five miles north of Petersburg’

President Jefferson Davis received word of the events in Petersburg while attending services at St. Paul’s Church in Richmond. He abandoned the capital late that night on a train bound for Danville, Virginia. 

I think it is absolutely necessary that we should abandon our position tonight…

Telegram from Robert E. Lee, in Petersburg, to Jefferson Davis, in Richmond, April 2, 1865. 1

Petersburg, Va. General view. Timothy H. O’Sullivan, photographer, [1865]. Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints. Prints & Photographs Division

Richmond, meanwhile, burned, as fires set by fleeing Confederates and looters raged out of control. Davis was eventually captured by Union soldiers, but not until May 10, 1865.2Richmond, Va. Ruins of Richmond & Danville Railroad Bridge. Alexander Gardner, photographer, [1865]. Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints.Prints & Photographs DivisionRichmond, Va. Street in the Burned District. 1865. Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints. Prints & Photographs Division

  1. Telegram from Robert E. Lee, in Petersburg, to Jefferson Davis, in Richmond, April 2, 1865, quoted in The Civil War Day By Day: An Almanac, 1861-1865, E.B. Long with Barbara Long (1971; reprint, New York: Da Capo Press, 1971), 663. (Return to text)
  2. Ibid., 663, 664.(Return to text)

Learn More

  • Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints includes numerous photographs of the siege of Petersburg and Richmond in 1865. To narrow the selection, try searching the collection on Petersburg AND UnionPetersburg AND Confederate, or Richmond AND burned
  • By 1861 telegraph lines networked much of the United States and were an important means of wartime communication. Less than twenty years earlier, on May 24, 1844, the first telegram was sent by inventor Samuel F. B. Morse. See the Samuel F. B. Morse Papers at the Library of Congress, 1793 to 1919 for more information about the invention of the telegraph.
  • Long after the fall of Richmond, the Confederate States of America echoed on in Southern culture. Julia A. Wood’s 1877 sheet music, Virginia Cotillions (which pays homage to Confederate heroes Jeff Davis, Robert E. Lee, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, P. G. T. Beauregard, James Longstreet, and “Jeb” Stuart) is found in Music for the Nation: American Sheet Music, ca. 1870 to 1885, consisting of tens of thousands of pieces of sheet music registered for copyright during the post-Civil War era. The cotillion was a popular ballroom dance in both the antebellum and post-Civil War periods.
  • Search on Petersburg and Richmond to view maps, charts, and atlases depicting battles, troop positions and movements, engagements, and fortifications in  Civil War Maps

#AceHistoryDesk report ………Published: Apr.02: 2021:

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#confederate, #petersburg, #virginia

#OnThisDay March.31: 1761: #Earthquake & North Atlantic tsunami of Portugal occurred in the Atlantic Ocean, south of the Iberian Peninsula. This violent shock which struck just after noon on March 31, 1761, was felt across many parts of Western Europe #AceHistoryDesk report

#OnThisDay 1761 Lisbon #Earthquake Its direct effects were even observed far north in Scotland and Amsterdam, and to the south in the Canary Islandsof Spain.

The estimated surface-wave magnitude 8.5 event was the largest in the region, and the most significant earthquake in Europe since the Great Lisbon earthquake of 1755.1761 Lisbon earthquake and Transatlantic tsunami

For other uses, see Lisbon earthquake (disambiguation).

1761 Lisbon earthquake is located in North Atlantic

1761 Lisbon earthquake (North Atlantic)Local dateMarch 31, 1761Local time12:01 pm WETDuration8 minutesMagnitude8.5 MsEpicenter34.5°N 13.0°WAreas affectedAtlantic OceanMax. intensityIX (Violent)Tsunami2.4 meters (Transatlantic)AftershocksYes

Records of this disaster are sparse as the Portuguese Government censored much information in order to avoid panic in the already ruined city. 

Contents

Tectonic setting

The Azores-Gibraltar Fault form part of the complex and poorly defined plate boundary between the African and Eurasian plates that converge at a rate of 3.8 mm/yr. Here, a collection of strike-slip and thrust faultsaccommodate motion between the two plates, including the Horseshoe Fault, Marques Pombal Fault, Gorringe Bank Fault and Cádiz Subduction Zone.[1]

The earthquake is thought to have been sourced from a thrust fault located beneath the Coral Patch Seamount with an estimated rupture dimension of 200 km by 50 km.[2] The Coral Patch Thrust Fault is a component in the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary.[3] From an analysis of the reported duration of shaking, the rupture was suggested to propagate northwards, from the northern end of the 1755 rupture. This earthquake is likely to be a result of stress transfer from the 1755 event.[4] Based on measuring the tsunami run-up height, the estimated tsunami magnitude for this earthquake is 8.5, and is unlikely to be larger than the 1755 event.[5]

Earthquake

At noon on March 31, the Portuguese city Lisbon was rocked by an earthquake that lasted up to three minutes. Ruins in the city left by the 1755 earthquake collapsed while frightened residents ran outside. Shipping vessels offshore felt jolts during the earthquake. It was felt in many Spanish cities including Madrid and Aranjuez. Other European locations that felt the earthquake include Bayonne, Bordeaux and Roussillon in France, Amsterdam in The Netherlands, Cork, Ireland, and the Azores Islands.[6]

