SNIPPETS OF HISTORY: ‘ Australian Contribution to Battle of Normandy ‘

#AceHistoryNews – AUSTRALIA – September 22 – The Australian contribution to the Battle of Normandy involved more than 3,000 military personnel serving under British command, the majority from the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). 

' Air Plan for Landings in Normandy June 1944 '

‘ Air Plan for Landings in Normandy June 1944 ‘

After participating in the Allied landings on 6 June 1944, Australian air force and army personnel fought in the subsequent Battle of Normandy between June and August 1944, and an RAAF fighter squadron operated from airfields in Normandy.

Throughout the campaign, Australian airmen provided direct support to the Allied ground forces by attacking German military units and their supply lines, as well as forming part of the force which defended the beachhead from air attack.

(Australian members of No. 196 Squadron pictured).

(Australian members of No. 196 Squadron pictured).

Australians also indirectly contributed to the campaign by attacking German submarines and ships which posed a threat to the invasion force. 

' Grave of an RAAF Airman at Bayeux War Cemetery '

‘ Grave of an RAAF Airman at Bayeux War Cemetery ‘

Australia’s contribution to the fighting in Normandy is commemorated in memorials and cemeteries in London and Normandy.


#air-men, #australia, #battle-of-normandy, #bayeux, #german, #military, #normandy, #royal-australian-air-force-raaf

` State of Israel ` Declaration of Independence ‘ and the United Kingdom ‘

#AceHistory2Research – The state of Israel declared its independence on 14 May 1948. Israel is governed by a democratically elected parliament with a traditionally high participation in elections.

The head of state is the President, elected by parliament to serve a 7 year term, however power tends to lie with the Prime Minister and the Cabinet. Over the past 30 years no single party has gained a majority in the 120 seat parliament so Israel has been ruled by a succession of coalitions. Israel has been an associate member of the European Union since 1995 and became a full member of the OECD in 2010.

English: Map of Israel, the Palestinian territ...

English: Map of Israel, the Palestinian territories (West Bank and Gaza Strip), the Golan Heights, and portions of neighbouring countries. Also United Nations deployment areas in countries adjoining Israel or Israeli-held territory, as of January 2004.. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Israel’s armed forces occupied the West Bank, the Syrian Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip (along with the Sinai Peninsula) in 1967.

Israel subsequently withdrew from Sinai in 1982 and from Gaza in 2005, but has formally annexed East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights.

This has not been recognized by the international community, including the British Government, which considers all territory captured by Israel in 1967 as occupied and the status of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel as subject to negotiations with the Palestinians.

Business and Human Rights

Israel enjoys a strong entrepreneurial culture which nurtures and develops new ideas, making Israel a technology powerhouse. Israel has a high density of start-ups and many of the major technology companies, such as Google, Microsoft and Motorola, have their R&D centres in Israel. Many factors contribute to the success of Israel’s technology industries including: co-operation between academia and business through university Technology Transfer Offices, the ability to commercialize from the defence industries to the civilian market, an entrepreneurial start-up spirit coupled with a powerful VC community, and a highly skilled and motivated workforce. Israel’s total number of patents granted positions it first place world-wide in patents per capita, and number four in the world in the absolute number of patents approved.

Map of Israeli settlements, in navy blue, in t...

Map of Israeli settlements, in navy blue, in the West Bank (Photo credit: Wikipedia)


The UK has a clear position on Israeli settlements: The West Bank, including East Jerusalem, Gaza and the Golan Heights are territories which have been occupied by Israel since 1967.

Settlements are illegal under international law, constitute an obstacle to peace and threaten to make a two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict impossible.

We will not recognise any changes to the pre-1967 borders, including with regard to Jerusalem, other than those agreed by the parties.

There are therefore clear risks related to economic and financial activities in the settlements, and we do not encourage or offer support to such activity. Financial transactions, investments, purchases, procurements as well as other economic activities (including in services like tourism) in Israeli settlements or benefiting Israeli settlements, entail legal and economic risks stemming from the fact that the Israeli settlements, according to international law, are built on occupied land and are not recognised as a legitimate part of Israel’s territory. This may result in disputed titles to the land, water, mineral or other natural resources which might be the subject of purchase or investment.

EU citizens and businesses should also be aware of the potential reputational implications of getting involved in economic and financial activities in settlements, as well as possible abuses of the rights of individuals. Those contemplating any economic or financial involvement in settlements should seek appropriate legal advice.

We understand the concerns of people who do not wish to purchase goods exported from Israeli settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territories.  It was in order to enable consumers to make a more fully informed decision concerning the products they buy that, in December 2009, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) introduced voluntary guidelines to enable produce from Israeli settlements in the Occupied Territories to be specifically labelled as such.

English: Smuggling Tunnel, Rafah, Gaza Strip

English: Smuggling Tunnel, Rafah, Gaza Strip (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Organised Crime

There is very limited evidence of serious organised crime in the West Bank.  There is some evidence of organised vehicle thefts being committed in Israel with the stolen vehicles being recycled in the West Bank, and the associated insurance pay-offs occurring in Israel.

As elsewhere, there is a drugs problem in the West Bank and Gaza. These are generally cannabis based drugs and to a lesser degree ‘designer’ drugs, such as ecstasy, and some harder drugs e.g. cocaine and heroin. This is reflected in the Palestinian prison population, whose drug-related inmate ratio is comparable to Europe.



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#acehistory2research, #acehistorynews, #ahn2014, #ilovehistoryandresearch-2, #department-for-environment-food-and-rural-affairs, #gaza-strip, #golan-heights, #israel, #israeli-settlement, #jerusalem, #palestinian-territories, #sinai-peninsula, #west-bank

` Serbia and Montenegro Mark 15 Years Since` NATO ‘ Bombing of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ‘

#AceHistory2Research – BELGRADE – March 24 – A tragic date is marked on Monday in Serbia and in Montenegro: it’s 15 years since NATO started bombing the territory of these states, which then formed part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

Operation Allied Force, which NATO carried out without the approval of UN Security Council, lasted for 78 days. Objects on the whole territory of Serbia and Montenegro became targets of NATO bomber aircraft and cruise missiles.

The pretext for starting the aggression involving 19 NATO members led by the USA was the failure of talks on Kosovo in Rambouillet, France, and Serbia’s denial to sign the “peace plan”. One of the plan’s paragraphs stipulated the deployment of foreign troops in Kosovo, which practically meant the military occupation of the region.

Map of Vojvodina within Federal Republic of Yu...

Map of Vojvodina within Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992-2003) and Serbia and Montenegro (2003-2006) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

What became the pretext of the attack

The formal pretext for the attack was the discovery in Kosovan village of Racak of a mass grave with bodies of Albanian civilians allegedly shot by Serbian servicemen.

Later it turned out that this was a falsification staged with the assistance of western intelligence services. The major part of the casualties was militants of Kosovo Liberation Army killed in different areas of the region in clashes with Yugoslavian law enforcers.
In the course of NATO attacks, defence facilities of Serbian Air Force, Air Defence units and military industrial facilities were gradually destroyed along with civil infrastructure facilities — bridges, factories, transport hubs, power plants and power transmission lines.

Location of Serbia and Montenegro

Location of Serbia and Montenegro (Photo credit: Wikipedia)


In the course of 11 weeks of NATO Air Force’s operation, a total of 2,300 air attacks on 995 objects were carried out. 1,150 combat airplanes were used in the operation. 420,000 explosive items were thrown, including 20,000 heavy air bombs, 1,300 cruise missiles, 37,000 cluster bombs, many of which were filled with depleted uranium. Over 2,000 civilians became victims of the bombings (mainly on the territory of Kosovo and Metohija), as well as 1,000 servicemen; over 5,000 people were wounded and over a thousand people were reported missing.

The military industrial infrastructure of Serbia was in fact completely destroyed; over 1,500 settlements were dragged down, as well as 60 bridges, 30% of schools, and about 100 monuments.

According to Serbian experts, material losses after the bombings depending on the calculation methods totalled $60-100 billion.
The bombings stopped June 9, 1999, when representatives of Yugoslavian army and NATO in Macedonian city of Kumanovo signed a military technical agreement on the withdrawal of troops and police units of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from Kosovo and on deployment of international troops on Kosovo’s territory.

A day later, UN Security Council adopted the corresponding resolution number 1244. According to it, 37,200 servicemen of Kosovo Force (KFOR) from 36 countries were deployed on the territory of the southern Serbian province. As a result of the NATO military expansion against Yugoslavia, Kosovo declared its independence in Pristina on February 17, 2008.

Monument to the victims of 1999 NATO bombing o...

Monument to the victims of 1999 NATO bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia victims from the city of Niš, Serbia. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)


Indirect consequences of the NATO attack can be noted on people’s health. The radiation level in several localities in southern Serbia (mainly in Kosovo and Metohija), which were hit by depleted uranium in 1999 (112 areas in total, according to Serbian Army’s General Staff), still exceeds critical standards. Scientists link the cancer incidence rate in the country with NATO bombings. This year, some 40,000 new cases of cancer are forecasted in Serbia, the total population of which amounts to 7.2 million people. This grim forecast was made by Slobodan Cekaric, the head of the Serbian Society against Cancer.

He said that a 15-year-long latent period in the development of cancer diseases is ending in 2014. After that, the signs of illnesses caused by the impact of radioactive materials will start coming to surface. The bombs dropped on the territory of Serbia contained depleted uranium which causes cancer, respiratory and allergic diseases, neurological disorders, reproductive problems and impaired development of children.

A report published by the Doctor Milan Jovanovic Batut National Institute of Public Health in 2007 warned about “a quiet epidemic of malignant diseases” in Serbia. Thus, men’s morbidity with prostate cancer increased by 60% from 1999 to 2005. Other cancer-induced diseases are also on the rise both among men and women. Cancer is one of the main causes of death around the globe, claiming about 8 million human lives annually. However, malignant diseases in Serbia grow at a higher rate than in Western Europe, increasing from year to year, Serbian doctors say.

The situation is particularly alarming in southern Serbia which was worst hit by NATO bombs. According to Radomir Kovacevic, the head of the radiological protection department of the Doctor Dragomir Karajovic Institute, people who live in the uranium-polluted areas, run the risk of falling ill with lymph cancer, leukemia, breast and lung cancer.

Courtesy of TASS and Russian Media and News  



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#acehistory2research, #acehistorynews, #ahn2014, #kosovo, #kosovo-force, #kosovo-liberation-army, #kumanovo, #montenegro, #nato, #nato-bombing-of-yugoslavia, #serbia, #serbia-and-montenegro, #yugoslavia

Ukraine’s New Authorities Deny` WWII Veterans ‘Celebration of Kherson Liberation from Nazis ‘

#AceHistoryNews On March 13, 1944, legendary radio announcer Yuri Levitan read a report from fronts, informing people about liberation of Kherson, a regional centre, from Nazi invaders.

