#OnThisDay April.03: 1996: Croatia Flight USAF CT-43 Crashed into a mountainside whilst on approach to Dubrovnik while on an official trade mission #AceHistoryDesk report 45

#AceHistoryReport – Apr.03: The aircraft, a Boeing 737-200 originally built as T-43A navigational trainer and later converted into a CT-43A executive transport aircraft, was carrying United States Secretary of CommerceRon Brown and 34 other people, including The New York Times Frankfurt bureau chief Nathaniel C. Nash.[1] While attempting an instrument approach to Dubrovnik Airport, the airplane crashed into a mountainside.

#OTD 1996 Croatia USAF CT-43 crash: ‘On April 3, 1996, a United States Air Force Boeing CT-43A (Flight IFO-21) crashed on approach to Dubrovnik, Croatia, while on an official trade mission.

USAF CT-43A crash 1996.jpg

An Air Force Technical Sergeant survived the initial impact, but died en route to a hospital. Everyone else on board died at the scene of the crash.[2]United States Air Force Flight IFO-21A USAFMH-53J Pave Low helicopter hovers near the wreckage of Flight IFO-21. The tail number of the accident aircraft is shortened as 31149.AccidentDateApril 3, 1996SummaryControlled flight into terrain due to pilot error and poorly designed instrument approachSite3 km (1.9 mi) north of Dubrovnik Airport, Dubrovnik, Croatia.
42°35′54″N 18°15′08″EAircraftAircraft typeBoeing CT-43AOperatorUnited States Air ForceRegistration73-1149Flight originZagreb International Airport, Zagreb, CroatiaStopoverTuzla International Airport, Tuzla, Bosnia-HerzegovinaDestinationDubrovnik Airport, Dubrovnik, CroatiaOccupants35Passengers30Crew5Fatalities35 (initially 34)Survivors0 (initially 1, died shortly after rescue)

The aircraft was operated by the 76th Airlift Squadron of the 86th Airlift Wing, based at Ramstein Air Base in Germany. Unlike civilian 737s, the military CT-43A version was not equipped with a flight data recorder nor a cockpit voice recorder.[3]

Contents

Investigation

Zagreb Pleso Airport

Tuzla Airport

Dubrovnik Čilipi Airport

Crash Site St John’s HillLocation of crash site and departure and destination airports

Summary of the NDB approach to runway 12 from the USAF accident report

The official US Air Force accident investigation board report noted several reasons that led the Boeing CT-43A, callsign “IFO-21” (short for Implementation Force),[4] to crash.[5] Chief among the findings was a “failure of command, aircrew error and an improperly designed instrument approach procedure”. The inclement weather was not deemed a substantial contributing factor in the crash.[6]

The Boeing CT-43A used for this flight was formerly a T-43A navigator training aircraft that was converted for distinguished visitor travel. The flight was on an instrument flight rules non-directional beacon (NDB) approach, which is a non-precision type of instrument approach, to Runway 12 when it strayed off course. Non-precision approaches are those that do not incorporate vertical guidance.[7] While NDB approaches are essentially obsolete in the United States, they are still used widely in other parts of the world. Because of their infrequent use in the United States, many American pilots are not fully proficient in performing them (a NASA survey showed that 60% of American transport-rated pilots had not flown an NDB approach in the last year).[3] The investigation board determined that the approach used was not approved for Department of Defense aircraft, and should not have been used by the aircraft crew.[8]The board determined that the particular NDB approach used required two operating ADFs, the instrument used to fly such an approach, on board the aircraft, but this aircraft only had one ADF installed. To successfully fly the approach, one ADF was required to track the outbound course of 119° from the Koločep NDB (KLP), while another ADF was required to observe when the aircraft had flown beyond the CavtatNDB (CV), which marked the missed approach point. The alternative available to the crew was to repeatedly switch their one ADF between the signals at the KLP and CV beacons, though this would add further workload and stress to the crew.[9] Further, the board noted that the approach was rushed, with the aircraft flying at 80 knots (150 km/h) above the proper final approach speed and had not received the proper landing clearance from the control tower.[8]