Much of the damage in Lisbon was directed at older houses, and buildings already compromised by the 1755 earthquake. The city shook for at least five minutes. Piles of debris from the previous quake collapsed. The nearby mountain ranges were affected by rockslides. Shaking damaged a prison, and some 300 inmates managed to escape.[7] Surprisingly, no lives were lost in Lisbon but the damage was greater than 20,000 moidores. On the Modified Mercalli intensity scale, the earthquake reached an estimated VI (Strong) to VII (Very strong). The greatest destruction was in Setúbal and Vila Franca. In Porto, the city suffered heavy damage worse than those sustained in 1755, resulting in several people being killed. In Madeira, rockfalls were triggered, tumbling into the sea and destroying a church. Four people died as a result, with two being crushed while fishing when boulders tumbled on them.[7]

In Madrid, ground motions went on for five to 23 minutes. Some houses shook violently causing furniture to topple. Frightened residents ran out of their houses for fear of them collapsing. This prompted an inquiry from the Council of Castile and Diocese of Cartagena to obtain more information about the earthquake.[7]

In Fort Augustus, Scotland, the water level at Loch Ness rose some two feet (0.6 m) and then subsided. The unusual lake behavior continued for forty-five minutes to an hour. In Amsterdam, the chandelier of a church started vibrating in the afternoon, possibly caused by the earthquake.[6]

Cork, Ireland saw strong shaking, more violent than the 1755 quake.[7]

Tsunami

One hour and 25 minutes after the earthquake was felt in Lisbon, waves measuring up to eight feet (2.4 m) was observed approaching the coast and damaging ships. The sea retreated and advanced repeatedly even 13 hours after the earthquake, continuing into the night.[8]

Along the coasts of Spain, changes to the sea were witnessed but there were no records of the tsunami arriving, nor their heights.[citation needed]

In Barbados, waves between 18 inches (0.45 m) and four feet (1.2 m) that swept along the coast were attributed to the earthquake.[7][8]

On Terceira Island in the Azores, the tsunami picked up boats and smashed them against the rocky coastline.[citation needed]

At Mount’s Bay in Cornwall, a tsunami of up six feet (1.8 m) advanced five times at 5 p.m. for an hour. In the Isles of Scilly, the sea rose up to four feet (1.2 m) at the time waves were seen in Cornwall. Penzance saw waves up to six feet (1.8 m) arriving in the early evenings five times. At Newlyn, the sea rose nearly six feet. Along the Irish coasts, the same phenomena were observed. At Kinsale, at about 6 p.m., the sea rose suddenly 2 feet (0.6 m) and retreated rapidly in 4 minutes, this being repeated, though to a less extent, several times. At Carrick, at 4 pm, the surface of the River Suir rose one foot (0.3 m). in five minutes. At Dungarvan, the sea ebbed and flowed five times between 4 and 9 pm. At Waterford, the sea advanced 30 feet (9 m) along the shore, while at Ross, County Wexford, a violent agitation of the river occurred at 7 p.m.[8][9]

See also

References

  1.  Wronna, Martin; Baptista, Maria Ana; Miranda, Jorge Miguel (2019). “Reanalysis of the 1761 transatlantic tsunami”Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences19 (2): 337–352. doi:10.5194/nhess-2018-30.
  2.  M. A. Baptista (2019). “Tsunamis Along the Azores Gibraltar Plate Boundary”Pure and Applied Geophysics117: 1713–1724. doi:10.1007/s00024-019-02344-8.
  3.  Roy Barkan, Uri S. ten Brink, Jian Lin (2009). “Far field tsunami simulations of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake: Implications for tsunami hazard to the U.S. East Coast and the Caribbean” (PDF). Marine Geology264: 109–122. doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2008.10.010.
  4.  Robert Muir-WoodArnaud Mignan (2009). “A Phenomenological Reconstruction of the Mw9 November 1st 1755 Earthquake Source. In: The 1755 Lisbon Earthquake: Revisited”Geotechnical, Geological, and Earthquake Engineering7: 121–146. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-8609-0_8.
  5.  Baptista, M. & Miranda, Jym & Luis, Joaquim (2006). “In Search of the 31 March 1761 Earthquake and Tsunami Source”Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America96: 713–721. doi:10.1785/0120050111.
  6. a b National Geophysical Data Center / World Data Service (NGDC/WDS): NCEI/WDS Global Significant Earthquake Database. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. “Significant Earthquake Information PORTUGAL: LISBON”doi:10.7289/V5TD9V7K. Retrieved 2021-02-01.
  7. a b c d e Borlase, William (1 January 1761). LXV. Some account of the extraordinary agitation of the waters in Mount’s-bay, and other places, on the 31st of March 1761: In a letter to the Reverend Dr. Charles Lyttelton, Dean of Exeter, from the Reverend William Borlase, M. A. F. R. S. The Royal Society.
  8. a b c NCEI Global Historical Hazard Database. “Tsunami Event Information SW PORTUGAL”www.ngdc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2021-02-01.
  9.  M. A. Baptista and J. M. Miranda (2009). “Revision of the Portuguese catalog of tsunamis” (PDF). Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences9 (1).