Fierce fighting to liberate the region lasted for more than 140 days, and 34,000 soldiers and officers of the Ukrainian front gave their lives for the liberation. Hundreds of servicemen were awarded, and the title of Hero of the Soviet Union was awarded to 36 of them.

However, new Ukrainian leaders denied veterans celebration of the 70th anniversary. Veterans said even songs would not be heard in the Park of Glory. Kherson refused to participate in the memorial relay, in which a capsule with soil was to be handed over on the route of Soviet troops who liberated territories from Nazis. Kherson was to take over the capsule in a ceremony on Thursday and hand it over to another city.

Meanwhile, city services began working in the park, but not to tidy up the area for celebration, but after threatening leaflet were pasted on a public transport station, where veterans were expected to come.

The papers said the author of the leaflets with threats to Russians and Jews was the radical movement Right Sector, but it was not officially confirmed that the movement really was the organizer of the outrageous action.

Courtesy of Tass


#hero-of-the-soviet-union, #itar-tass, #jews, #kherson, #nazi, #right-sector, #russians, #ukrainian, #wwii

“Shroud of Turin `Fact or Fiction’ from `2004 – 2014′ You Decide”

#AceHistory2Research says Second Face on the Shroud of Turin `Fact or Fiction’ according to the latest news’

Institute of Physics ^ | April 13, 2004 | Giulio Fanti and Roberto Maggiolo 

Posted on 04/13/2004 2:52:34 PM PDT by shroudie

The most definitive evidence yet that the Shroud of Turin is not a medieval fake-relic. This is big stuff, published on a highly respected scientific organizations website, the Institute of Physics, a 37,000 member organization of physicists. Their journal is an ethical journal of peer-reviewed scientific studies.Русский: Спас Отпечаток лика Христа на Туринск...

The Washington Times, BBC, the Observer, the Telegraph of London, ABC Australia, the Chicago Sun-Times and several outlets have picked up the story in the last few hours. In my opinion it reinforces the already clear proof that the carbon 14 testing in 1988 was completely erroneous. It clearly eliminates the polemics of medieval paintings, da Vinci conspiracies, proto-photography and other silly concocted theories being bantered about by those skeptical of Christianity.

If it is a genuine burial shroud of a 1st century victim of crucifixion, it can almost certainly be inferred that it is Jesus. If that is so, it buries the extra-liberal revisionism of John Dominic Crossan and Marcus Borg who argue that Jesus was not buried.

If it is a genuine burial shroud of a 1st century victim of crucifixion, how is it that this piece of cloth survived the grave and was not ravaged by decomposition products?

The story at the link is quite technical. I suggest alternatively reading the stories in any of the various newspapers or for a clear concise explanation read first Chemistry of the Image and then Explanation of the Backside Image.

From the extract: “Photographs of the back surface of the Turin Shroud were analysed to verify the existence of a double body image of a man. The body image is very faint and the background not uniform; i.e., the signal-to-noise ratio is lower than one. Therefore, image processing . . . was necessary to highlight body features. This was based on convolution with Gaussian filters, summation of images, and filtering in spatial frequency by direct and inverse bidimensional Fourier transformations.


TOPICS: History
KEYWORDS: clothofturinmedievalhoaxoneborneveryminuteshroudofturin

Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
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It is my opinion that this is near-definative evidence that the Shroud is genuine.
1 posted on 04/13/2004 2:52:37 PM PDT by shroudie

To: shroudie
It is my opinion that this is near-definitive evidence that the Shroud is genuine.Agreed.No one has come up with anything remotely capable of explaining how a painter from the Middle Ages could have faked this kind of double image, or that needed this kind of enhancement to see. The other remarkable features of the shroud were sufficient IMHO, but this seems to seal the case.However, I expect to see near hysterical denials that it is of Jesus Christ. Such a thing would have implications that are simply unacceptable to many people.
2 posted on 04/13/2004 3:04:14 PM PDT by EternalHope (Boycott everything French forever. Including their vassal nations.)

To: shroudie
Good find. The nice thing about IoP is that you can download the journal articles at no charge for 30 days from the date of publication (beyond that you’ll have pay a hefty fee for the download).
3 posted on 04/13/2004 3:07:48 PM PDT by NewHampshireDuo

To: shroudie
I’m not a physicist, but as I read the original article, I think it’s relatively neutral as to whether or not the shroud is genuine. One interesting thing it does highlight, however, is that this image analysis discovered differences between the front and back side images that seem to suggest they do not correspond with one another very closely. If anything, I would think that would cast additional doubt on the shroud.But again, I’m not a physicist…
4 posted on 04/13/2004 3:11:09 PM PDT by LandOfLincolnGOP

To: EternalHope
However, I expect to see near hysterical denials that it is of Jesus Christ. Such a thing would have implications that are simply unacceptable to many people. What I find especially humorous is that many hysterical denials will come from Fundamentalists decrying “false idols”. What a world, what a world…”And as a man was being buried, lo, a marauding band was seen and the man was cast into the grave of Eli’sha; and as soon as the man touched the bones of Eli’sha, he revived, and stood on his feet.” — 2 Kg 13:21 (RSV)
5 posted on 04/13/2004 3:15:24 PM PDT by polemikos (Ecce Agnus Dei)

To: EternalHope
> No one has come up with anything remotely capable of explaining how a painter from the Middle Ages could have faked this kind of double imageHmmm. How about this: the painter painted both sides?Not exactly challenging… just paint one side, hold up to the light, paint the other side. Easy.
6 posted on 04/13/2004 3:15:30 PM PDT by orionblamblam

To: EternalHope
> I expect to see near hysterical denials that it is of Jesus Christ.What I find funny is that any scientist who looks at the evidence and says, “Nah, it’s a fake,” will be hysterically described as being in hysterical denial.
7 posted on 04/13/2004 3:18:34 PM PDT by orionblamblam

To: shroudie
It has been recently discoved that there are also two faces on the shroud of Kerry.Jag
8 posted on 04/13/2004 3:20:31 PM PDT by JaguarXKE

To: LandOfLincolnGOP
Much of the current thinking in the Shroud skunkworks is that the correspondance is within the tolerance ranges of gaseous diffusion of heavy amines. Other possibilities, without regard to miraculous causation, would include an ionizing radiation or corona discharge — though some physicists have real problems with this.The differences, such as the nose on the reverse side which doesn’t show the same extension as the front, are probably completely due to chemical reaction differences, image inhibition by bloodstains, and diffusion of amine reactants if the catalyst or the reactant is gaseous.I am not a physicist either, but I know what sort of scientist Fanti is and I know what sort of scientist Ray Roger, UCLA fellow and former head of the bomb explosives group for the Los Alamos Laboratory, is, and they agree emphatically that this rules out forgery or any form of artistic or crafty technique.Fanti’s words are clear: “It is extremely difficult to make a fake with these features.”In fact, the skunkworks group has been working with the double superficiality of the images for some time now. It is hard to imagine how this could be mechanically or artistically produced.


9 posted on 04/13/2004 3:31:34 PM PDT by shroudie

To: orionblamblam
The double superficiality of the frontal image of the Turin Shroud
Giulio Fanti and Roberto Maggiolo
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Università di Padova,
Via Venezia 1, 35137 Padova, Italy
Received 13 October 2003, accepted for publication 12 March 2004
Published 13 April 2004Abstract. Photographs of the back surface of the Turin Shroud were analysed to verify the existence of a double body image of a man. The body image is very faint and the background not uniform; i.e., the signal-to-noise ratio is lower than one. Therefore, image processing, developed ad hoc, was necessary to highlight body features. This was based on convolution with Gaussian filters, summation of images, and filtering in spatial frequency by direct and inverse bidimensional Fourier transformations. Body features were identified by template matching. The face and probably also the hands are visible on the back of the Turin Shroud, but not features related to the dorsal image. Keywords: image processing, very low signal-to-noise ratio, fast Fourier transform, convolution, Turin ShroudURL:
DOI: 10.1088/1464-4258/6/6/001
PII: S1464-4258(04)70555-3The double superficiality of the frontal image of the Turin ShroudSo, basically, these guys are stating that after running photographs of the back of the Turin cloth through lots of image processing filters and doing a bit of tweaking, they were able to discern faint blurs that bled through from the other side.

That convinces me! It must be Jesus!

10 posted on 04/13/2004 3:38:27 PM PDT by happydogdesign

To: orionblamblam
Right, except he had to paint it without paint or pigment or dyes or colorants of any kind. He would have needed a microscope and a single fiber paintbrush thinner than a human hair. The color is within a thin carbohydrate film that is 180 to 600 nanometers thick on fibers that average 13 microns in diameter (human hair is 100 microns). It is superficial to the topmost crown fibers on both sides of the cloth. There are no visible concentrations of paint on the Shroud. Period.Shroudie
11 posted on 04/13/2004 3:40:03 PM PDT by shroudie

To: orionblamblam
What I find funny is that any scientist who looks at the evidence and says, “Nah, it’s a fake,” will be hysterically described as being in hysterical denial.To say it’s a fake without any idea of HOW it could be faked is simply denial. Thus far, no one has any idea how the image could have been faked.
12 posted on 04/13/2004 3:41:08 PM PDT by EternalHope (Boycott everything French forever. Including their vassal nations.)

To: happydogdesign
There you go again. Nothing bled through. There is no image between the superficial layers. We’ve been through this before, haven’t we.Shroudie
13 posted on 04/13/2004 3:43:25 PM PDT by shroudie

To: shroudie
Sorry, shroudie, I keep forgetting that one should assume a miraculous, supernatural theory is true, then work backwards to prove it’s validity by ignoring or discrediting those nasty secular humanist scientific techniques and inconvenient historical records. But we minions of Satan are always planting those nasty doubts to test the faithful. Rock on! I have to go plant some more dinosaur bones to plague the creation science folks!CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Shroud of TurinPBS “Secrets of the Dead” Buries the Truth About Turin Shroud
14 posted on 04/13/2004 4:00:00 PM PDT by happydogdesign

To: shroudie
You know, we haven’t entertained the theory that Happy is actually Joe Nickell, trolling around Shroud threads. Could be.
15 posted on 04/13/2004 4:10:03 PM PDT by Swordmaker (This tagline shut down for renovations and repairs. Re-open June of 2001.)

