#OnThisDay April.03: 1996: Croatia Flight USAF CT-43 Crashed into a mountainside whilst on approach to Dubrovnik while on an official trade mission #AceHistoryDesk report 45

#AceHistoryReport – Apr.03: The aircraft, a Boeing 737-200 originally built as T-43A navigational trainer and later converted into a CT-43A executive transport aircraft, was carrying United States Secretary of CommerceRon Brown and 34 other people, including The New York Times Frankfurt bureau chief Nathaniel C. Nash.[1] While attempting an instrument approach to Dubrovnik Airport, the airplane crashed into a mountainside.

#OTD 1996 Croatia USAF CT-43 crash: ‘On April 3, 1996, a United States Air Force Boeing CT-43A (Flight IFO-21) crashed on approach to Dubrovnik, Croatia, while on an official trade mission.

USAF CT-43A crash 1996.jpg

An Air Force Technical Sergeant survived the initial impact, but died en route to a hospital. Everyone else on board died at the scene of the crash.[2]United States Air Force Flight IFO-21A USAFMH-53J Pave Low helicopter hovers near the wreckage of Flight IFO-21. The tail number of the accident aircraft is shortened as 31149.AccidentDateApril 3, 1996SummaryControlled flight into terrain due to pilot error and poorly designed instrument approachSite3 km (1.9 mi) north of Dubrovnik Airport, Dubrovnik, Croatia.
42°35′54″N 18°15′08″EAircraftAircraft typeBoeing CT-43AOperatorUnited States Air ForceRegistration73-1149Flight originZagreb International Airport, Zagreb, CroatiaStopoverTuzla International Airport, Tuzla, Bosnia-HerzegovinaDestinationDubrovnik Airport, Dubrovnik, CroatiaOccupants35Passengers30Crew5Fatalities35 (initially 34)Survivors0 (initially 1, died shortly after rescue)

The aircraft was operated by the 76th Airlift Squadron of the 86th Airlift Wing, based at Ramstein Air Base in Germany. Unlike civilian 737s, the military CT-43A version was not equipped with a flight data recorder nor a cockpit voice recorder.[3]

Contents

Investigation

Zagreb Pleso Airport

Tuzla Airport

Dubrovnik Čilipi Airport

Crash Site St John’s HillLocation of crash site and departure and destination airports

Summary of the NDB approach to runway 12 from the USAF accident report

The official US Air Force accident investigation board report noted several reasons that led the Boeing CT-43A, callsign “IFO-21” (short for Implementation Force),[4] to crash.[5] Chief among the findings was a “failure of command, aircrew error and an improperly designed instrument approach procedure”. The inclement weather was not deemed a substantial contributing factor in the crash.[6]

The Boeing CT-43A used for this flight was formerly a T-43A navigator training aircraft that was converted for distinguished visitor travel. The flight was on an instrument flight rules non-directional beacon (NDB) approach, which is a non-precision type of instrument approach, to Runway 12 when it strayed off course. Non-precision approaches are those that do not incorporate vertical guidance.[7] While NDB approaches are essentially obsolete in the United States, they are still used widely in other parts of the world. Because of their infrequent use in the United States, many American pilots are not fully proficient in performing them (a NASA survey showed that 60% of American transport-rated pilots had not flown an NDB approach in the last year).[3] The investigation board determined that the approach used was not approved for Department of Defense aircraft, and should not have been used by the aircraft crew.[8]The board determined that the particular NDB approach used required two operating ADFs, the instrument used to fly such an approach, on board the aircraft, but this aircraft only had one ADF installed. To successfully fly the approach, one ADF was required to track the outbound course of 119° from the Koločep NDB (KLP), while another ADF was required to observe when the aircraft had flown beyond the CavtatNDB (CV), which marked the missed approach point. The alternative available to the crew was to repeatedly switch their one ADF between the signals at the KLP and CV beacons, though this would add further workload and stress to the crew.[9] Further, the board noted that the approach was rushed, with the aircraft flying at 80 knots (150 km/h) above the proper final approach speed and had not received the proper landing clearance from the control tower.[8]