#AceHistoryDesk report ……Published: Mar.31: 2021:

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#otd, #tsunami

(PORTUGAL) #OnThisDay March: 29: 1848: An enormous ‘Ice Dam’ at source of the ‘Niagara River’ on the eastern shore of Lake Erie on March 29, 1848. Just after midnight, the thunderous sound of water surging over the great falls came to a halt as the flow of water became severely restricted due to the ice jam #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – Mar.29: The eerie silence persisted throughout the day and into the next evening until the waters of Lake Erie broke through the blockage and resumed their course down the river and over the falls:

#OnThisDay in History – March 29: ‘An enormous ice dam formed at the source of the Niagara River on the eastern shore of Lake Erie on March 29, 1848: Just after midnight, the thunderous sound of water surging over the great falls at Niagara came to a halt as the flow of water became severely restricted due to the ice jam’

The eerie silence persisted throughout the day and into the next evening until the waters of Lake Erie broke through the blockage and resumed their course down the river and over the falls.[Niagara Falls, General View from Hennepin Point, Winter]. A.G. Landreth, c1914. Panoramic Photographs. Prints & Photographs Division

By 1848, Niagara Falls was already a popular tourist spot, attracting thousands of visitors each summer. Daguerreotypist Platt Babbitt set up a studio and began taking images of tourists watching the falls in 1853.American Falls from Goat Island, Niagara. c1908. Detroit Publishing Company. Prints & Photographs Division

The commercial development of the land surrounding the falls sparked a movement to preserve the falls’ natural beauty through public ownership. These efforts culminated in the July 15, 1885, opening of the 400-acre Niagara Reservation State Park. Now known as the Niagara Falls State Park, it is the oldest state park in the country.

In his address at the opening of the park, James T. Carter, an eminent New York lawyer and legal scholar, made an eloquent plea for the preservation, through public ownership, of scenic wonders. “These visions of Infinite Beauty here unfolded to the eye are not a property,” Carter insisted, “but a shrine—a temple erected by the hand of the Almighty for all the children of men.” Carter’s address is featured in The Evolution of the Conservation Movement, 1850-1920.

#AceHistoryDesk report ……..Published: Mar.29: 2021

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#lake-erie, #niagara-river

OnThisDay 31st:January:1961:Ham flew a suborbital flight on the Mercury-Redstone 2 mission, part of the U.S. space program’s Project Mercury: Ham’s name is an acronym for the laboratory that prepared him for his historic mission—the Holloman Aerospace Medical Center, located at Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico, southwest of Alamogordo #AceHistoryDesk report …..

#AceHistoryReport- Jan.30: Ham (July 1957 – January 19, 1983), also known as Ham the Chimpand Ham the Astrochimp, was a chimpanzee and the first hominidlaunched into space. On January 31, 1961, Ham flew a suborbital flight on the Mercury-Redstone 2 mission, part of the U.S. space program’s Project Mercury.[1][2] Ham’s name is an acronym for the laboratory that prepared him for his historic mission—the Holloman Aerospace Medical Center, located at Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico, southwest of Alamogordo. His name was also in honor of the commander of Holloman Aeromedical Laboratory, Lieutenant Colonel Hamilton “Ham” Blackshear.[3][4]HamHam in January 1961, before his flight into spaceSpeciesCommon chimpanzeeSexMaleBornJuly 1957
French CameroonDiedJanuary 19, 1983 (aged 25–26)
North Carolina Zoo, North Carolina, U.S.AKnown forFirst hominid in space

Ham (chimpanzee) 1983

Ham the chimp (cropped).jpg

Contents

Early life

Ham was born in July 1957 in French Cameroon (now Cameroon),[5][6]captured by animal trappers and sent to Rare Bird Farm in Miami, Florida, US. He was purchased by the United States Air Force and brought to Holloman Air Force Base in July 1959.[5]

There were originally 40 chimpanzee flight candidates at Holloman. After evaluation, the number of candidates was reduced to 18, then to six, including Ham.[7]:245–246 Officially, Ham was known as No. 65 before his flight,[8] and only renamed “Ham” upon his successful return to Earth. This was reportedly because officials did not want the bad press that would come from the death of a “named” chimpanzee if the mission were a failure.[9] Among his handlers, No. 65 had been known as “Chop Chop Chang”.[10][9]:page 138

Training and mission

A “hand shake” welcome. After his flight on a Mercury-Redstone rocket, chimpanzee Ham is greeted by the commander of the recovery ship, USS Donner(LSD-20).