To: LandOfLincolnGOP
You need to read more carefully, because on page 500-501 the authors state:
“It should be noted that the image of the face, bs, is found in the same position as the corresponding one on the front, in all its detail, and on the same scale, with non-detectable relative rotation within the range of measurement uncertainty (3% for the scale factor, 3 degrees for relative rotations).”In other words, no significant difference in image position with respect to front and back surfaces.
16 posted on 04/13/2004 4:12:32 PM PDT by Kirkwood

To: happydogdesign
Hmmmm dead links. I guess you don’t want readers to see that your sources are an article that was written in 1908 and copyrighted in 1912, since superceded in the Catholic Encyclopedia in 1968 (still outdated but nowhere nearly as biased as the one YOU like to cite).And that the other is to Joe Nickell, PhD in Art and English, no science to his name, a professional “debunker” with a book to sell… more on that later, Happy.
17 posted on 04/13/2004 4:15:51 PM PDT by Swordmaker (This tagline shut down for renovations and repairs. Re-open June of 2001.)

To: orionblamblam
NO ONE believes that the image was painted – even those who do not believe it is a true death shroud acknowledge it could not have been painted.
18 posted on 04/13/2004 4:17:42 PM PDT by Kirkwood

To: Alamo-Girl; HiTech RedNeck; Don Joe; Young Werther; RightWhale; SMEDLEYBUTLER; mjp; M. Thatcher; …
Shroud of Turin PING!If you want to be included or deleted from the Shroud of Turin Ping List, please Freepmail me.Swordmaker
19 posted on 04/13/2004 10:16:28 PM PDT by Swordmaker (This tagline shut down for renovations and repairs. Re-open June of 2001.)

To: happydogdesign; shroudie
Amusing that the “credulous” shroudie is the one providing technical analysis and scientific documentation, and the “realist” debunker must make do with sarcasm, innuendo and intentionally ignoring established facts…
20 posted on 04/13/2004 10:28:30 PM PDT by Interesting Times (ABCNNBCBS — yesterday’s news.)

To: shroudie
I would have said that it is extremely easy to make a fake with these features, since by the 21st c. we are so clever…and then, if it is just a matter of some sugars and starches, let these brilliant physicists of ours replicate it. Can someone not make a linen as linens were made, dry it in the sun, cover a dead critter for a few hours and see what they get? If it’s gaseous diffusion of heavy amines it should happen with the usual reliability of natural phenomena.This chemical explanation is fine with me but can they demonstrate it?
21 posted on 04/13/2004 11:34:22 PM PDT by Graymatter

To: happydogdesign
Thanks for the links. The second one, dating from April 9, 2004 was VERY interesting!
22 posted on 04/14/2004 5:35:24 AM PDT by Netizen

To: EternalHope
> To say it’s a fake without any idea of HOW it could be faked is simply denial.Incorrect. Here’s the logic:Theory: This is the Actual Shroud OF Jesus.
Refutation: Carbon dating puts it at less than a thousand years old. Theory conclusively refuted.Theory refuted; it’s a fake. Exactly how the image got there is another matter; but the evidence shows it to *not* be the shroud of Jesus
23 posted on 04/14/2004 10:35:12 AM PDT by orionblamblam

To: shroudie
> The color is within a thin carbohydrate film that is 180 to 600 nanometers thick on fibers that average 13 microns in diameterHeck, that’s *easy.* Paint the image on a sheet of paper, place cloth on paper, press. SHAZAM! Instant Shroud, ready to recieve income.
24 posted on 04/14/2004 10:37:02 AM PDT by orionblamblam

To: orionblamblam
Carbon dating puts it at less than a thousand years old. Theory conclusively refuted.Guess you’re not up to date on the carbon dating actually used.The sample used was from a corner the Catholic Church felt was not essential to the shroud. It had been contaminated in a fire, and restored in a way that invalidated its use for carbon dating purposes. In addition, it was subsequently shown that the individual fibers in the shroud had grown a biological “sheath” that was not removed prior to testing, and added new biomass to the original material. Since this new growth was obviously younger than the shroud itself, it undoubtedly changed the tested age of the sample.Attempts have been made to mathematically correct for these problems. You may choose to dispute the math, but the correction results in a first century date for the shroud.
25 posted on 04/14/2004 10:52:29 AM PDT by EternalHope (Boycott everything French forever. Including their vassal nations.)

To: orionblamblam
In regards to the carbon 14 testing which has been completely discredited: M. Sue Benford and Joseph Marino, in collaboration with number of textile experts, identified clear evidence of medieval mending on the Shroud. A patch was expertly sewn to or rewoven into the fabric to repair a damaged edge. It was from this patch—quite likely nothing more than a piece of medieval cloth—that the samples were taken. From documenting photographs of the sample areas, the textile experts identified enough newer thread to permit Ronald Hatfield, of the prestigious radiocarbon dating firm Beta Analytic, to estimate that the true date of the cloth is much older—perhaps even 1st century.Independently, Anna Arnoldi of the University of Milan and Raymond N. Rogers, a Fellow of the University of California Los Alamos National Laboratory have explored the chemical nature of the sample area. They have confirmed the finding of Benford and Marino. Ultraviolet photography and spectral analysis show that the area from which the samples were taken was chemically unlike the rest of the cloth. Chemical analysis reveals the presence of Madder root dye and an aluminum oxide mordant (a reagent that fixes dyes to textiles) not found elsewhere on Shroud. Medieval artisans often dyed threads in this manner when mending damaged tapestries. This was simply to make the repairs less noticeable. The presence of Madder root and mordant suggests that the Shroud was mended in this way.This photograph, by Vern Miller, was taken before the samples carbon 14 testing were cut from the Shroud. It was taken with a heavily-filtered ultraviolet lighting (black light) that did not emit any visible light at all. All of the light you see in the photograph was produced by the fluorescence of chemical compounds on the Shroud. Any variations in color and brightness are a direct result of the chemical composition.The dark brown region across the bottom of the picture is the mended area. The place from which the carbon 14 samples were cut is in the dark brown area just above the tiny triangular white spot located on the bottom edge. (The tiny white triangle is where a small sample was trimmed from the Shroud in 1973 by Gilbert Raes).Microchemical tests also reveal vanillin (C8H8O3 or 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) in an area of the cloth from which the carbon 14 sample were cut. But the rest of the cloth does not test positive for it. Vanillin is produced by the thermal decomposition of lignin, a complex polymer, a non-carbohydrate constituent of plant material including flax. Found in medieval materials but not in much older cloths, it diminishes and disappears with time. For instance, the wrappings of the Dead Sea scrolls do not test positive for vanillin.This is an important find. It suggests that the tested samples were possibly much newer and it underscores that the chemical nature of the carbon 14 samples and the main part of the cloth are outstandingly different.
26 posted on 04/14/2004 11:35:41 AM PDT by shroudie

To: EternalHope
> . It had been contaminated in a fireExcept, of course, fire does not invalidate carbon dating.> and added new biomassThis is another red herring. The mass of “biosheath” required to throw off the dating by the required amount would exceed the mass of the shroud itself.The carbon dating may be off by a few dacades, tops. That’s why, when it’s presented, it’s always presented with error bars.

The carbon dating still stands.

27 posted on 04/14/2004 12:20:23 PM PDT by orionblamblam

To: orionblamblam
Maybe this chart will help.
Chemical Differences Carbon 14 Sample Area Main Part of the Shroud of Turin
aluminum as hydrated oxide, common in textile dyeing Significant (10 to 20 times as much as found on main part of Shroud) Virtually none
Madder-root dye (alizarin and
Found Not found
a gum medium  (probably Gum Arabic) vehicle for dye and mordant Found Not present
Lignin at fiber growth nodes Very little Significant
vanillin in lignin Found Not found
significant less
cotton fiber in thread Found Not found
spliced fibers Found Not found

The photograph shown in a previous posting, according to Ray Rogers, a Fellow of the University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory, a chemist who has scientifically examined the Shroud — in Turin — and studied the object for more than 27 years, “shows the fluorescence of the area of the radiocarbon sample. It proves that the radiocarbon sample did not have the same chemical composition as the rest of the cloth. This is a fact – not an interpretation. . . Notice that the entire area above the Raes sample [the tiny white triangle on the bottom edge] and along the seam is darker than the main part of the cloth. It does not fluoresce. . .Its chemical composition is different from the Shroud. That is exactly the area sampled for the 1988 dating fiasco. . . The radiocarbon sample was invalid. No strange, magical events are needed to explain the invalid date. I do not know what the real date is, but I know the sample used in 1988 did not yield a valid date. The poor preparation for sampling in 1988, the poor verification of the sample, the failure to follow written protocols, and the unrealistic claims made about “unreliable” radiocarbon dating have done great damage.”

The carbon 14 testing, sadly attested to in Nature Magazine in 1989, joins the ranks of junk science. It wasn’t the labs that failed. It was the gross incompetence of the sample selection process.

28 posted on 04/14/2004 12:41:38 PM PDT by shroudie

To: orionblamblam
The carbon dating still stands.The post immediately prior to yours (probably posted while you were writing your reply to me) addresses your statement in detail. To sum up the current state of the scientific investigation, the carbon dating does NOT still stand.As additional information you might consider the book, The Blood and the Shroud, by Ian Wilson, published in 1998. To quote The Washington Post (sorry ’bout that), “Wilson’s outstanding study must surely be the most complete yet undertaken of the subject.” Although it is the most recent book I have personally read on the subject, you can probably find more up to date info. However, it is quite readable and answers most of the non-radiocarbon dating questions quite well.The recent discoveries (repairs at the site of sample used for radiocarbon dating, 1st century stitching methodology, image on the back) are obviously not addressed in the book.Since you raised the radiocarbon dating question, I should re-emphasize the two points I made in my earlier post: fire and biocontamination. Both are addressed in the above referenced book, and both have the potential to skew the results substantially more than you might realize.1. The fire had the potential to cause a chemical change in the type of fibers in the shroud, binding carbon items from the atmosphere at the time of the fire.

2. The biological “sheath” was quite thick, resulting in enough biomass to skew the results substantially.

These two points are separate from the repairs made to the cloth at the site of the sample, which is sufficient to invalidate the radiocarbon testing all by itself.

29 posted on 04/14/2004 1:03:17 PM PDT by EternalHope (Boycott everything French forever. Including their vassal nations.)

To: orionblamblam
Incorrect. Here’s the logic:
Theory: This is the Actual Shroud OF Jesus.
Refutation: Carbon dating puts it at less than a thousand years old. Theory conclusively refuted.
Theory refuted; it’s a fake.
I would agree… IF they had tested the Shroud and not a 16th Century PATCH.It has now been almost conclusively proven that the Carbon 14 testng was done on material that had been patched in the 16th Century, probaby 1535 or 1552. The C14 sample was taken from an area of the Shroud that was SIGNIFICANTLY different from the rest of the Shroud..The following table is borrowed from shroudie’s Shroud Story website and shows the results of the tests comparing the C14 sample piece with the Shroud itself:
Chemical Differences Carbon 14 Sample Area Main Part of the Shroud of Turin
aluminum as hydrated oxide, common in textile dyeing Significant (10 to 20 times as much as found on main part of Shroud) Virtually none
Madder-root dye (alizarin and
Found Not found
a gum medium  (probably Gum Arabic) vehicle for dye and mordant Found Not present
Lignin at fiber growth nodes Very little Significant
vanillin in lignin Found Not found
significant less
cotton fiber in thread Found Not found
spliced fibers Found Not found

So we have a C14 Sample that is:CHEMICALLY different from the body of the Shroud in that it contained Rose Madder-root Dye, Aluminum Oxide (bauxite), Gum coating on the fibers as a mordant (a chemical to “bite” into the linen to allow dyes to adhere), and Vanillin (a decomposition product of lignin that disappears over time), and other chemicals not found elsewhere on the Shroud.