The crash site, on a 2,300 ft (700 m) hill, was 1.6 miles (2.6 km) northeast of where the aircraft should have been on the inbound course to the NDB. The published NDB approach brings the inbound aircraft down a valley, and has a minimum descent height of 2,150 ft (660 m) at the missed approach point (where they should have climbed and turned to the right if the runway was not in view), which is below the elevation of the hills to the north. The runway is at 510 ft (160 m) MSL. Five other aircraft had landed prior to the CT-43A and had not experienced any problems with the navigational aids. There was no emergency call from the pilots, and they did not initiate a missed approach, even though they were beyond the missed approach point when they hit the hill at 2:57 PM local time.[3][4]

Each country is responsible for publishing the approach charts, including minimum descent heights, for its airports, and the investigators noted that the minimum in mountainous terrain in the United States is 2,800 ft (850 m), as compared to the 2,150 ft (660 m) on the chart given to the crew of IFO-21.[9] It was a requirement of the US Air Force to review and approve all charts, and to ban flights into airports for which the charts did not meet the proper American aviation standards.[9] The commander of the 86th Operations Group, Col. John E. Mazurowski,[10] revealed that he had requested (but not yet received) approval to waive the review for Dubrovnik, as the approach had worked for years and the delay of a full review could hamper the interests of the American diplomatic mission.[9]

Outcomes

Dubrovnik Airport was singled out for an improperly designed approach and landing procedure.[9]

A number of US Air Force (USAF) officers were found to have contributed to a failure of command. The general commanding the 86th Airlift Wing, Brig. Gen. William E. Stevens, vice-commander Col. Roger W. Hansen and the commander of the 86th Operations Group, Col. John E. Mazurowski, were all relieved of their posts.[10][11] Mazurowski was later found guilty of a dereliction of duties and was demoted to major, while twelve other officers were reprimanded. [9]

The USAF ordered all military aircraft to be equipped with a flight data recorder and a cockpit voice recorder.[9]

American military aircraft are no longer allowed to fly into airports without explicit approval from the United States Department of Defense, not even for high ranking diplomatic missions.[9]

Legacy

The area of the crash site is identified by a large stainless steel cross on Stražišće peak. Hikers can reach the peak via the “Ronald Brown Path”, which is named in commemoration of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce who died in the crash.[12]

A memorial room has been installed in the Ronald Brown memorial house in the old city of Dubrovnik. It features portraits of the crash victims as well as a guest book.[13]

The head of navigation at Čilipi Airport, Niko Jerkuić, was found dead three days after the accident with a bullet wound to his chest. The police investigation concluded that the case was a suicide.[14]

In popular culture

The crash of IFO-21 was covered in “Fog of War”, a Season 4 (2007) episode of the internationally syndicated Canadian TV documentary series Mayday.[9]

References

  1.  “List of crash victims”. CNN. April 4, 1996.
  2.  “Najpotresnije zrakoplovne nesreće u hrvatskoj povijesti”Index.hr. August 22, 2008.
  3. a b c Hughes, David “USAF, NTSB, Croatia Probe 737 Crash”, Aviation Week & Space Technology, 8 April 1996
  4. a b Transcript of US Department of Defense News briefing held on 7 June 2006 “Results of the Accident Investigation Report of the CT-43 Accident”. Retrieved: 29 November 2008
  5.  Walters, James M.; Sumwalt, Robert L. III (2000). Aircraft Accident Analysis: Final Reports. McGraw Hill.
  6.  “The weather at the time of the approach was reported as 400 feet broken, 2,000 feet overcast, 8 km or about 5 miles visibility, rain, surface winds for 120, 12 knots, because of the weather, the crew is required to fly an instrument approach procedure into Dubrovnik.” Transcript of US Department of Defense News briefing held on 7 June 2006 “Results of the Accident Investigation Report of the CT-43 Accident”. Retrieved: 29 November 2008
  7.  FSF ALAR Briefing Note 7.2 – Constant Angle Nonprecision Approach Flight Safety Foundation
  8. a b DoD news release Archived September 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  9. a b c d e f g h i “Fog of War“. Mayday. Season 4. Episode 8. Cineflix. 2007-06-03. Discovery Channel Canada.
  10. a b “Press Briefing”United States Department of Defense. 1996-05-31. Retrieved 2020-04-22.
  11.  Shenon, Philip (1996-05-31). “Air Force Ousts 3 From Duties In Brown Case”The New York Times. Retrieved 2020-04-22.
  12.  Dubrovnik Online website Archived 2014-03-12 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 17 October 2009
  13.  “Ronald Brown memorial house”. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
  14.  “Avionom je, ipak, najsigurnije (By plane, However, Is The Safest)”Slobodna Dalmacija. 9 September 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-09-09.