Beginning in July 1959, the two-year-old chimpanzee was trained under the direction of neuroscientist Joseph V. Brady at Holloman Air Force Base Aero Medical Field Laboratory to do simple, timed tasks in response to electric lights and sounds.[11] During his pre-flight training, Ham was taught to push a lever within five seconds of seeing a flashing blue light; failure to do so resulted in an application of a light electric shock to the soles of his feet, while a correct response earned him a banana pellet.[12]:243

What differentiates Ham’s mission from all the other primate flights to this point is that he was not merely a passenger, and the results from his test flight led directly to the mission Alan Shepard made on May 5, 1961, aboard Freedom 7.[13]

On January 31, 1961, Ham was secured in a Project Mercury mission designated MR-2 and launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on a suborbital flight.[1][12]:314–315 Ham’s vital signs and tasks were monitored by sensors and computers on Earth.[14] The capsule suffered a partial loss of pressure during the flight, but Ham’s space suit prevented him from suffering any harm.[12]:315 Ham’s lever-pushing performance in space was only a fraction of a second slower than on Earth, demonstrating that tasks could be performed in space.[12]:316 Ham’s capsule splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean and was recovered by a rescue ship later that day.[12]:316 His only physical injury was a bruised nose.[14] His flight was 16 minutes and 39 seconds long.[15]

Later life

Ham’s grave at the New Mexico Museum of Space History in Alamogordo, New Mexico

On April 5, 1963, Ham was transferred to the National Zoo in Washington, D.C. where he lived for 17 years[7]:255–257 before joining a small group of captive chimps at North Carolina Zoo on September 25, 1980.[16]

After his death on January 19, 1983, Ham’s body was given to the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology for necropsy. Following the necropsy, the plan was to have him stuffed and placed on display at the Smithsonian Institution, following Soviet precedent with pioneering space dogs Belka and Strelka. However, this plan was abandoned after a negative public reaction.[citation needed] Ham’s remains, minus the skeleton, were buried at the International Space Hall of Fame in Alamogordo, New Mexico. Colonel John Stapp gave the eulogy at the memorial service.[17] The skeleton is held in the collection of the National Museum of Health and Medicine.[6]

Ham’s backup, Minnie, was the only female chimpanzee trained for the Mercury program. After her role in the Mercury program ended, Minnie became part of an Air Force chimpanzee breeding program, producing nine offspring and helping to raise the offspring of several other members of the chimpanzee colony.[7]:258–259 She was the last surviving astro-chimpanzee and died at age 41 on March 14, 1998.[7]:259

In popular culture

  • In the 1967 I Dream of Jeannie episode “Fly Me to the Moon” Larry Storch played an astrochimp named Sam who was accidentally turned into a human.[18]
  • Tom Wolfe‘s 1979 book The Right Stuff depicts Ham’s spaceflight,[19]as do the subsequent film and TV adaptations.
  • The 2001 film Race to Space was a fictionalized version of Ham’s story; the chimpanzee in the movie is named “Mac”.[20]
  • In 2007, a French documentary made in association with Animal PlanetHam—Astrochimp #65, tells the story of Ham as witnessed by Jeff, who took care of Ham until his departure from the Air Force base after the success of the mission. It is also known as Ham: A Chimp into Space / Ham, un chimpanzé dans l’espace.[21]
  • A 2008 animated film, Space Chimps, was about sending chimpanzees to space. The main character and hero of the movie was named Ham III, the grandson of Ham.[22]
  • In 2008, Bark Hide and Horn, a folk-rock band from Portland, Oregon, released a song titled “Ham the Astrochimp”, detailing the journey of Ham from his perspective.[23]