PHYSICALLY different because the patch fluoresces significantly under an ultra-violet light while the rest of the Shroud material fluoresces dimly, The C14 Sample shows significant differences as a TEXTILE in that the threads of the patch were spun in an “S” (counter-clockwise) twist while the entire rest of the Shroud was spun with a “Z” twist. In addition, the average thread size of the C14 Sample is “significantly” (statistically) smaller than the average thread size of the Shroud. The fibers composing the threads of the patch include WOOL and European COTTON which is found NOWHERE ELSE on the Shroud. Finally, the linen of the C14 sample was “retted” using a completely different process from the rest of the Shroud.

The location where C14 sample was taken.

Diagram of the cutting of the sample for distribution
to the three laboratories.
Photos linked from The 1988 Shroud of Turin Radiocarbon Tests Reconsidered
Paper by Bryan J. Walsh, Shroud of Turin Center, Richmond, VA

The samples provided to the Zurich C14 Lab (top) and the Oxford lab.
Note the obvious changes in thread directionality and tone in
the samples from left side to right side, and the subtle variation between
the direction changes. This has been determined to be an area of “invisible
reweaving” where the 16th Century linen patch material is interwoven
with the original shroud material.

This color photo of the one of the Arizona lab’s samples
(the only lab to get two samples) shows a distinct change
in thread quality in the lower right. Note the subtle change
in direction of the “woof” (horizontal) threads.
Sample photos borrowed from
Catholic Counter-Reformation WebsiteBryan J. Walsh’ statistical analysis of the C14 tests performed by the three laboratories show that given the accepted accuracy of the tests, the test results and the reported ages of the 11 tests (three labs Arizona, Oxford, and Zurich, four samples cut into 11 sub-samples (A-4, O-3, Z-4) for testing) COULD NOT HAVE COME FROM THE SAME HOMOGENOUS POPULATION! In other words, the test results varied so greatly that statistically they could not have come from the same sample! Yet we know they did.

Plotting the age variances in the samples show that the age reported is inverse linear proportion to the distance from the edge of the Shroud toward the center. At the time the statistical analysis was done, the evidence of a patch had not been found.

The distances used were:

                 Laboratory                                    Distance (in mm)

Oxford                                50.0  (the approx. distance from the edge of Shroud cloth to center of Oxford sample)

Zurich                                64.0  (the Oxford value plus the approx. distance between the center of both samples)

Arizona                              76.0   (the Zurich value plus the approx. distance between the center of both samples)

A regression analysis was then conducted which compared the subsample radiocarbon dates with the corresponding distance from the edge of the Shroud linen. It was determined that there was statistically significant (P>98.8%, r2=0.49) inverse linear relationship between the date measured and the distance from the sample to the edge of the cloth. This finding indicated that there was an apparent gradient of radiocarbon measured on the Shroud sample with higher levels of14C measured at increasing distance from the edge of the Shroud linen based on the sample measured. This is illustrated on the following chart:

The data and statistical analysis by Walsh is equally valid if it is not distance from the edge of the cloth but rather proportion of patch to original material in a diagonal change across the flawed sample that results in the statistically anomolous results. This is proof that the samples, although cut from the Shroud, and then further cut from the same sample WERE NOT HOMOGINOUS… and in fact were made up of OLD shroud linen intermixed with NEW patch linen.Ergo, the test was flawed from the beginning. It is akin to finding a note on a piece of paper scotch taped to the flyleaf of a book, taking that page, including the scotch taped piece and testing it to find the age of the book. The sample was corrupted by additional anachronistic material, the results are wrong.

30 posted on 04/14/2004 1:11:27 PM PDT by Swordmaker (This tagline shut down for renovations and repairs. Re-open June of 2001.)

To: shroudie
Check out my C14 reply just above on this thread. I have borrowed a chart from your website. Thanks.Swordmaker
31 posted on 04/14/2004 1:12:58 PM PDT by Swordmaker (This tagline shut down for renovations and repairs. Re-open June of 2001.)

To: Swordmaker
Great post!
32 posted on 04/14/2004 1:31:38 PM PDT by shroudie

To: shroudie
I just visited your website. Quite impressive!The last time I read anything extensive on the shroud was five years ago, with occassional articles since then as updates. It is obvious: I am quite out of date!
33 posted on 04/14/2004 1:39:27 PM PDT by EternalHope (Boycott everything French forever. Including their vassal nations.)

To: EternalHope
> The post immediately prior to yours (probably posted while you were writing your reply to me) addresses your statement in detail.The info in the post starts from the position that the shroud is 2k years old, and works backwards from there to “prove” it. It provides zero evidence to refute the medieval age of the shroud.> The fire had the potential to cause a chemical change in the type of fibers in the shroud,Irrelevant. Chemistry has nothing to do with radiocarbon dating.> binding carbon items from the atmosphere

Nope. Fire does not do that to any recognizable degree.

The biological “sheath” was quite thick

As pointed out, it’d have to be several times the mass of the shroud itself. If that were the case, the face would be invisible under the much.

34 posted on 04/14/2004 1:41:26 PM PDT by orionblamblam

To: orionblamblam
Ben Witherington, a well-known, very conservative and respected biblical scholar, wrote that the carbon 14 tests are now significantly disputed. He cited the same material as presented by EternalHope. Until recently, that was the going hypothesis. You are right in saying that the mass of bioplastic would need to be significant. You said more by mass but actual calculations say by as much as 60% because the bioplastic has a moving average age.The scorching proposal that high temperatures from a fire in 1532, which damaged and nearly destroyed the Shroud, enhanced the mix of radioactive carbon 14 and stable carbon 12 isotopes in the cloth is dubious but not completely eliminated. But experiments to test this idea have not been promising. Any change caused by the fire would likely be too trivial to be significant.The data was not refuted until recently, and in the best of scientific method, not until a complete analysis could be completed. Even Harry Gove, inventor of AMS carbon 14 tools, was open to the possibility pending full investigation.The evidence by numerous researchers including Bryan Walsh, M. Sue Benford and Joseph Marino, Anna Arnoldi of the University of Milan and Raymond N. Rogers, a Fellow of the University of California Los Alamos National Laboratory is now complete. Ron Hatfield of Beta Analytic has even estimated from the composite data that a 1st century date is a reasonable estimate.Is the cloth really first century? I think so. Other evidence suggests it is. New carbon 14 testing would be a good solution, but it is one that I don’t think the Turin authorities are about to entertain in the foreseeable future.

I really do believe that it is a burial cloth of a first century crucifixion victim. And if it is, it is easy and reasonable to infer that it is Jesus’ burial cloth. It completely agrees with the biblical narratives of the Passion. Its fuzzy history is better than most history we have for an object such as the Shroud. I am convinced, and not lightly so.

The fact is there may be some bioplastic material and there may be some ion transfer due to the fire, but they are probably a minor factor. The reality is that the radiocarbon dating labs did not test the Shroud but a medieval patch.


35 posted on 04/14/2004 2:20:38 PM PDT by shroudie

To: shroudie
> The scorching proposal that high temperatures from a fire in 1532, which damaged and nearly destroyed the Shroud, enhanced the mix of radioactive carbon 14 and stable carbon 12 isotopes in the cloth is dubious …It’ silly, is what it is. Fire does not effect isotopic ratios of carbon.> I really do believe that it is a burial cloth of a first century crucifixion victim.Then that victim was an alien, because the shroud does not conform to human geometry when actual attempts to fold replicas around humans or humaniform manikens have been attempted. It just doesn’t work.
36 posted on 04/14/2004 2:56:02 PM PDT by orionblamblam

To: orionblamblam
Then that victim was an alien, because the shroud does not conform to human geometry when actual attempts to fold replicas around humans or humaniform manikens have been attempted. It just doesn’t work.Besides, it had to be an alien. Who else would glow-in-the-dark inside a shroud?
37 posted on 04/14/2004 3:11:09 PM PDT by Alex Murphy

To: orionblamblam
You wrote: “It’ silly, is what it is. Fire does not effect isotopic ratios of carbon.”You meant heat, right? In a fire, definate contamination from movement of gaseous products can change the overall molecular level mixture. The heat does not change isotopic ratios of carbon; on that point you are right. But what is the point. It is trivial and not the cause of the carbon 14 error.As for alien: hmm. Do you know how the image was formed? As we do not know, and as we do not presume a contact mechanism, I don’t know how we can simply say it does not conform. The image does definately appear to be collimated. I don’t know how the image was formed, and like you I agree that it does not conform to human geometry — but only for contact mechanisms. I am quite certain it was not faked.
38 posted on 04/14/2004 3:13:52 PM PDT by shroudie

To: shroudie
> In a fire, definate contamination from movement of gaseous products can change the overall molecular level mixture.Errrr…. no. A piece of linen on fire still only has it’s own carbon. Fire does nothign to it, with the exception of turning some of it to carbon dioxide, and this is doen at an equal ratio regardless of isotope. Any carbon dioxide in the air nearby *remains* carbon dioxide at any fire temperature likely to be found Way Back Then.> Do you know how the image was formed?Artificially seems by far the most likely explanation.> I am quite certain it was not faked.

I have this bridge…

39 posted on 04/14/2004 4:30:20 PM PDT by orionblamblam

To: orionblamblam
Look, if you want to believe it is a fake, go ahead. You said earlier that it was painted. Fine. The fact that there is no paint in the images makes this highly suspect. But believe what you want. But do get your facts straight if you wish to try to convince others. And, do a bit of reading on the carbon 14 problems.
40 posted on 04/14/2004 5:49:59 PM PDT by shroudie (

To: shroudie; orionblamblam
Shroudie, this guy is not looking for an answer… he has it. He chooses to ignore the evidence right in front of his face and prefers to continue to attack already discounted and discarded theories just as Joe Nickell does.My post should have layed out the evidence so that anyone on FreeRepublic can see it plainly. The C14 samples are pictured and the OBVIOUS change in material from one side to the other can be plainly seen. The FACTS have been laid out for him as well as others but he CHOOSES not to look. Therefore his position is willfull and fearful. He does not WANT to see the facts in front of his face, so he WILL not.He is afraid that the facts might invalidate his world view because he cannot refute them. Since he can’t refute the latest “Flawed Sample” proof, he falls back on the “Fire Changed Carbon” or “Bioplastic Coating” theories that CAN be refuted and ignores any attempt to agree with him about the old theories and point out the newly proved fact.You warn him about the elephant in the corner of the room and he says “What elephant?” looking everywhere but at the elephant infested corner.This mind is not only closed, it is hermetically sealed.
41 posted on 04/14/2004 9:57:59 PM PDT by Swordmaker (This tagline shut down for renovations and repairs. Re-open June of 2001.)