External links

#AceHistoryDesk report ……….Published: Apr.03: 2021:

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#airline, #crash, #croatia

#OnThisDay April.02: 1865: At approximately 7:00 a.m. on that Sunday Ulysses S. Grant’s army attacked Confederate lines at Petersburg, Virginia #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – Apr.02: By mid-afternoon, Confederate troops had begun to evacuate the town.

#OTD Today in History – April 2: 1865: ‘The Union victory ensured the fall of Richmond, the capital of the Confederacy, located just twenty-five miles north of Petersburg’

President Jefferson Davis received word of the events in Petersburg while attending services at St. Paul’s Church in Richmond. He abandoned the capital late that night on a train bound for Danville, Virginia. 

I think it is absolutely necessary that we should abandon our position tonight…

Telegram from Robert E. Lee, in Petersburg, to Jefferson Davis, in Richmond, April 2, 1865. 1

Petersburg, Va. General view. Timothy H. O’Sullivan, photographer, [1865]. Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints. Prints & Photographs Division

Richmond, meanwhile, burned, as fires set by fleeing Confederates and looters raged out of control. Davis was eventually captured by Union soldiers, but not until May 10, 1865.2Richmond, Va. Ruins of Richmond & Danville Railroad Bridge. Alexander Gardner, photographer, [1865]. Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints.Prints & Photographs DivisionRichmond, Va. Street in the Burned District. 1865. Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints. Prints & Photographs Division

  1. Telegram from Robert E. Lee, in Petersburg, to Jefferson Davis, in Richmond, April 2, 1865, quoted in The Civil War Day By Day: An Almanac, 1861-1865, E.B. Long with Barbara Long (1971; reprint, New York: Da Capo Press, 1971), 663. (Return to text)
  2. Ibid., 663, 664.(Return to text)

Learn More

  • Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints includes numerous photographs of the siege of Petersburg and Richmond in 1865. To narrow the selection, try searching the collection on Petersburg AND UnionPetersburg AND Confederate, or Richmond AND burned
  • By 1861 telegraph lines networked much of the United States and were an important means of wartime communication. Less than twenty years earlier, on May 24, 1844, the first telegram was sent by inventor Samuel F. B. Morse. See the Samuel F. B. Morse Papers at the Library of Congress, 1793 to 1919 for more information about the invention of the telegraph.
  • Long after the fall of Richmond, the Confederate States of America echoed on in Southern culture. Julia A. Wood’s 1877 sheet music, Virginia Cotillions (which pays homage to Confederate heroes Jeff Davis, Robert E. Lee, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, P. G. T. Beauregard, James Longstreet, and “Jeb” Stuart) is found in Music for the Nation: American Sheet Music, ca. 1870 to 1885, consisting of tens of thousands of pieces of sheet music registered for copyright during the post-Civil War era. The cotillion was a popular ballroom dance in both the antebellum and post-Civil War periods.
  • Search on Petersburg and Richmond to view maps, charts, and atlases depicting battles, troop positions and movements, engagements, and fortifications in  Civil War Maps

#AceHistoryDesk report ………Published: Apr.02: 2021:

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#confederate, #petersburg, #virginia