See also

References

  1. a b “Chimp survives 420-mile ride into space”Lewiston Morning Tribune. Idaho. Associated Press. February 1, 1961. p. 1.
  2.  “Chimp sent out on flight over Atlantic”The Bulletin. Bend, Oregon. UPI. January 31, 1961. p. 1.
  3.  Swenson Jr., Loyd S.; Grimwood, James M.; Alexander, Charles C. (1989). “This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury”NASA History Series. NASA Special Publication-4201. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
  4.  Brown, Laura J. (November 13, 1997). “Obituary: NASA Medical director Hamilton ‘Ham’ Blackshear”Florida Today. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
  5. a b Gray, Tara (1998). “A Brief History of Animals in Space”National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved May 12,2008.
  6. a b Nicholls, Henry (February 7, 2011). “Cameroon’s Gagarin: The Afterlife of Ham the Astrochimp”.
  7. a b c d Burgess, Colin; Dubbs, Chris (January 24, 2007). Animals in Space: From Research Rockets to the Space Shuttle. Springer-Praxis Books in Space Exploration. Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-36053-9OCLC 77256557.
  8.  Hanser, Kathleen (November 10, 2015). “Mercury Primate Capsule and Ham the Astrochimp”airandspace.si.edu. Smithsonian National Air & Space Museum. Archived from the original on May 20, 2018. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
  9. a b Haraway, Donna (1989). Primate Visions: Gender, Race, and Nature in the World of Modern Science. New York: Routledge.
  10.  “Chop Chop Chang Commemorative Patch (HAM the Astrochimp)”Retrorocket EmblemsArchived from the original on May 20, 2018. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
  11.  House, George (April–June 1991). “Project Mercury’s First Passengers”. Spacelog8 (2): 4–5. ISSN 1072-8171OCLC 18058232.
  12. a b c d e Swenson Jr., Loyd S.; Grimwood, James M.; Alexander, Charles C. (1966). This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury. NASA History Series. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. OCLC 00569889. Retrieved May 11, 2008.
  13.  Burgess, Colin (2014). “The Mercury flight of chimpanzee Ham”(PDF). Freedom 7. Springer. pp. 58–59. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-01156-1_2ISBN 978-3-319-01155-4.
  14. a b Zackowitz, Margaret G. (October 2007). “The Primate Directive”National Geographic. Archived from the original on November 12, 2007. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
  15.  “NASA Project Mercury Mission MR-2”. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved May 11, 2008.
  16.  “Ham the astrochimp: hero or victim?”The Guardian. December 16, 2013.
  17.  Roach, Mary (2010). Packing for Mars: The Curious Science of Life in the Void. Norton. pp. 160–163. ISBN 978-0393068474.
  18.  Lathers, Marie (May 3, 2012). Space Oddities: Women and Outer Space in Popular Film and Culture, 1960–2000. A&C Black. p. 128. ISBN 9781441172051.
  19.  Wolfe, Tom (March 4, 2008). The Right Stuff. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 178. ISBN 9781429961325.
  20.  Foundas, Scott (March 14, 2002). “Race to Space”Variety. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
  21.  Kerviel, Sylvie (July 13, 2007). “Ham, un chimpanzé dans l’espace”Le Monde (in French). Retrieved January 30, 2019.
  22.  Space Chimps at AllMovie
  23.  For Melville, With Love, by Ezra Ace Caraeff, August 14, 2008, Portland Mercury

Further reading

  • Farbman, Melinda; Gaillard, Frye (June 2000) [2000]. Spacechimp: NASA’s Ape in Space. Countdown to Space. Berkeley Heights, New Jersey: Enslow Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7660-1478-7OCLC 42080118. Brief biography of Ham, aimed at children ages 9–12.
  • Rosenstein, Andrew (July 2008). Flyboy: The All-True Adventures of a NASA Space Chimp. Windham, Maine: Yellow Crane Press. ISBN 978-0-9758825-2-8. A novel about Ham and his trainer.
  • Burgess, Colin; Dubbs, Chris (January 24, 2007). Animals in Space: From Research Rockets to the Space Shuttle. Springer-Praxis Books. ISBN 978-0-387-36053-9. Book covering the life and flight of Ham, plus other space animals.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ham the Chimp.

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#OnThisDayInHistory 1777 Second Continental Congress adopted the ‘ Articles of Confederatioin ‘ for ratification but after a review was called it was not until March.01: 1781: before it was fina lised #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – On November 15, 1777: Second Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation. Submitted to the states for ratification two days later, the Articles of Confederation were accompanied by a letter from Congress urging that the document……

…be candidly reviewed under a sense of the difficulty of combining in one general system the various sentiments and interests of a continent divided into so many sovereign and independent communities, under a conviction of the absolute necessity of uniting all our councils and all our strength, to maintain and defend our common liberties…

Monday, November 17, 1777, Journals of the Continental Congress. A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1875. Law Library

Although Congress debated the Articles for over a year, they requested immediate action on the part of the states. However, three-and-a-half years passed before ratification on March 1, 1781.

Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union Between the States… Williamsburg [Va.]: Printed by Alexander Purdie, 1777. Printed Ephemera: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera. Rare Book and Special Collections Division.

Still at war with Great Britain, the colonists were reluctant to establish another powerful national government. Jealously guarding their new independence, the Continental Congress created a loosely structured unicameral legislature that protected the liberty of the individual states at the expense of the nation. While calling on Congress to regulate military and monetary affairs, for example, the Articles of Confederation provided no mechanism to ensure that states complied with requests for troops or revenue. At times this left the military in a precarious position as George Washington wrote in a 1781 letter to the governor of Massachusetts, John Hancock.

The Treaty of Paris, which ended hostilities with England, languished in Congress for months before it was ratified because state representatives failed to attend sessions of the national legislature. Yet, Congress had no power to enforce attendance. Writing to George Clinton in September 1783, George Washington complained:

Congress have come to no determination yet respecting the Peace Establishment, nor am I able to say when they will. I have lately had a conference with a Committee on this subject, and have reiterated my former opinions, but it appears to me that there is not a sufficient representation to discuss Great National points.

Letter George Washington to George Clinton, September 11, 1783. Series 3, Varick Transcripts, 1775-1785, Subseries 3H, Personal Correspondence, 1775-1783, Letterbook 3. George Washington Papers. Manuscript Division

Leaders of the Continental CongressLeaders of the Continental Congress–John Adams, Morris, Hamilton, Jefferson / A. Tholey. Augustus Tholey, artist, c1894. Prints & Photographs Division

In May 1786, Charles Pinckney of South Carolina proposed that Congress revise the Articles of Confederation. On August 7, 1786, a committee recommended amendments to the Articles that included granting Congress power over foreign and domestic commerce and providing means for Congress to collect money from state treasuries. Unanimous approval was necessary to make the alterations, however, and Congress failed to reach a consensus.