The crash site, on a 2,300 ft (700 m) hill, was 1.6 miles (2.6 km) northeast of where the aircraft should have been on the inbound course to the NDB. The published NDB approach brings the inbound aircraft down a valley, and has a minimum descent height of 2,150 ft (660 m) at the missed approach point (where they should have climbed and turned to the right if the runway was not in view), which is below the elevation of the hills to the north. The runway is at 510 ft (160 m) MSL. Five other aircraft had landed prior to the CT-43A and had not experienced any problems with the navigational aids. There was no emergency call from the pilots, and they did not initiate a missed approach, even though they were beyond the missed approach point when they hit the hill at 2:57 PM local time.[3][4]

Each country is responsible for publishing the approach charts, including minimum descent heights, for its airports, and the investigators noted that the minimum in mountainous terrain in the United States is 2,800 ft (850 m), as compared to the 2,150 ft (660 m) on the chart given to the crew of IFO-21.[9] It was a requirement of the US Air Force to review and approve all charts, and to ban flights into airports for which the charts did not meet the proper American aviation standards.[9] The commander of the 86th Operations Group, Col. John E. Mazurowski,[10] revealed that he had requested (but not yet received) approval to waive the review for Dubrovnik, as the approach had worked for years and the delay of a full review could hamper the interests of the American diplomatic mission.[9]

Outcomes

Dubrovnik Airport was singled out for an improperly designed approach and landing procedure.[9]

A number of US Air Force (USAF) officers were found to have contributed to a failure of command. The general commanding the 86th Airlift Wing, Brig. Gen. William E. Stevens, vice-commander Col. Roger W. Hansen and the commander of the 86th Operations Group, Col. John E. Mazurowski, were all relieved of their posts.[10][11] Mazurowski was later found guilty of a dereliction of duties and was demoted to major, while twelve other officers were reprimanded. [9]

The USAF ordered all military aircraft to be equipped with a flight data recorder and a cockpit voice recorder.[9]

American military aircraft are no longer allowed to fly into airports without explicit approval from the United States Department of Defense, not even for high ranking diplomatic missions.[9]

Legacy

The area of the crash site is identified by a large stainless steel cross on Stražišće peak. Hikers can reach the peak via the “Ronald Brown Path”, which is named in commemoration of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce who died in the crash.[12]

A memorial room has been installed in the Ronald Brown memorial house in the old city of Dubrovnik. It features portraits of the crash victims as well as a guest book.[13]

The head of navigation at Čilipi Airport, Niko Jerkuić, was found dead three days after the accident with a bullet wound to his chest. The police investigation concluded that the case was a suicide.[14]

In popular culture

The crash of IFO-21 was covered in “Fog of War”, a Season 4 (2007) episode of the internationally syndicated Canadian TV documentary series Mayday.[9]

References

  1.  “List of crash victims”. CNN. April 4, 1996.
  2.  “Najpotresnije zrakoplovne nesreće u hrvatskoj povijesti”Index.hr. August 22, 2008.
  3. a b c Hughes, David “USAF, NTSB, Croatia Probe 737 Crash”, Aviation Week & Space Technology, 8 April 1996
  4. a b Transcript of US Department of Defense News briefing held on 7 June 2006 “Results of the Accident Investigation Report of the CT-43 Accident”. Retrieved: 29 November 2008
  5.  Walters, James M.; Sumwalt, Robert L. III (2000). Aircraft Accident Analysis: Final Reports. McGraw Hill.
  6.  “The weather at the time of the approach was reported as 400 feet broken, 2,000 feet overcast, 8 km or about 5 miles visibility, rain, surface winds for 120, 12 knots, because of the weather, the crew is required to fly an instrument approach procedure into Dubrovnik.” Transcript of US Department of Defense News briefing held on 7 June 2006 “Results of the Accident Investigation Report of the CT-43 Accident”. Retrieved: 29 November 2008
  7.  FSF ALAR Briefing Note 7.2 – Constant Angle Nonprecision Approach Flight Safety Foundation
  8. a b DoD news release Archived September 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  9. a b c d e f g h i “Fog of War“. Mayday. Season 4. Episode 8. Cineflix. 2007-06-03. Discovery Channel Canada.
  10. a b “Press Briefing”United States Department of Defense. 1996-05-31. Retrieved 2020-04-22.
  11.  Shenon, Philip (1996-05-31). “Air Force Ousts 3 From Duties In Brown Case”The New York Times. Retrieved 2020-04-22.
  12.  Dubrovnik Online website Archived 2014-03-12 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 17 October 2009
  13.  “Ronald Brown memorial house”. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
  14.  “Avionom je, ipak, najsigurnije (By plane, However, Is The Safest)”Slobodna Dalmacija. 9 September 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-09-09.