(PORTUGAL) #OnThisDay March: 29: 1848: An enormous ‘Ice Dam’ at source of the ‘Niagara River’ on the eastern shore of Lake Erie on March 29, 1848. Just after midnight, the thunderous sound of water surging over the great falls came to a halt as the flow of water became severely restricted due to the ice jam #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – Mar.29: The eerie silence persisted throughout the day and into the next evening until the waters of Lake Erie broke through the blockage and resumed their course down the river and over the falls:

#OnThisDay in History – March 29: ‘An enormous ice dam formed at the source of the Niagara River on the eastern shore of Lake Erie on March 29, 1848: Just after midnight, the thunderous sound of water surging over the great falls at Niagara came to a halt as the flow of water became severely restricted due to the ice jam’

The eerie silence persisted throughout the day and into the next evening until the waters of Lake Erie broke through the blockage and resumed their course down the river and over the falls.[Niagara Falls, General View from Hennepin Point, Winter]. A.G. Landreth, c1914. Panoramic Photographs. Prints & Photographs Division

By 1848, Niagara Falls was already a popular tourist spot, attracting thousands of visitors each summer. Daguerreotypist Platt Babbitt set up a studio and began taking images of tourists watching the falls in 1853.American Falls from Goat Island, Niagara. c1908. Detroit Publishing Company. Prints & Photographs Division

The commercial development of the land surrounding the falls sparked a movement to preserve the falls’ natural beauty through public ownership. These efforts culminated in the July 15, 1885, opening of the 400-acre Niagara Reservation State Park. Now known as the Niagara Falls State Park, it is the oldest state park in the country.

In his address at the opening of the park, James T. Carter, an eminent New York lawyer and legal scholar, made an eloquent plea for the preservation, through public ownership, of scenic wonders. “These visions of Infinite Beauty here unfolded to the eye are not a property,” Carter insisted, “but a shrine—a temple erected by the hand of the Almighty for all the children of men.” Carter’s address is featured in The Evolution of the Conservation Movement, 1850-1920.

#AceHistoryDesk report ……..Published: Mar.29: 2021

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports by https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all our posts, also links can be found at here for Twitter and Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

#lake-erie, #niagara-river

OnThisDay 31st:January:1961:Ham flew a suborbital flight on the Mercury-Redstone 2 mission, part of the U.S. space program’s Project Mercury: Ham’s name is an acronym for the laboratory that prepared him for his historic mission—the Holloman Aerospace Medical Center, located at Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico, southwest of Alamogordo #AceHistoryDesk report …..

#AceHistoryReport- Jan.30: Ham (July 1957 – January 19, 1983), also known as Ham the Chimpand Ham the Astrochimp, was a chimpanzee and the first hominidlaunched into space. On January 31, 1961, Ham flew a suborbital flight on the Mercury-Redstone 2 mission, part of the U.S. space program’s Project Mercury.[1][2] Ham’s name is an acronym for the laboratory that prepared him for his historic mission—the Holloman Aerospace Medical Center, located at Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico, southwest of Alamogordo. His name was also in honor of the commander of Holloman Aeromedical Laboratory, Lieutenant Colonel Hamilton “Ham” Blackshear.[3][4]HamHam in January 1961, before his flight into spaceSpeciesCommon chimpanzeeSexMaleBornJuly 1957
French CameroonDiedJanuary 19, 1983 (aged 25–26)
North Carolina Zoo, North Carolina, U.S.AKnown forFirst hominid in space

Ham (chimpanzee) 1983

Ham the chimp (cropped).jpg

Contents

Early life

Ham was born in July 1957 in French Cameroon (now Cameroon),[5][6]captured by animal trappers and sent to Rare Bird Farm in Miami, Florida, US. He was purchased by the United States Air Force and brought to Holloman Air Force Base in July 1959.[5]

There were originally 40 chimpanzee flight candidates at Holloman. After evaluation, the number of candidates was reduced to 18, then to six, including Ham.[7]:245–246 Officially, Ham was known as No. 65 before his flight,[8] and only renamed “Ham” upon his successful return to Earth. This was reportedly because officials did not want the bad press that would come from the death of a “named” chimpanzee if the mission were a failure.[9] Among his handlers, No. 65 had been known as “Chop Chop Chang”.[10][9]:page 138

Training and mission

A “hand shake” welcome. After his flight on a Mercury-Redstone rocket, chimpanzee Ham is greeted by the commander of the recovery ship, USS Donner(LSD-20).