To: orionblamblam
In a fire, definate contamination from movement of gaseous products can change the overall molecular level mixture.Errrr…. no. A piece of linen on fire still only has it’s own carbon.Errr, Orionblamblam, were you aware the fire under discussion was not JUST the shroud burning all by itself, but included a wooden cathedral, the silver chased reliquary, the draperies draped over the reliquary, books, wooden statues ALL of which contributed carbon from their medieval grown source plants in the form of soot that COULD have infused the linen of the Shroud. With sufficient heat, carbon from those sources could be included with the sample that was later Carbon 14 tested.That being said, there IS NO EVIDENCE on the Shroud of soot from those sources and certainly not in sufficient quantity to skew the C14 date by 1200 years.At the submicroscopic level there is evidence of the Bio-plastic coating on individual fibers of the Shroud’s threads. However, it TOO is insufficient in quantity to skew the date that much. Both soot and germ poop together are insufficient to skew the date by that much.Both of these theories of why the Carbon 14 dates were so out of sync with the other scholarship are irrelevant!


The impeccable work done by the three C14 laboratories was doomed to failure from the moment the agreed testing protocols were discarded (literally at the last moment) in favor of taking the sample from the ONE area on the Shroud almost all scientists involved in the project agreed should be avoided. The labs were given samples that were not exemplar with the main Shroud material in that it contained added a large percentage of contemporary FRENCH linen rewoven into the Shroud linen in either 1535 or 1552 by the Nuns of Poor Clare when they were repairing damage done to the Shroud over the years.

It is so obvious you can even SEE the change from one type of linen to the other in the pretest photos of the actual tested samples in Reply 30 which presents a summary of the evidence.

Orionblamblam, why don’t you open your eyes and your mind and look at the evidence instead of just beating a dead horse. [shroudie, I know what I said in my last post… but I had to try… :^) ]

42 posted on 04/14/2004 10:28:54 PM PDT by Swordmaker (This tagline shut down for renovations and repairs. Re-open June of 2001.)

To: Swordmaker
I fully understand. If he wishes to believe as he does, that is fine with me. If he wishes to shape reality to his “faithview” that is also fine. I don’t respect his total misrepresentation of evidence to others.
43 posted on 04/15/2004 4:24:41 AM PDT by shroudie (

To: shroudie
You and I agree. That is why I continue to counter those who continually spout the Joe Nickell line of completely outdated “factoids” and why I maintain the Shroud of Turin Ping list.So many people claim to be of a “scientific mind” yet have theirs completely closed… and in fact have latched onto one of the scientists like McCrone who have completely misrepresented what they have found and ignoring EVERYTHING else. Scientific dogma is worse than any Religious dogma around because the practitioners claim to be open-minded.
44 posted on 04/15/2004 8:31:48 AM PDT by Swordmaker (This tagline shut down for renovations and repairs. Re-open June of 2001.)

To: Swordmaker
Reuters is now carrying the story. Of course they mention the carbon 14 testing and ignore the findings that dispute it. I guess they don’t read National Geographic. But the main point of the story is the challenge the second face poses to skeptics and debunkers. Overall a plus. another explosion of data soon when Rogers’ peer-reviewed article appears (so as not to suggest that I am stating anything out of school, National Geographic has announced it).
45 posted on 04/15/2004 8:52:06 AM PDT by shroudie (

To: Swordmaker
> the fire under discussion was not JUST the shroud burning all by itself, but included a wooden cathedral, the silver chased reliquary, the draperies draped over the reliquary, books, wooden statues ALL of which contributed carbonThey could contribute carbon only in two forms:
1: Carbon dioxide, which would not stick;
2: Soot, which would be cleaned off.The mass of any soot that *could* become “infused” into the linen is far less than the mass of the linen itself.> With sufficient heat, carbon from those sources could be included with the sample that was later Carbon 14 tested.Only if the heat was sufficient to turn the linen itself to ash.

why don’t you open your eyes and your mind and look at the evidence instead of just beating a dead horse

The “dead horse” here is the idea that a shroud that appeared in the middle ages, an era of a thriving market in religious forgeries, was somehow the One True Shroud Of the Theoretical Jesus.

46 posted on 04/15/2004 1:22:20 PM PDT by orionblamblam

To: Swordmaker
> Since he can’t refute the latest “Flawed Sample” proofIt’s hardly proof. There are patches that MIGHT be more recent. But even if so… how much more recent?The obvious conclusion to draw from any such thing as the shroud is Forgery. Forgeries are far more common than True Miracles; consequently, it is up to the believers in miracles to provide their evidence that the shroud is anything more than clever art. So far, that has not been done.Hell, for all we know, the shroud could well be 1st century… taken from a burial, sold to an artist, who then painted on it. Given that there is no blood on the shroud but there is iron oxide and other pigments…Occam’s Razor.
47 posted on 04/15/2004 1:27:45 PM PDT by orionblamblam

To: orionblamblam
The obvious conclusion to draw from any such thing as the shroud is Forgery. Forgeries are far more common than True Miracles; consequently, it is up to the believers in miracles to provide their evidence that the shroud is anything more than clever art. So far, that has not been done.Actually, it is not up to anyone to prove to you that it is real. There is ample evidence that it is not been proven to be a fake and no evidence that it is. There is significant evidence to make a strong case that it is a first century burial cloth. As for miracles, we need only concentrate here on the formation of the images. Much work is being done to show that they might be the result of a perfectly natural phenomenon. Of course, if they are miraculously induced images it is unlikely that science could prove that.Hell, for all we know, the shroud could well be 1st century… taken from a burial, sold to an artist, who then painted on it. Given that there is no blood on the shroud but there is iron oxide and other pigments…Good stretch in thinking. (Oh, did you miss the point about their being blood and no concentrations of pigments or iron oxide to form an image). Now for that to be so we must assume that the cloth was separated from the body it contained. We must, of course, consider Jewish attitudes regarding blood. Now you might develop your theory a bit more to think that Romans unwrapped the body or maybe they had some of their Syrian slaves do it.Occam’s Razor you say. Are you for real?theortical Jesus ??? I guess if you put no stock in history you probably put no stock in science either. Maybe this explains where you are coming from.
48 posted on 04/15/2004 1:55:15 PM PDT by shroudie (

To: shroudie
The lengths to which atheists and agnostics will go to deny that this is Christ is laughable. If the image is on both sides, then that is compelling evidence. I’m anxious to see what comes of this.
49 posted on 04/15/2004 2:19:39 PM PDT by plain talk

To: polemikos
I am one “fundamental” ( I prefer evangelical) who believes that the Shroud of Turin is the Genuine Grave Cloth of Jesus Christ.And that the image thereon was a result of the Physics of the Resurrection.
50 posted on 04/15/2004 2:41:19 PM PDT by happygrl (this war is for all the marbles…)

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` The United States Constitution 1787 ‘

#AceHistoryNews says that The United States Constitution was written in 1787 during the Philadelphia Convention. After ratification in eleven states, in 1789 its elected officers of government assembled in New York City, replacing the earlier 1781 Articles of Confederation government.

Following its establishment, the original Constitution has been amended twenty-seven times.

The meaning of the Constitution is interpreted and extended by judicial review in the federal courts. An original copy of the parchments is held at the National Archives Building.

Two alternative plans were developed in Convention. The nationalist majority, soon to be called “Federalists,” put forth the Virginia Plan, a consolidated government based on proportional representation among the states by population.

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The drafted Constitution was submitted to the Confederation Congress. It in turn forwarded the Constitution as drafted to the states for ratification by the Constitutional method proposed.

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Once the Articles Congress certified that eleven states had ratified the Constitution, elections were held, the new government began on March 4, 1789, and the Articles Congress dissolved itself.

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` Treasure Hunter turns ` Canadian History ‘on its head by finding 16th Century Shilling ‘

#AceHistoryNews say an amateur treasure hunter with a hand-held metal detector has turned Canadian history on its head after finding a 16th century shilling buried in clay on the shores of Vancouver Island.

Coat of arms of Victoria

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The 435-year-old coin discovered in western-most Canada has rekindled a theory that a British explorer made a secret voyage here two centuries before it was discovered by Spanish sailors.

Official historical records show the Spanish were the first Europeans to set foot in what is now Canada’s British Columbia province in 1774, followed four years later by British Royal Navy Captain James Cook.

Retired security systems installer Bruce Campbell found the coin in mid-December, along with a rare 1891 Canadian nickel, a 1960’s dime and penny from 1900.

“I was getting fat and tired of watching TV,” he said about what got him into his hobby, surrounded in his Victoria, British Columbia home by a trove of adventure novels and a few dug up treasures.

He never imagined, he said, stirring up controversy with his latest find.

According to conspiracy theorists and some historians, the silver coin (produced between 1551 and 1553) is evidence that English explorer Sir Francis Drake travelled as far north as Canada’s Pacific Coast during an expedition to California in 1579, in search of the famed Northwest Passage.

But he covered it up at the behest of Queen Elizabeth I, who supposedly wished to avoid confrontation over the new territory with Spain.



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“Freemasonry and its Christian Roots”

What Is Freemasonry?


Freemasonry Research Links

Can someone simultaneously be a Mason and a Christian?

 Let’s find out…

freemason-1Freemasonry is a religion.

“Every Masonic Lodge is a temple of religion, and its teachings are instructions in … the universal, eternal, immutable religion….” Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, by Albert Pike, Washington D.C., 1958, pp. 213, 219.

English: Portrait of Albert Pike.

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“[Masonry is] … the custodian and depository (since Enoch) of the great philosophical and religious truths, unknown to the world at large….” Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, by Albert Pike, Washington D.C., 1958, p. 210.

“Without this religious element it would scarcely be worthy of cultivation by the wise and good….” An Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, by Albert G. Mackey, 1921, pp. 618-619.

“…a worship in which all good men may unite…” by Joseph Newton

“…a religious institution…” by Albert Mackey

“Masonry is the universal religion only because and sl long as it embraces all religions” by J.D. Buck

Freemasonry utilizes deceit to hide the truth from 1st through 29th degree Masons; and Freemasonry’s god is a triune deity called JoaBulOn which stands for Jehovah, Baal, and Osiris.