External links

#AceHistoryDesk report ……….Published: Apr.03: 2021:

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports by https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all our posts, also links can be found at here for Twitter and Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

#airline, #crash, #croatia

#OnThisDay April.02: 1865: At approximately 7:00 a.m. on that Sunday Ulysses S. Grant’s army attacked Confederate lines at Petersburg, Virginia #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – Apr.02: By mid-afternoon, Confederate troops had begun to evacuate the town.

#OTD Today in History – April 2: 1865: ‘The Union victory ensured the fall of Richmond, the capital of the Confederacy, located just twenty-five miles north of Petersburg’

President Jefferson Davis received word of the events in Petersburg while attending services at St. Paul’s Church in Richmond. He abandoned the capital late that night on a train bound for Danville, Virginia. 

I think it is absolutely necessary that we should abandon our position tonight…

Telegram from Robert E. Lee, in Petersburg, to Jefferson Davis, in Richmond, April 2, 1865. 1

Petersburg, Va. General view. Timothy H. O’Sullivan, photographer, [1865]. Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints. Prints & Photographs Division

Richmond, meanwhile, burned, as fires set by fleeing Confederates and looters raged out of control. Davis was eventually captured by Union soldiers, but not until May 10, 1865.2Richmond, Va. Ruins of Richmond & Danville Railroad Bridge. Alexander Gardner, photographer, [1865]. Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints.Prints & Photographs DivisionRichmond, Va. Street in the Burned District. 1865. Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints. Prints & Photographs Division

  1. Telegram from Robert E. Lee, in Petersburg, to Jefferson Davis, in Richmond, April 2, 1865, quoted in The Civil War Day By Day: An Almanac, 1861-1865, E.B. Long with Barbara Long (1971; reprint, New York: Da Capo Press, 1971), 663. (Return to text)
  2. Ibid., 663, 664.(Return to text)

Learn More

  • Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints includes numerous photographs of the siege of Petersburg and Richmond in 1865. To narrow the selection, try searching the collection on Petersburg AND UnionPetersburg AND Confederate, or Richmond AND burned
  • By 1861 telegraph lines networked much of the United States and were an important means of wartime communication. Less than twenty years earlier, on May 24, 1844, the first telegram was sent by inventor Samuel F. B. Morse. See the Samuel F. B. Morse Papers at the Library of Congress, 1793 to 1919 for more information about the invention of the telegraph.
  • Long after the fall of Richmond, the Confederate States of America echoed on in Southern culture. Julia A. Wood’s 1877 sheet music, Virginia Cotillions (which pays homage to Confederate heroes Jeff Davis, Robert E. Lee, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, P. G. T. Beauregard, James Longstreet, and “Jeb” Stuart) is found in Music for the Nation: American Sheet Music, ca. 1870 to 1885, consisting of tens of thousands of pieces of sheet music registered for copyright during the post-Civil War era. The cotillion was a popular ballroom dance in both the antebellum and post-Civil War periods.
  • Search on Petersburg and Richmond to view maps, charts, and atlases depicting battles, troop positions and movements, engagements, and fortifications in  Civil War Maps

#AceHistoryDesk report ………Published: Apr.02: 2021:

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#confederate, #petersburg, #virginia

#OnThisDay March.31: 1761: #Earthquake & North Atlantic tsunami of Portugal occurred in the Atlantic Ocean, south of the Iberian Peninsula. This violent shock which struck just after noon on March 31, 1761, was felt across many parts of Western Europe #AceHistoryDesk report

#OnThisDay 1761 Lisbon #Earthquake Its direct effects were even observed far north in Scotland and Amsterdam, and to the south in the Canary Islandsof Spain.

The estimated surface-wave magnitude 8.5 event was the largest in the region, and the most significant earthquake in Europe since the Great Lisbon earthquake of 1755.1761 Lisbon earthquake and Transatlantic tsunami

For other uses, see Lisbon earthquake (disambiguation).