In September 1786, a convention was held in Annapolis, Maryland, in an effort to deal with problems of interstate commerce. Led by James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, the delegates at the Annapolis Convention issued a proposal for a new convention to revise the Articles of Confederation.

After debate, Congress endorsed the plan to revise the Articles of Confederation on February 21, 1787.

Although ultimately supplanted by the United States Constitution, the Articles of Confederation provided stability during the Revolutionary Waryears. Most importantly, the experience of drafting and living under this initial document provided valuable lessons in self-governance and somewhat tempered fears about a powerful central government. Still, reconciling the tension between state and federal authority continued to challenge Americans from the 1832 nullification crisis to the Supreme Court’s landmark Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka decision.

#AceHistoryDesk report …………..Published: Nov.15: 2020:

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FEATURED: Supreme Court Report: Purchase documents claim it is a transparent attempt to whitewash an act of cultural appropriation and annihilation on a massive scale. It is useful to recall exactly how Hagia Sophia became a mosque on May 29, 1453 #AceHistoryDesk report

The History of Jihad From Muhammad to ISIS tells the full story: Once they breached the walls of Constantinople, Muslims raided monasteries and convents, emptying them of their inhabitants, and plundered private houses. They entered Hagia Sophia, which for nearly a thousand years had been the grandest church in Christendom. The faithful had gathered within its hallowed walls to pray during the city’s last agony. Inside the great cathedral, the Muslims killed the elderly and weak and led the rest off into slavery.

The London Post: ““Sultan Mehmet ‘Bought’ Haiga [sic] Sophia before converting into (Mosque) Masjid – Purchase documents submitted to Turkish Supreme Court,” by Shahid Qureshi, July 13, 2020: Sultan Mehmet ‘Bought’ Haiga [sic] Sophia before converting into (Mosque) Masjid –

When the slaughter and pillage was finished, the Sultan Mehmet II, the Conqueror, ordered an Islamic scholar to mount the high pulpit of Hagia Sophia and declare that there was no God but Allah, and Muhammad was his prophet: The magnificent old church was turned into a mosque; hundreds of other churches in Constantinople and elsewhere suffered the same fate. Millions of Christians joined the ranks of the dhimmis; others were enslaved, and many were killed:

But now there is a document circulating, claimed to be the bill of sale of Mehmet the Conqueror, when he bought Hagia Sophia: The Turkish Supreme Court apparently used it as one justification for converting the cathedral into a mosque once again. This document could possibly be authentic, but it is noteworthy that it was never spoken of until now. I’ve never seen mention of it in numerous histories of the conquest. Also, if this “sale” did take place, it was obviously done under duress. The Muslims took over Hagia Sophia on May 29, 1453, as they were plundering Constantinople and murdering or enslaving Christians wholesale. The building was considered to have become a mosque when Mehmet sent the muezzin up to the pulpit to proclaim the Islamic shahada, not upon some sales agreement. The Ecumenical Patriarch or Emperor or whoever was deemed to be its owner was in no position to refuse to sell:

If someone came into your house, stole your possessions, killed your grandparents, enslaved your wife and children, and publicly announced that the house was his, and later gave you a bill of sale, would you consider this to be a fair-and-square real estate transaction?

When Sultan Mehmet conquered Constantinople at the age of 21 and ended Byzantine Empire in the 1453, he purchased the property of Hagia Sophia from his personal wealth before converting it into a Masjid (Mosque). The details of the transaction are still stored in the Turkish Museum, as can be seen in the photo below.This is the main reason why the court ordered Aya Sofya to be re converted into a Masjid.

Therefore, the credit the really goes to the forward thinking Sultan Mehmet, the conqueror of Constantinople for purchasing the church and then creating a waqf (endowment). Had it not been for his wisdom, Kemal Ataturk’s decision would not have been able to be legally overturned.

#AceNewsDesk reports ……………..Published: July.17: 2020:

Featured Report: First Occupation of Japan in 2000 years // Pacific Paratrooper #AceHistoryDesk reports

It began with the landing of the 187th RCT/11th Airborne Division – the first to set foot in Japan! And Smitty was there! This video was located and contributed by Pierre Lagacé.

Gen. MacArthur, 1946

Nippon Times article on MacArthur

Unlike Germany, Japan retained a native government throughout the occupation. Although MacArthur’s official staff history of the occupation referred to “the Eighth Army Military Government System”, it explained that while: “In Germany, with the collapse of the Nazi regime, all government agencies disintegrated, or had to be purged”, the Japanese retained an “integrated, responsible government and it continued to function almost intact”:

In effect, there was no “military government” in Japan in the literal sense of the word. It was simply a SCAP (Supreme Commander, Allied Powers) superstructure over already existing government machinery, designed to observe and assist the Japanese along the new democratic channels of administration.