Beginning in July 1959, the two-year-old chimpanzee was trained under the direction of neuroscientist Joseph V. Brady at Holloman Air Force Base Aero Medical Field Laboratory to do simple, timed tasks in response to electric lights and sounds.[11] During his pre-flight training, Ham was taught to push a lever within five seconds of seeing a flashing blue light; failure to do so resulted in an application of a light electric shock to the soles of his feet, while a correct response earned him a banana pellet.[12]:243

What differentiates Ham’s mission from all the other primate flights to this point is that he was not merely a passenger, and the results from his test flight led directly to the mission Alan Shepard made on May 5, 1961, aboard Freedom 7.[13]

On January 31, 1961, Ham was secured in a Project Mercury mission designated MR-2 and launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on a suborbital flight.[1][12]:314–315 Ham’s vital signs and tasks were monitored by sensors and computers on Earth.[14] The capsule suffered a partial loss of pressure during the flight, but Ham’s space suit prevented him from suffering any harm.[12]:315 Ham’s lever-pushing performance in space was only a fraction of a second slower than on Earth, demonstrating that tasks could be performed in space.[12]:316 Ham’s capsule splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean and was recovered by a rescue ship later that day.[12]:316 His only physical injury was a bruised nose.[14] His flight was 16 minutes and 39 seconds long.[15]

Later life

Ham’s grave at the New Mexico Museum of Space History in Alamogordo, New Mexico

On April 5, 1963, Ham was transferred to the National Zoo in Washington, D.C. where he lived for 17 years[7]:255–257 before joining a small group of captive chimps at North Carolina Zoo on September 25, 1980.[16]

After his death on January 19, 1983, Ham’s body was given to the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology for necropsy. Following the necropsy, the plan was to have him stuffed and placed on display at the Smithsonian Institution, following Soviet precedent with pioneering space dogs Belka and Strelka. However, this plan was abandoned after a negative public reaction.[citation needed] Ham’s remains, minus the skeleton, were buried at the International Space Hall of Fame in Alamogordo, New Mexico. Colonel John Stapp gave the eulogy at the memorial service.[17] The skeleton is held in the collection of the National Museum of Health and Medicine.[6]

Ham’s backup, Minnie, was the only female chimpanzee trained for the Mercury program. After her role in the Mercury program ended, Minnie became part of an Air Force chimpanzee breeding program, producing nine offspring and helping to raise the offspring of several other members of the chimpanzee colony.[7]:258–259 She was the last surviving astro-chimpanzee and died at age 41 on March 14, 1998.[7]:259

In popular culture

  • In the 1967 I Dream of Jeannie episode “Fly Me to the Moon” Larry Storch played an astrochimp named Sam who was accidentally turned into a human.[18]
  • Tom Wolfe‘s 1979 book The Right Stuff depicts Ham’s spaceflight,[19]as do the subsequent film and TV adaptations.
  • The 2001 film Race to Space was a fictionalized version of Ham’s story; the chimpanzee in the movie is named “Mac”.[20]
  • In 2007, a French documentary made in association with Animal PlanetHam—Astrochimp #65, tells the story of Ham as witnessed by Jeff, who took care of Ham until his departure from the Air Force base after the success of the mission. It is also known as Ham: A Chimp into Space / Ham, un chimpanzé dans l’espace.[21]
  • A 2008 animated film, Space Chimps, was about sending chimpanzees to space. The main character and hero of the movie was named Ham III, the grandson of Ham.[22]
  • In 2008, Bark Hide and Horn, a folk-rock band from Portland, Oregon, released a song titled “Ham the Astrochimp”, detailing the journey of Ham from his perspective.[23]