“Masonry, like all the religions, all the Mysteries, Hermeticism and Alchemy, conceals its secrets from all except the Adepts and Sages, or the Elect, and uses false explanations and misinterpretations of its symbols to mislead those who deserve only to be misled; to conceal the Truth, which it calls light, from them…. Truth is not for those that are unworthy….” Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, by Albert Pike, Washington D.C., 1958, p 104-105.

“The Blue Degrees are but the outer court…of the Temple. Part of the symbols are displayed there to the [lower] Initiate, but he is intentionally misled by false interpretations. It is not intended that he shall understand them, but it is intended that he shall imagine he understands them.” Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, by Albert Pike, Washington D.C., 1958, p. 819.

God is known as “the nameless one of a hundred names.” Henry Wilson Coil, “A Comprehensive View of Freemasonry,” Richmond: Macoy Publishing, 1973, p. 192.

“God is equally present with the pious Hindu in the temple, the Jew in the synagogue, the Mohammedan in the mosque, and the Christian in the church.” Albert Mackey, “Mackey’s Revised Encyclopedia of Freemasonry,” Richmond: Macoy Publishing, 1966, 1:409-410.

Gob ac

Gob ac (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Freemasonry is not Christian. If it’s not Christian, but it is a religion (which Masons have confirmed above), then it by definition conflicts with Christianity. Thus, logically, one can’t simultaneously be a Christian and a Mason.

Freemasonry is not Christianity … it admits men of every creed within its hospitable bosom….”An Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, by Albert G. Mackey, 1921, pp. 618-619.

“[Masonry] … sees in Moses … in Confucius and Zoroaster, in Jesus of Nazareth, and in [Mohammed] great teachers of morality and eminent reformers….” Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, by Albert Pike, Washington D.C., 1958, pp. 277, 525.

Stained glass at St John the Baptist's Anglica...

Stained glass at St John the Baptist’s Anglican Church, Ashfield, New South Wales. Illustrates Jesus’ description of himself “I am the Good Shepherd” (from the Gospel of John, chapter 10, verse 11). This version of the image shows the detail of his face. The memorial window is also captioned: “To the Glory of God and in Loving Memory of William Wright. Died 6th November, 1932. Aged 70 Yrs.” (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Other Freemasonry vs. Christianity problems:

The secrets of Masonry are protected by the most vile of blood oaths, every one of which is an offence to Jesus.

The name and nature of the Masonic deity is an offense to the one true God. It is taught in the Royal Arch degree that Masonry draws its teachings and powers from three great teachers and Gods. The combined deity is represented as a three-headed god, whose name is JoaBulOn, which stands for Jehovah, Baal, and Osiris. Every time Masons pronounce that name in the Masonic prayer of worship, they have defiled the Holy name of God.

In the Shrine, the initiate swears a terrible binding oath in the name of “Allah, the God of our Fathers.” Mohammed was a false prophet and Allah is a god who has destroyed nation after nation of his followers. The red Fez itself was originally a badge of honor worn only by a Muslim who had actually killed a Christian and dipped his cap in the martyr’s blood.

At the Apron lecture, the Mason is told that the lambskin apron will be his covering at the great white throne judgment of God. The prayer and dedicatory sounds great, but there is only one Great white throne judgment and it is the judgment of the damned (Rev. 20:11).

The Lodge promises godhood through the Lodge, the usurping of Christ‘s Melchizedek Priesthood, the Holy communion of the dead, drinking wine from the carved out top of a human skull, etc.

Characteristics of Orthodox Christianity:

  1. Acceptance of the Bible as the inspired, infallible, authoritative Word of God.
  2. God became flesh in the physical man Jesus.
  3. Christ atoned for man’s sin through his death on the cross.
  4. Christ arose in bodily form from the grave, conquering death and proving he is God.

Galatians 1:6-12; 2 Timothy 3:16; 2 Peter 1:20,21; Revelations 22:18; Deuteronomy 13:1-10

Freemasonry is incompatible with these 4 characteristics of orthodox Christianity. Therefore one cannot simultaneously be a Mason and a Christian. Christians that are Masons must leave the Lodge and repudiate all oaths or suffer the rejection of Christ and the judgment of God’s Word.

High degrees of Freemasonry

High degrees of Freemasonry (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Masonic Doctrine:

Masonic Doctrine on Jesus Christ “Jesus was just a man. He was one of the “exemplars,” one of the great men of the past, but not divine and certainly not the only means of redemption of lost mankind. He was on a level with other great men of the past like Aristotle, Plato, Pythagoras and Mohammed. His life and legend were no different from that of Krishna, the Hindu god. He is “the son of Joseph,” not the Son of God.”

Masonic Doctrine of the Bible “The bible of the Christian is merely one of the “holy books” of man, no better than the Koran, the Hindu scriptures or the books of the Chinese and Greek philosophers. It is not to be taken literally, for its true meaning is esoteric (hidden from all but a small number of “enlightened,” elite leaders); the literal, obvious meaning is only for the ignorant masses. It is right to remove references to Jesus in passages used in the ritual. Masonry, contrary to popular belief, is NOT based upon the Bible. Masonry is actually based on the Kabala (Cabala), a medieval book of magic and mysticism.”

Masonic Doctrine of Prayer “Prayers are to be offered to “Deity,” to “The Great Architect of the Universe” (GAOTU), and are to be “universal” in nature, so as not to offend anyone and so as to apply to everyone. Prayer is NEVER to be made “in Jesus name,” or “in Christ’s name”, to do so would offend a Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist, etc. If a Worshipful Master allows prayers to be made in Jesus’ name, his lodge can be closed and its charter revoked by the Grand Lodge of his state.”

Masonic Doctrine of God “God is, basically, whatever we perceive Him to be; our idea or concept of God becomes our God. Usually referred to with the vague and general term, “Deity,” the god of Masonry can be the one of our choosing, spoken of generically as “The Great Architect of the Universe.” However, those who pursue the higher studies in Masonry learn that God is the force of nature, specifically the Sun with its life-giving powers. The “advanced, enlightened ones,” the adepts at the top, this nature worship is understood as the worship of the generative principles (i.e. the sex organs), particularly the phallus. Human Nature is also worshipped by some as “Deity,” as are Knowledge and Reason. Since Masonry is a revival of the ancient pagan mystery religions, its god can also be said to be Nature, with its fertility (sex) gods and goddesses representing the Sun and Moon (in Egypt, Osiris and Isis).”

Masonic Doctrine of Satan: “Satan, as an enemy of God and his Kingdom, as an evil power seeking to tempt, deceive and destroy, does not exist. Mankind has merely “supposed” this. The usual Christian perception of Satan is merely a distortion of the truth about Lucifer, the “Light Bearer,” who is actually good and the instrument of liberty, but generally misunderstood and maligned.”

Masonic Doctrine on Exclusiveness “The “light” of Freemasonry, its “secrets” and its pathway to “perfection” are only for the elite few initiated into its knowledge and wisdom. Excluded are women, Negroes, the poor (who haven’t the money with which to pay), the cripples, blind and deaf who can’t perform the recognition signs (or see and hear them), and the feeble-minded who can’t receive the teachings or be trusted to protect them. All such people, including the wives, the daughters and some of the sons of Masons, are considered “profane” (unclean, unworthy) and can never be anything else. No references are required here for it is common knowledge and all of the above confirms and establishes it.”

Masonic Doctrine of Secrecy “Secrecy is the essence of Masonry, necessary for its very existence, and protected by blood oaths of mayhem and murder.”

Masonic Doctrine of Blood Oaths Blood Oaths on penalty of mayhem and violent death are administered at the end of initiation into all Masonic degrees, binding the initiate to protect the “secrets” of the degrees. These oaths of obligation (usually called just “obligation”) are considered unbreakable, and are (collectively) the thing that makes a man a Mason. In this way, these oaths are the cornerstone of Masonry.

Masonic Doctrine of Seeking and Finding “Masonry is a never-ending search for “light,” always promised but never quite realized.”

Masonic Doctrine of Truthfulness “It is right to lie, if necessary, to protect the “secrets” of the Lodge, or to protect another Mason by concealing his wrongdoing. It can even be “right” to deliberately deceive sincere Masons seeking to learn the lessons and “secrets” of Masonry.”

Masonic Doctrine of Spiritual Light and Darkness “All “profane” people (non-Masons), including godly, genuine Christians, are wretched, blind and lost in complete spiritual darkness. Only initiation into the degrees and mysteries of Masonry will bring them out of darkness and “into the light,” cleansing them and imparting new life.”

Masonic Doctrine of Redemption “Redemption is a matter of self-improvement, morality, and good works, including obedience to the Mason’s obligation and all higher Masonic authorities. Faith in the atonement of Jesus has nothing to do with it; it is rather a matter of enlightenment, step by step, which comes with initiation into the Masonic degrees and their mysteries.”

Shaw, Jim & McKenney, Tom, 1988, A Deadly Deception, Huntington House Publishers

Repugnant Masonic (and old Mormon Temple Ceremony) Oaths

1. Masons bind themselves to the penalty of having their throats cut from ear to ear
2. Masons bind themselves to the penalty of having their hearts plucked out of their chests
3. Masons bind themselves to the penalty of having their bodies disemboweled.

Masonic-ob (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Eight Problems With Freemasonry

1. The prevalent use of offensive concepts, titles, and terms such as “Worshipful Master” for the leaders of the lodge; references to their buildings as “mosques,” “shrines,” or “temples”; and the use of such words as “Abaddon” and Jah-Bul-On,” the so-called secret name of God. To many, these terms are not only offensive but sacrilegious.

2. The use of archaic, offensive rituals and so-called “bloody oaths” or “obligations,” among those being that promised by the Entered Apprentice: [not listed for lack of space] or that of the Fellow Craft degree: [not listed for lack of space] Or that of the Master Mason: [not listed for lack of space] Or that of other advanced degrees with required rituals considered by many to be pagan and incompatible with Christian faith and practice. Even though these oaths, obligations and rituals may or may not be taken seriously by the initiate, it is inappropriate for a Christian to “sincerely promise and swear,” with a hand on the Holy Bible, any such promises or oaths, or to participate in any such pagan rituals.

3. The recommended readings in pursuance of advanced degrees, of religions and philosophies, which are undeniably pagan and/or occultic, such as much of the writings of Albert Pike, Albert Mackey, Manly Hall, Rex Hutchins, W.L. Wilmhurst and other such authors; along with their works, such as Morals and Dogma, A Bridge to Light, An Encyclopedia of Freemasonry and The Meaning of Masonry.

4. The reference to the Bible placed on the altar of the lodge as the “furniture of the lodge,” comparing it to the square and compass rather than giving it the supreme place in the lodge.

5. The prevalent use of the term “light” which some may understand as a reference to salvation rather than knowledge or truth.