General Horace Robertson of Australia, head of BCOF, (British Commonwealth Occupation Force) wrote:

MacArthur at no time established in Japan what could be correctly described as Military government. He continued to use the Japanese government to control the country, but teams of military personnel, afterward replaced to quite a considerable extent by civilians, were placed throughout the Japanese prefectures as a check on the extent to which the prefectures were carrying out the directives issued by MacArthur’s headquarters or the orders from the central government.

USMC “barracks”


The really important duty of the so called Military government teams was, however, the supervision of the issue throughout Japan of the large quantities of food stuffs and medical stores being poured into the country from American sources. The teams also contained so-called experts on health, education, sanitation, agriculture and the like, to help the Japanese in adopting more up to date methods sponsored by SCAP’s headquarters.

The normal duties of a military government organization, the most important of which are law and order and a legal system, were never needed in Japan since the Japanese government’s normal legal system still functioned with regard to all Japanese nationals … The so-called military government in Japan was therefore neither military nor government.

USMC had their 10-in1 meals, 1946

The Japanese government’s de facto authority was strictly limited at first, however, and senior figures in the government such as the Prime Minister effectively served at the pleasure of the occupation authorities before the first post-war elections were held. Political parties had begun to revive almost immediately after the occupation began.

Left-wing organizations, such as the Japan Socialist Party and the Japan Communist Party, quickly reestablished themselves, as did various conservative parties. The old Seiyukai and Rikken Minseitocame back as, respectively, the Liberal Party (Nihon Jiyuto) and the Japan Progressive Party (Nihon Shimpoto).

Shigeru Yoshida

The first postwar elections were held in 1946 (women were given the franchise for the first time), and the Liberal Party’s vice president, Yoshida Shigeru (1878–1967), became Prime Minister. For the 1947 elections, anti-Yoshida forces left the Liberal Party and joined forces with the Progressive Party to establish the new Japan Democratic Party (Minshuto). This divisiveness in conservative ranks gave a plurality to the Japan Socialist Party, which was allowed to form a cabinet which lasted less than a year. Thereafter, the socialist party steadily declined in its electoral successes. After a short period of Democratic Party administration, Yoshida returned in late 1948 and continued to serve as prime minister until 1954. However, because of heart failure, Yoshida was replaced by Shinto in 1955.

In 1949, MacArthur made a sweeping change in the SCAP power structure that greatly increased the power of Japan’s native rulers, and the occupation began to draw to a close. The San Francisco Peace Treaty, signed on September 8, 1951, marked the end of the Allied occupation, and when it went into effect on April 28, 1952, Japan was once again an independent state (with the exceptions of Okinawa, which remained under U.S. control until 1972, and Iwo Jima, which remained under US control until 1968). Even though some 31,000 U.S. military personnel remain in Japan today, they are there at the invitation of the Japanese government under the terms of the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan(1960) and not as an occupying force.

Information documented in the Gutenberg project.

Just one year after a devastating war…..

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SHOUT OUT !!!

Help make a 104-year old veteran very happy this Valentine’s Day. Thanks to fellow blogger, Pat, we have the scoop!!

https://equipsblog.wordpress.com/2020/01/14/reblog-104-year-old-usmc-vet-looking-for-valentines-day-cards/

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Military Humor –

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Farewell Salutes –

Samuel Ankney – Greensburg, PA; US Navy, WWII

Philip Blakeslee – Deland, FL; US Army, WWII, ETO, Signal Corps, 1st Infantry Division

Kenneth Corder – Dayton, OH; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, 674 Artillery/11th Airborne Division

Richard Hawthorne – Myrtle Beach, SC; US Navy, ETO, USS Savannah

William J. McCollum – Anderson, SC; US Army, Korea, Cpl., Co. D/1/32/7th Infantry Division, KIA (Chosin Reservoir)

Ian P. McLaughlin – Newport News, VA; US Army, Afghanistan, SSgt., 307/3/82nd Airborne Division, KIA

Joseph Peczkowski – South Bend, IN; US Army, WWII, Sgt.

John Pollard – Petrolia, CAN; RC Air Force, WWII, Supply Sgt.

Austin Sicard Sr. – New Orleans, LA; US Army, Korea

Miguel A. Villalon – Joliet, IL; US Army, Afghanistan, Pfc, 307/3/82nd Airborne Division, KIA

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Source: // Pacific Paratrooper

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports are provided by Sterling Publishing & Media News here: https://t.me/SterlingPublishingPanel and all our posts, links can be found at here Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com or you can follow our breaking news posts as a member on Telegram https://t.me/acebreakingnews

FEATURED: HAPPY HOLIDAY WISH FOR ALL !! Poems (2) // Pacific Paratrooper #AceHistoryDesk reports

SANTA PARATROOPER

Merry Christmas and Happy Hanukkah to everyone out there !! May you all find the Peace and Happiness you deserve.

href=”https://pacificparatrooper.files.wordpress.com/2019/12/1944-xmas1-e1576953670498.jpg”>

A 1944 Christmas

From: Pacific Paratrooper to ALL !!!