See also

References

  1. a b “Chimp survives 420-mile ride into space”Lewiston Morning Tribune. Idaho. Associated Press. February 1, 1961. p. 1.
  2.  “Chimp sent out on flight over Atlantic”The Bulletin. Bend, Oregon. UPI. January 31, 1961. p. 1.
  3.  Swenson Jr., Loyd S.; Grimwood, James M.; Alexander, Charles C. (1989). “This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury”NASA History Series. NASA Special Publication-4201. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
  4.  Brown, Laura J. (November 13, 1997). “Obituary: NASA Medical director Hamilton ‘Ham’ Blackshear”Florida Today. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
  5. a b Gray, Tara (1998). “A Brief History of Animals in Space”National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved May 12,2008.
  6. a b Nicholls, Henry (February 7, 2011). “Cameroon’s Gagarin: The Afterlife of Ham the Astrochimp”.
  7. a b c d Burgess, Colin; Dubbs, Chris (January 24, 2007). Animals in Space: From Research Rockets to the Space Shuttle. Springer-Praxis Books in Space Exploration. Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-36053-9OCLC 77256557.
  8.  Hanser, Kathleen (November 10, 2015). “Mercury Primate Capsule and Ham the Astrochimp”airandspace.si.edu. Smithsonian National Air & Space Museum. Archived from the original on May 20, 2018. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
  9. a b Haraway, Donna (1989). Primate Visions: Gender, Race, and Nature in the World of Modern Science. New York: Routledge.
  10.  “Chop Chop Chang Commemorative Patch (HAM the Astrochimp)”Retrorocket EmblemsArchived from the original on May 20, 2018. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
  11.  House, George (April–June 1991). “Project Mercury’s First Passengers”. Spacelog8 (2): 4–5. ISSN 1072-8171OCLC 18058232.
  12. a b c d e Swenson Jr., Loyd S.; Grimwood, James M.; Alexander, Charles C. (1966). This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury. NASA History Series. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. OCLC 00569889. Retrieved May 11, 2008.
  13.  Burgess, Colin (2014). “The Mercury flight of chimpanzee Ham”(PDF). Freedom 7. Springer. pp. 58–59. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-01156-1_2ISBN 978-3-319-01155-4.
  14. a b Zackowitz, Margaret G. (October 2007). “The Primate Directive”National Geographic. Archived from the original on November 12, 2007. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
  15.  “NASA Project Mercury Mission MR-2”. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved May 11, 2008.
  16.  “Ham the astrochimp: hero or victim?”The Guardian. December 16, 2013.
  17.  Roach, Mary (2010). Packing for Mars: The Curious Science of Life in the Void. Norton. pp. 160–163. ISBN 978-0393068474.
  18.  Lathers, Marie (May 3, 2012). Space Oddities: Women and Outer Space in Popular Film and Culture, 1960–2000. A&C Black. p. 128. ISBN 9781441172051.
  19.  Wolfe, Tom (March 4, 2008). The Right Stuff. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 178. ISBN 9781429961325.
  20.  Foundas, Scott (March 14, 2002). “Race to Space”Variety. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
  21.  Kerviel, Sylvie (July 13, 2007). “Ham, un chimpanzé dans l’espace”Le Monde (in French). Retrieved January 30, 2019.
  22.  Space Chimps at AllMovie
  23.  For Melville, With Love, by Ezra Ace Caraeff, August 14, 2008, Portland Mercury

Further reading

  • Farbman, Melinda; Gaillard, Frye (June 2000) [2000]. Spacechimp: NASA’s Ape in Space. Countdown to Space. Berkeley Heights, New Jersey: Enslow Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7660-1478-7OCLC 42080118. Brief biography of Ham, aimed at children ages 9–12.
  • Rosenstein, Andrew (July 2008). Flyboy: The All-True Adventures of a NASA Space Chimp. Windham, Maine: Yellow Crane Press. ISBN 978-0-9758825-2-8. A novel about Ham and his trainer.
  • Burgess, Colin; Dubbs, Chris (January 24, 2007). Animals in Space: From Research Rockets to the Space Shuttle. Springer-Praxis Books. ISBN 978-0-387-36053-9. Book covering the life and flight of Ham, plus other space animals.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ham the Chimp.