6. The implication that salvation may be attained by one’s good works, implicit in the statement found in some Masonic writings that “Masonry is continually reminded of that purity of life and conduct which is necessary to obtain admittance into the Celestial Lodge above where the Supreme Architect of the Universe presides.” (Louisiana Monitor, page 79)

Even though many Masons understand that the “purity of life and conduct” can only be achieved through faith in Jesus Christ, others may be led to believe they can earn salvation by living a pure life with good conduct.

7. The heresy of Universalism (the belief all people will eventually be saved), which permeates the writings of many Masonic authors, which is a doctrine inconsistent with New Testament teaching.

8. The refusal of most lodges (although not all) to admit for membership African-Americans.

As reported by the Southern Baptist Home Missions Board,
SBC, 1350 Spring Street NW, Atlanta, GA 30367-5601 (1993)

Masonic Quotations
“We may not call in question the propriety of this organization; if we would be Masons we must yield private judgment. ‘To the law and to the testimony—if any man walk not by this rule it is because there is no light in him.”’—Pierson’s Traditions of Freemasonry, p. 30.”That this surrender of free-will to Masonic authority is absolute (within the scope of the landmarks of the order) and perpetual, may be inferred from an examination of the emblem (the shoe or sandal) which is used to enforce this lesson of resignation. The esotery of the Masonic rituals gives the fullest assurance of this: “once a Mason always a Mason” is an aphorism in our literature conveying an undeniable truth.”—Morris’ Dictionary of Freemasonry, p. 29.

“A Mason should know how to obey those who are set over him, however inferior they may be in worldly rank; or condition.” —Macoy’s Masonic Monitor, p. 14.

“Disobedience and want of respect to Masonic superiors is an offense for which the transgressor subjects himself to punishment.”—Mackey’s Masonic Jurisprudence, p. 511.

“Under the head of Discipline is given a catalogue of fifteen prime classes of un-Masonic acts, of which this is one. It is so subversive of the groundwork of Masonry, in which obedience is most strongly inculcated, that the Mason who disobeys subjects himself to severe penalties.”— Morris’ Dictionary, pp. 91,92

“As a presiding officer the Master is possessed or extraordinary powers which belong to the presiding officer of no other association” Mackey’s Masonic Jurisprudence, p. 344.

“The powers and privileges of the Master of a lodge are by no means limited in extent.”-Chase’s Digest of Masonic Law, page 380.

“An affirmation is not equivalent to an oath in Masonry however it may be in common and is not legitimate in the working of the lodge.”-Ibid. p.13.

The Covenant is irrevocable. Even though a person may be suspended or expelled; though he may withdraw from the Lodge, journey into countries where Masons cannot be found, or become a subject of despotic governments that persecute, or a communicant of bigoted churches that denounce Masonry, he cannot cast off or nullify his Masonic covenant; No law of the land can affect it-no anathema of the church weaken it. It is irrevocable.” Webb’s Freemasons’ Monitor, p. 240.

Note: This accounts for many strange and mysterious proceedings in our would-be courts of justice and in the churches. NO law of the land (that is, civil law,) can even affect this lodge oath or covenant. No anathema of the church (that is, divine law), can weaken it.

Is it any wonder that criminals go scot-free when the sheriff that impanels the jury, enough of the jurors impaneled to bring in a divided verdict, enough witnesses drummed up to make the evidence appear contradictory, the attorneys of the prosecution and of the defense, and the judge on the bench, are irrevocably bound to the prisoner at the bar as sworn brethren, by an obligation considered paramount to all others, civil or divine?

Is it anything strange that there is trouble in the church when the members are bound up, by this strong covenant, with saloon-keepers, irreverent scoffers, and other evil-minded men, in sworn brotherhood?

Can a man simultaneously be a Christian and a Freemason?
The Square and Compasses. The symbols employed...

The Square and Compasses. The symbols employed in Co-Freemasonry are mostly identical with those in other orders of Freemasonry. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

A Short History of Freemasonry

Teachings and practices of the secret fraternal order known as the Free and Accepted Masons.

There are 4.75 million members worldwide, mostly in the U.S. and other English-speaking countries, and no central authority. Its ideals include fellowship, religious toleration, and political compromise. Drawing on guild practices of medieval stonemasons, the order’s first Grand Lodge was organized in London (1717).

In America, Masons were active in the Revolution and continued as a force in later politics. In Europe, they included Voltaire, Goethe, Haydn, Mazzini, and Garibaldi. Freemasonry’s identification with 19th-century. bourgeois liberalism led to reaction, e.g., in the U.S., the Anti-masonic Party; its anticlericalism brought the hostility of the Roman Catholic Church. Totalitarian states have always suppressed Freemasonry. Masons have a complex systems of rites and degrees, subsidiary organizations for women and children, and lodges noted for their parades and fraternal gatherings.


The term fraternal society, used interchangeably with fraternal order, refers to voluntary associations that feature elaborate secret initiations. Some orders provide a simple form of life insurance; nearly all exclude women. Nowadays the most important fraternal societies are the Freemasons, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias, and the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elk.

Fraternal orders were once a significant – some observers believed characteristic – aspect of American society. Alexis de Tocqueville was struck by the “immense assemblage” of voluntary associations, including fraternal orders, in antebellum America. Henry David Thoreau complained that America was “dwindling” into a nation of “odd-fellows.”

The origins of fraternal orders are obscured by a tangle of implausible legends and dubious histories. Nineteenth-century Freemasons claimed to be heirs of a tradition extending back to the founding of King Solomon’s temple.

Historians of the Knights of Pythias made a case that Pythagoras was the first Pythian, despite the awkward fact that the order apparently had been founded in Washington, D.C., in 1864. The Improved Order of Red Men, established in the 1830s, claimed descent from the Sons of Liberty of the American Revolution. Without doubt, the Freemasons were entitled to claim that they were the nation’s oldest order. But contrary to the claims of some enthusiasts, Freemasonry originated in London in the early 1700s as a stonemasons’ trade guild.

The order soon became a club for tradesmen, merchants, and a few much-celebrated noblemen. In the 1730s and 1740s a handful of Masonic lodges were established in coastal towns in America. Although these lodges were dominated by a mercantile elite, some tradesmen were admitted, such as Benjamin Franklin who, as a young printer, became grand master of Pennsylvania Freemasons in 1734.

Freemasonry became associated with patriotism during the Revolution, largely because George Washington and many of his generals belonged to the order. This patriotic association was strengthened when Washington took his oath of office as president upon a Masonic Bible.

Despite the order’s association with the Founding Fathers and its profession of universal brotherhood, American officials refused to recognize the legitimacy of black Freemasons, who in 1775 had been admitted to a lodge composed mostly of Irish soldiers stationed in Boston harbor. The leader of the blacks, Prince Hall, subsequently received a dispensation from English officials and established African Lodge No. 459. Black Freemasonry, usually called Prince Hall Freemasonry, became popular among middle-class blacks.

During the early 1800s the number of Masonic lodges multiplied rapidly. The order especially appealed to an emerging middle class of lawyers, commercial farmers, and independent tradesmen, many of whom were growing impatient with orthodox religion and established political elites. Tensions between Masonic leaders and the conservative ministry smoldered until 1826, when a disgruntled ex-Freemason, William Morgan, announced his intention of publishing the secret Masonic rituals. Morgan was abducted by Freemasons and was never seen again. What happened to him has never been fully explained.

Twenty-six Masons were indicted on murder and related charges. Only six came to trial; four were convicted of conspiracy and sentenced to terms ranging from several months to two years in jail. When it became known that many of the jurors and prosecutors were Masons, as was Governor DeWitt Clinton of New York, a coalition of ministers and opportunistic politicians formed to suppress the order. The Anti-Masonic party became the first significant third-party in American politics.

Though short-lived as a political movement, Anti-Masonry generated intense public pressure and forced thousands of members to renounce the order and hundreds of lodges to relinquish their charters. By best estimate membership declined from 100,000 in the mid-1820s to 40,000 a decade later.

Many renouncing Freemasons flocked into the Odd Fellows. Odd-Fellowship originated in late-eighteenth-century Great Britain among industrial workers who sought to mitigate the effects of the Industrial Revolution and the English Poor Laws. The order assisted members in dire circumstances and provided them a decent burial. In 1819 English immigrants established the first American lodge of Odd Fellows in Baltimore. During its early decades the order met in taverns and functioned as little more than a drinking society. But the influx of ex-Freemasons during the 1830s and 1840s completely transformed American Odd-Fellowship. This “new and more refined” group, as one nineteenth-century historian described them, gained control of the order, raised fees beyond what most workers could afford, banned liquor from meetings, launched a program to build “temples,” and wrote and performed elaborate successions of initiatory rituals.

By the 1850s Freemasonry, having just begun to recover from the Morgan debacle, adopted a similar program. During the last third of the nineteenth century, fraternal orders, featuring reform and ritual, proliferated among the urban middle classes. By 1900 there were more than three hundred orders; total fraternal membership exceeded 6 million. Ambitious clerks, businessmen, and politicians used the orders to cultivate contacts and establish ties with clients and like-minded people elsewhere. Others found satisfaction in the exotic rituals, which provided a religious experience antithetical to liberal Protestantism and a masculine “family” vastly different from the one in which most members had been raised.

Partly to attenuate women’s complaints about the secrecy, the cost of membership, and the time members spent away from home, most orders supported creation of ladies’ auxiliaries. The Odd-Fellows established the Daughters of Rebekah (1851), and Freemasons, the Order of the Eastern Star (1869).

Early in the twentieth century, however, many young middle-class men, preferring the recreational clubs and service organizations such as Rotary and Kiwanis, refused to follow their fathers into the lodge. Robert and Helen Lynd, in their study of Muncie, Indiana, in the 1920s, reported that “the great days of the lodges have vanished.” Aggressive recruitment policies and relaxed admission standards temporarily masked the weakness of most lodges.

But the onset of the Great Depression brought about the collapse of the institutional foundations of the fraternal movement as members could no longer afford to pay dues and thousands of lodges, unable to meet mortgage payments, went bankrupt. The major orders together lost nearly a million members; hundreds of others passed out of existence entirely.

After World War II, social activities, philanthropy, and community service took precedence over the rituals, which were abbreviated or occasionally abandoned. Most orders languished and increasingly became identified in the public mind with the televised antics of Jackie Gleason’s Ralph Kramden, member of the fictional Loyal Order of Raccoons. In recent decades, however, Freemasonry has gained many new adherents, especially from among white-collar workers and immigrants.

Mark C. Carnes, Secret Ritual and Manhood in Victorian America (1989);

Dorothy Ann Lipson, Freemasonry in Federalist Connecticut, 1789-1835 (1977).


American political party founded to counter the supposed political influence of Freemasonry. It arose in Western  New York state after the disappearance (1826) of William Morgan, a former Mason who had written a book purporting to reveal Masonic secrets. Freemasons were said, without proof, to have murdered him.