Cherish His Christmas

by Roger J. Robicheau

Dedicated to our military…

Christmas brings such a time of love
Each tender heart holds so much of

Unselfishness thrives, trust is strong
The purpose to give, send love along

A time of pleasantries, patience too
Good wishes to all, all feelings true

Thankfulness follows each fine deed
Gifts from our God, never from greed

Great the rewards that joy does bring
Like the beauty in hearing angels sing

We pray for our loved, each so dear
Especially those who can’t be near

Many leave home to bravely serve
All freedoms we have, they preserve

Do pray for our troops, as we should
And their families too, if you would

Give thanks to our Lord, His only Son
And cherish His Christmas, everyone

©2004Roger J. Robicheau

Please do me one favor and click on last year’s post – Right Here !

From Charly Priest to Smitty – CLICK HERE!!

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Military Humor –

Easton, MD–Dec. 22, 2011–This is a Christmas display at the home of Tom and Alice Blair, which includes an F 104 jet, staff photo/Barbara Haddock Taylor} [Sun Photographer] #9306

Click on images to enlarge.

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Farewell Salutes –

Thomas Anderson – Los Angeles, CA; US Army, WWII & Korea

Bill Bjorson – Canfield, OH; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, Co. A/511/11th Airborne Division

Roland Duffany – Pawtucket, RI; US Army, WWII, SSgt., Purple Heart

Robert Gibbons – Denver, CO; US Navy, WWII, PTO

Samuel Jones – London, ENG; Royal Navy, WWII, ETO, gunner, HMS Zulu

Shuso “Shoes” Kumata – IL; US Army, WWII, PTO, Occupation interpreter

Thomas Lovell – St. George, UT; US Navy, WWII, PTO

Tetsuo Matsumoto – Lodi, CA; US Army, WWII, ETO, SSgt., 100/442nd RCT

George A. Sakheim – Brn: GER; US Army, WWII, ETO, Military Intelligence & interpreter

Wiley Tanner – Radium, KS; US Army, WWII

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Source: // Pacific Paratrooper

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports are provided by Sterling Publishing & Media News here: https://t.me/SterlingPublishingPanel and all our posts, links can be found at here Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com or you can follow our breaking news posts as a member on Telegram https://t.me/acebreakingnews

Military during Thanksgiving // Pacific Paratrooper #AceHistoryDesk says 🇱🇷Happy Thanksgiving GP 🇺🇸

The Thanksgiving Day card GP Cox received from the National WWII Museum in New Orleans

I WISH TO EXPRESS MY THANKS TO EACH AND EVERYONE OF YOU !!! AND MAY WE ALL THANK THOSE VETERANS WHO FIGHT FOR US !!!

Click to view slideshow.

Thanksgiving during WWII…

They’re celebrating Thanksgiving on this very day,

My thoughts are at home, though I’m far away;

I can see everyone, eating dinner deluxe,

Whether it be chicken, turkey or even duck;

The fellows over here won’t whimper or moan,

They’ll look to the next one and hope to be home.

Truly and honestly, from way down deep,

They want you to be happy and enjoy your feast.

These holidays are remembered by one and all,

Those happy days we can always recall.

The ones in the future, will be happier, I know

When we all come back from defeating the foe.

_______Poem by an Anonymous WWII Veteran

Thanksgiving

For those of you living where there is no official Thanksgiving Day on this date – look around – family, friends, Freedom and life itself – all enough to give thanks for each day !

FROM: PACIFIC PARATROOPER – May you all have a happy and healthy Holiday Season !!

CLICK ON IMAGES TO ENLARGE.

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Please be considerate to those who may not be celebrating…..

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Military Humor –

Navy

Army

#

Farewell Salutes –

Donald Archer – Omaha, NE; US Army Air Corps, WWII, B-25 navigator

John Boone – Summerville, SC; US Army, WWII, ETO, light mortar, Co. I/319/80th Division

Juan Borjon Jr. – Morenci, AZ; US Army, Spc., 11th Airborne Division

WWII Memorial poem at Arlington Cemetery

Don Dyne – Kelseyville, CA; US Navy, WWII, PTO / Korea, radio tech.

Adolph J. Loebach – Peru, IL; US Navy, WWII, USS Oklahoma, KIA, (Pearl Harbor)

Donald McElwain – Holyoke, MA; US Navy, WWII, PTO, Ensign, LST

Frank Merritt – Broxton, GA; US Army, WWII, PTO

Charles G. Ruble – Parker City, IN; US Army Air Corps, WWII, ETO, TSgt., 441st Troop Carrier Group, KIA (Germany)

Elmo Sepulvado – Zwolle, LA; US Army, WWII, ETO

Gerald N. Wilson – Camden, MI; US Army, Korea, Cpl., 1st Calvary Division, KIA

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Source: // Pacific Paratrooper

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports are provided by Sterling Publishing & Media News here: https://t.me/SterlingPublishingPanel and all our posts, links can be found at here Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com or you can follow our breaking news posts as a member on Telegram https://t.me/acebreakingnews