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports by https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all our posts, also links can be found at here for Twitter and Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

#OnThisDayInHistory 1777 Second Continental Congress adopted the ‘ Articles of Confederatioin ‘ for ratification but after a review was called it was not until March.01: 1781: before it was fina lised #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – On November 15, 1777: Second Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation. Submitted to the states for ratification two days later, the Articles of Confederation were accompanied by a letter from Congress urging that the document……

…be candidly reviewed under a sense of the difficulty of combining in one general system the various sentiments and interests of a continent divided into so many sovereign and independent communities, under a conviction of the absolute necessity of uniting all our councils and all our strength, to maintain and defend our common liberties…

Monday, November 17, 1777, Journals of the Continental Congress. A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1875. Law Library

Although Congress debated the Articles for over a year, they requested immediate action on the part of the states. However, three-and-a-half years passed before ratification on March 1, 1781.

Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union Between the States… Williamsburg [Va.]: Printed by Alexander Purdie, 1777. Printed Ephemera: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera. Rare Book and Special Collections Division.

Still at war with Great Britain, the colonists were reluctant to establish another powerful national government. Jealously guarding their new independence, the Continental Congress created a loosely structured unicameral legislature that protected the liberty of the individual states at the expense of the nation. While calling on Congress to regulate military and monetary affairs, for example, the Articles of Confederation provided no mechanism to ensure that states complied with requests for troops or revenue. At times this left the military in a precarious position as George Washington wrote in a 1781 letter to the governor of Massachusetts, John Hancock.

The Treaty of Paris, which ended hostilities with England, languished in Congress for months before it was ratified because state representatives failed to attend sessions of the national legislature. Yet, Congress had no power to enforce attendance. Writing to George Clinton in September 1783, George Washington complained:

Congress have come to no determination yet respecting the Peace Establishment, nor am I able to say when they will. I have lately had a conference with a Committee on this subject, and have reiterated my former opinions, but it appears to me that there is not a sufficient representation to discuss Great National points.

Letter George Washington to George Clinton, September 11, 1783. Series 3, Varick Transcripts, 1775-1785, Subseries 3H, Personal Correspondence, 1775-1783, Letterbook 3. George Washington Papers. Manuscript Division

Leaders of the Continental CongressLeaders of the Continental Congress–John Adams, Morris, Hamilton, Jefferson / A. Tholey. Augustus Tholey, artist, c1894. Prints & Photographs Division

In May 1786, Charles Pinckney of South Carolina proposed that Congress revise the Articles of Confederation. On August 7, 1786, a committee recommended amendments to the Articles that included granting Congress power over foreign and domestic commerce and providing means for Congress to collect money from state treasuries. Unanimous approval was necessary to make the alterations, however, and Congress failed to reach a consensus.

In September 1786, a convention was held in Annapolis, Maryland, in an effort to deal with problems of interstate commerce. Led by James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, the delegates at the Annapolis Convention issued a proposal for a new convention to revise the Articles of Confederation.

After debate, Congress endorsed the plan to revise the Articles of Confederation on February 21, 1787.

Although ultimately supplanted by the United States Constitution, the Articles of Confederation provided stability during the Revolutionary Waryears. Most importantly, the experience of drafting and living under this initial document provided valuable lessons in self-governance and somewhat tempered fears about a powerful central government. Still, reconciling the tension between state and federal authority continued to challenge Americans from the 1832 nullification crisis to the Supreme Court’s landmark Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka decision.

#AceHistoryDesk report …………..Published: Nov.15: 2020:

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Timeline: From Magna Carta to NO Deal #Brexit – 800 years of constitutional crises in Britain #AceHistoryDesk reports

#AceHistoryReport – Sept.01: British Prime Minister Boris Johnson faces accusations of triggering the biggest constitutional crisis in decades after he announced that parliament would be suspended for around a month shortly before the country is due to leave the European Union: While Johnson says it is customary for parliament to be suspended – or “prorogued” – before a government outlines its new policy priorities in a Queen’s Speech, his opponents say the timing and length of the suspension is designed to sideline parliament in the countdown to Brexit: Britain has an uncodified constitution, meaning it is largely upheld through convention and precedent: The constitution has changed dramatically down the centuries, with monarchs steadily surrendering their once-vast powers to the government and prime minister of the day. Johnson required Queen Elizabeth’s formal consent to suspend parliament but she was equally required, by custom, to grant it.