At Baltimore, in 1831, Anti-Masons held the first national nominating convention of any party, and issued the first written party platform. In 1834 they helped form the Whig Party.


Organization whose members, aims, and rites are kept secret. Membership is by Initiation. In some Cultures secret societies are the sole means by which Mysteries and folkways are transmitted, generally in coming-of-age rituals.

They are usually limited to men, but in China the secret Hung Society for women lasted over 1,500 years. Modern secret societies (e.g., fraternal orders, Freemasonry) offer members various kinds of mutual aid. Some governments and churches oppose them as fostering subversion and violence.


The Anti-Masonic party, the first third-party movement in the United States, arose in response to the disappearance of William Morgan, shortly after his release on September 12, 1826, from a Canandaigua, New York, jail. Morgan had threatened to publish a book divulging the secrets of Freemasonry; opponents of the order asserted that a conspiracy among Masons had led to his arrest on trumped-up charges and subsequently to his being kidnapped and murdered.

The Anti-Masonic movement grew rapidly, drawing its initial following from farmers and skilled craftsmen – many of them with ties to evangelicalism and the temperance movement. They maintained that the Masonic order’s secrecy, rituals, and aristocratic character posed a threat to republican democracy.

Anti-Masonry also provided a vehicle for rural people to express their antipathy to the cities, and for ordinary people to voice their resentment of the powerful leaders, many of them Masons, who dominated the nation’s public affairs. From western New York, the movement spread through New England, the Mid-Atlantic states, and Ohio and Michigan. Anti-Masons elected a governor of Rhode Island in 1833, controlled Vermont and Pennsylvania for several years, and played a significant part in local politics in both Massachusetts and New York.

In 1831, the Anti-Masonic party nominated William Wirt to run for president; in the process, it became the first American political party to select a presidential candidate by means of a national convention and the first to adopt an official party platform. Wirt carried only one state (Vermont) in 1832, but the party continued to grow, offering an increasingly general program of reform. As it expanded, it came to be dominated by new members more impelled by personal ambition or by a general opposition to the Jacksonian Democrats than by Anti-Masonry. At its second and final convention (1835), the Anti-Masonic party approved a slate for 1836 identical to that of the new Whig party, and thereafter it disappeared into the Whig coalition.

During its brief career, however, Anti-Masonry had played an important part in northeastern politics and had helped launch the careers of such leaders as William Lloyd Garrison, William H. Seward, Thurlow Weed, and Thaddeus Stevens.


Secret societies are in conflict with the teachings of Holy Scripture. A Christian must never affiliate with any organization that 1) yokes together believers with unbelievers in unholy alliances (2 Cor. 6:14-18); 2) requires a pledge to unscriptural oaths which are sealed by using the name of God improperly or in vain (Ex. 20:7, Lev. 5:4-6, Matt. 5:34-37, James 5:12); 3) represents itself as providing teaching in harmony with the Bible when in fact it does not (2 Peter 3:16); 4) represents itself as being religious and offers a false hope of salvation through works, yet dishonors the only true God and our Savior the Lord Jesus Christ (John 17:3, 1 Tim. 2:3-6, Col. 2:8-10, Eph. 2:8,9).

The Christian should “be careful to do what is right in the eyes of everybody” (Rom. 12:17). Secretively meeting behind closed doors in a “lodge” where activities are carried on behind a cloak of secrecy, in favor of fellow members, usually for economic, social, or political advantage hardly describes doing what is right in the eyes of everybody. “Come out from them and be separate, says the Lord” (2 Cor. 6:17). This is God’s advice for Christians and is certainly applicable in regard to secret societies.

The Universalism of Masonry

From: Christ or the Lodge? A Presbyterian Report on Freemasonry, a report presented at the ninth General Assembly of the Orthodox Presbyterian Church, meeting at Rochester, New York, June 2–5, 1942,

There is a Christian universalism. God has His elect in every age and every nation. Ever since the fall of man the Son of God has gathered the elect into His church by His Word and Spirit. In Christ Jesus there is neither Jew nor Greek, bond nor free, male nor female, for all are one in Him (Galatians 3:28). John saw the four living creatures and the four and twenty elders fall down before the Lamb and he heard them sing: “Thou wast slain, and didst purchase unto God with thy blood men of every tribe, and tongue, and people, and nation” (Revelation 5:9).

Masonry also lays claim to universalism, but its universalism differs radically from that of Christianity in that it denies Christian particularism and exclusivism.

  • Christianity claims to have the only true book, the Bible. Masonry places this book on a par with the sacred books of other religions.
  • Christianity lays claim to the only true God, the God of the Bible, and denounces all other Gods as idols. Masonry recognizes the Gods of all religions.
  • Christianity describes God as the Father of Jesus Christ and of those who through faith in Him have received the right to be called the sons of God. The God of Masonry is the universal father of all mankind.
  • Christianity holds that only the worship of the God who has revealed Himself in Holy Scripture is true worship. Masonry honors as true worship the worship of numerous other deities.
  • Christianity recognizes but one Saviour, Jesus Christ, the only Mediator between God and man. Masonry recognizes many saviours.
  • Christianity acknowledges but one way of salvation, that of grace through faith. Masonry rejects this way and substitutes for it salvation by works and character.
  • Christianity teaches the brotherhood of those who believe in Christ, the communion of saints, the church universal, the one body of Christ. Masonry teaches the brotherhood of Masons and the universal brotherhood of man.
  • Christianity glories in being the one truly universal religion. Masonry would rob Christianity of this glory and appropriate it to itself.
  • Christianity maintains that it is the only true religion. Masonry denies this claim and boasts of being Religion itself.

Freemasonry Research Links

Masonry Beyond the Light, by William and Sharon Schnoebelen, ISBN 0937958387, $9.95, A former high-level Mason reveals secrets about this dangerous group. Many Christians believe Masonry is a fine, Christian organization. But as Bill Schnoebelen climbed to Masonry’s 32nd degree he discovered horrifying facts about this organization that lower level Masons never learn. Now a born again Christian., Schnoebelen reveals all. Learn shocking facts like · To be a Mason, you must first take an oath that is a denial of Jesus Christ. · The father of modern Masonry said, “Lucifer is God!” This fascinating and informative story will give you an unusual insight into the world of Masonry from one who was on the inside, and will prepare you to show others why it is impossible for anyone to be a Christian and a Mason at the same time.

Hidden Secrets of the Eastern Star, by Dr. Cathy Burns, ISBN 0005021812, $15.95, 496 pages, paperback

A list of well-known freemasons:

Ex Masons For Jesus:

Freemasonry Research Files:

Freemasonry and the 20th Century Occult Revival:

What about Freemasonry?

Why I left Freemasonry by Charles G. Finney, D.D.:

Is There No Help For The Poor Widow’s Son?

How can you lead a man away from the Masonic lodge?

Documents which expose Freemasonry:

Ex-Masons for Jesus:


Cutting Edge Ministries Freemasonry Corner:

Masons: Christian or Anti-Christian:

Books: With One Accord:

Christian Ministries Intl. – Books & Tapes:

Lord Baden-Powell, the Boy Scouts, and Freemasonry:

From Mason to Minister:

An Evangelical View of Freemasonry and the Loyal Orders:

Why does the U.S. Government print ancient Masonic symbols on dollar bills?

“Have I therefore become your enemy because I tell you the truth?” (Gal 4:16)

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#Russia : ” Polar Expedition Headed by `Faddey Bellingshausen’ Discovered Antarctica”

#History2Research says on January 28, 1820, a Russian polar expedition, headed by Faddey Bellingshausen, discovered Antarctica.

Russian HistoryThe supposition of Antarctica’s existence appeared in the 16th Century, and for years people tried to confirm it. In 1772-1775, James Cook, the English sailor, sailed across the Southern Ocean and did not find any signs of the “The Unknown Southern Land”, so the world lost interest in the South Pole for some time.

At the beginning of 1819, on the recommendation of three famous sailors – Admiral Gavril Sarychev, captain-commander Ivan Kruzenstern and captain-lieutenant Otto Kotzebue, – the Russian government decided to conduct a polar expedition for “acquiring knowledge about our Earth” and “discovering new lands near the South Pole.” Krusenstern wrote in his letter to the Admiralty that Russia should not share the glory of the possible discoveries with any other country.

On July 16, 1819, two Russian sloops, “Vostok” and “Mirny” under the command of Faddey Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev left the port in Kronshtadt and headed for the South Pole. It was the first big Russian sea expedition, financed and organized by the government. Both Lazarev and Bellingshausen were experienced sailors and had participated in circumnavigations. In four months, the ships reached Rio de Janeiro and stopped there to replenish supplies. From Rio, “Vostok” and “Mirny” sailed towards Sydney, Australia, across the polar seas, trying to go as far south, as possible.

rianowostilibrary400On January 1, 1820, “Vostok” and “Mirny” made the first discovery. They found a group of volcanic islands, inhabited by penguins and other birds. The expedition named the islands “Traverse islands”, after the Russian Navy Minister – Ivan Traverse.

In the middle of January, the expedition reached the Sandwich Land, discovered by Cook. Cook had finished his expedition with the discovery of it, and had been sure that going further to South would be impossible because of cold, storms and ice barriers. The Russian expedition explored the Land, and it became clear that Cook had made a mistake, and the Sandwich Land was actually a Sandwich archipelago. Lazarev and Bellingshausen plotted it on the map and changed its name to “The South Sandwich Islands”.

The ships continued their way to South, tacking among the icebergs, some of which were, according to the expedition records, 100 meters high. In one of his letters, Lazarev wrote about the hardships of this period of the voyage: “we wandered, like shadows, in this barren land, under the endless snow, through ice and fog”.

On January 27, 1820, “Vostok” and “Mirny” crossed the Antarctic Circle, and the day after, Lazarev and Bellingshausen saw the Antarctic coast for the first time. The ships were 20 kilometers away from it. In his records, Lazarev described the view: “The infinite ice, stretching away as far as the eye can see”, and called it “amazing”. In its voyage, the expedition approached the Antarctic coast six times, but the ships could not come close to the continent because of the ice barriers. The fourth approach assured Bellingshausen that the expedition had found the mysterious “Southern Land”, but he was not sure if there was any dry land under the ice he had seen.

In the southern autumn of 1820, “Vostok” and “Mirny” arrived in Sydney. From May 1820 until September 1820, “Vostok” and “Mirny” explored the tropic areas of the Pacific Ocean, and on November 12, 1820, headed back to Antarctica. After a two-month journey, on January 20, 1821, the expedition discovered the Alexander I Land, but Bellingshausen was not sure if it was an island or a peninsula.

In February 1821, the expedition headed to Rio de Janeiro, and in August, “Vostok” and “Mirny” returned to Kronshtadt. The voyage lasted 751 days, and the ships had sailed 80,240 kilometers.

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