Following is a timeline of some major constitutional crises over the last eight centuries that have pitted the executive power – originally the crown and later governments acting in its name – against the legislative arm:

WHOSE CONSTITUTION? ENGLAND, BRITAIN AND THE UK: The story begins in the origins of England’s constitution. England annexed the principality of Wales in the 1530s and then forged the Acts of Union with Scotland in 1707 to create Great Britain. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was formed in 1801 after the Acts of Union with Ireland, before the creation of the Irish Free State in 1922 left the “UK” as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

1215: MAGNA CARTA

Issued in June 1215, the Magna Carta was the first document to establish the principle that the monarch was not above the law and to place limits on royal power.

The charter, which King John was forced by his barons to sign, decreed that nobody should be denied the right to justice or subject to unlawful imprisonment, dispossession or exile.

John later persuaded the Pope to declare the document illegal and a civil war broke out. John died in October 1216 and his son Henry III eventually made peace with the rebels.

1529-1536: HENRY VIII AND THE REFORMATION PARLIAMENT:

Jokingly referred to by some as the “first Brexit”, Henry VIII’s decision to break with Rome over his desire to divorce his first wife Catherine of Aragon split England from the Catholic Church and would fundamentally change Britain’s relationship with mainland Europe.

Henry’s ‘Reformation Parliament’ made laws affecting all areas of life, especially religion, which had previously been under the authority of the Roman Catholic Church alone. It established that parliament was “omnicompetent”, that is, it had control over the whole of government, albeit under the monarch.

1642-1660: CIVIL WAR AND RESTORATION:

Long-simmering tensions between the monarchy and parliament over money, religion and other issues came to a head in 1642 when King Charles I entered the House of Commons in a bid to arrest five lawmakers personally.

Civil war erupted, culminating in victory for the parliamentarians over the royalists and in the execution of Charles I in 1649 for high treason.

England became a republic. Oliver Cromwell, increasingly frustrated with parliament, also led an armed force into the legislature, dissolved it and ruled as Lord Protector until his death in 1658. Chaos then ensued and the monarchy was restored in 1660 under Charles’ son, who became Charles II.

1685-1689: GLORIOUS REVOLUTION:

In 1685, Charles’ brother, a Roman Catholic, became James II and suspended parliament amid tensions over his bid to repeal anti-Catholic laws.

His use of the royal prerogative to suspend all religious penal laws without parliamentary approval prompted lawmakers to invite William of Orange, a Dutch Protestant, to invade England and take the throne.

A Bill of Rights passed in December decreed that only a Protestant could be monarch, a rule which is still in place now.

The so-called ‘Glorious Revolution’ marked the peaceful assertion of parliament’s rights over the monarch.

1906-1911: ASQUITH AND LORDS REFORM:

The landslide election victory of the Liberal Party in 1906 left them with a healthy majority in parliament’s lower chamber, the House of Commons, but massively outnumbered by Conservatives in the unelected House of Lords.

Tensions came to a head in 1909, when the Lords rejected the Liberals’ budget, which included taxes on large landowners, going against parliamentary precedent.

Though the Lords passed the budget in 1910 after a new election, Prime Minister Herbert Asquith introduced a bill to abolish the Lords’ veto on finance bills and allow the Commons to force through other bills after a delay.

The government also sought to involve the monarch in politics, saying it might be necessary to create hundreds of new lords to pass the controversial bill through the chamber. The threat was eventually enough to pass the bill through the Lords.

Today the House of Lords remains an unelected chamber, though its members are now mostly appointees, not hereditary peers. Its role is to scrutinize legislation passed by the Commons and it can block bills for up to a year. The prime minister retains the power to create new lords.

#AceNewsDesk reports ………………Published: Sept.01: 2019: Reuters: Reporting by Alistair Smout; Editing by Guy Faulconbridge and Gareth Jones

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