1761 Lisbon earthquake is located in North Atlantic

1761 Lisbon earthquake (North Atlantic)Local dateMarch 31, 1761Local time12:01 pm WETDuration8 minutesMagnitude8.5 MsEpicenter34.5°N 13.0°WAreas affectedAtlantic OceanMax. intensityIX (Violent)Tsunami2.4 meters (Transatlantic)AftershocksYes

Records of this disaster are sparse as the Portuguese Government censored much information in order to avoid panic in the already ruined city. 

Contents

Tectonic setting

The Azores-Gibraltar Fault form part of the complex and poorly defined plate boundary between the African and Eurasian plates that converge at a rate of 3.8 mm/yr. Here, a collection of strike-slip and thrust faultsaccommodate motion between the two plates, including the Horseshoe Fault, Marques Pombal Fault, Gorringe Bank Fault and Cádiz Subduction Zone.[1]

The earthquake is thought to have been sourced from a thrust fault located beneath the Coral Patch Seamount with an estimated rupture dimension of 200 km by 50 km.[2] The Coral Patch Thrust Fault is a component in the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary.[3] From an analysis of the reported duration of shaking, the rupture was suggested to propagate northwards, from the northern end of the 1755 rupture. This earthquake is likely to be a result of stress transfer from the 1755 event.[4] Based on measuring the tsunami run-up height, the estimated tsunami magnitude for this earthquake is 8.5, and is unlikely to be larger than the 1755 event.[5]

Earthquake

At noon on March 31, the Portuguese city Lisbon was rocked by an earthquake that lasted up to three minutes. Ruins in the city left by the 1755 earthquake collapsed while frightened residents ran outside. Shipping vessels offshore felt jolts during the earthquake. It was felt in many Spanish cities including Madrid and Aranjuez. Other European locations that felt the earthquake include Bayonne, Bordeaux and Roussillon in France, Amsterdam in The Netherlands, Cork, Ireland, and the Azores Islands.[6]

Much of the damage in Lisbon was directed at older houses, and buildings already compromised by the 1755 earthquake. The city shook for at least five minutes. Piles of debris from the previous quake collapsed. The nearby mountain ranges were affected by rockslides. Shaking damaged a prison, and some 300 inmates managed to escape.[7] Surprisingly, no lives were lost in Lisbon but the damage was greater than 20,000 moidores. On the Modified Mercalli intensity scale, the earthquake reached an estimated VI (Strong) to VII (Very strong). The greatest destruction was in Setúbal and Vila Franca. In Porto, the city suffered heavy damage worse than those sustained in 1755, resulting in several people being killed. In Madeira, rockfalls were triggered, tumbling into the sea and destroying a church. Four people died as a result, with two being crushed while fishing when boulders tumbled on them.[7]

In Madrid, ground motions went on for five to 23 minutes. Some houses shook violently causing furniture to topple. Frightened residents ran out of their houses for fear of them collapsing. This prompted an inquiry from the Council of Castile and Diocese of Cartagena to obtain more information about the earthquake.[7]

In Fort Augustus, Scotland, the water level at Loch Ness rose some two feet (0.6 m) and then subsided. The unusual lake behavior continued for forty-five minutes to an hour. In Amsterdam, the chandelier of a church started vibrating in the afternoon, possibly caused by the earthquake.[6]

Cork, Ireland saw strong shaking, more violent than the 1755 quake.[7]

Tsunami

One hour and 25 minutes after the earthquake was felt in Lisbon, waves measuring up to eight feet (2.4 m) was observed approaching the coast and damaging ships. The sea retreated and advanced repeatedly even 13 hours after the earthquake, continuing into the night.[8]

Along the coasts of Spain, changes to the sea were witnessed but there were no records of the tsunami arriving, nor their heights.[citation needed]

In Barbados, waves between 18 inches (0.45 m) and four feet (1.2 m) that swept along the coast were attributed to the earthquake.[7][8]

On Terceira Island in the Azores, the tsunami picked up boats and smashed them against the rocky coastline.[citation needed]

At Mount’s Bay in Cornwall, a tsunami of up six feet (1.8 m) advanced five times at 5 p.m. for an hour. In the Isles of Scilly, the sea rose up to four feet (1.2 m) at the time waves were seen in Cornwall. Penzance saw waves up to six feet (1.8 m) arriving in the early evenings five times. At Newlyn, the sea rose nearly six feet. Along the Irish coasts, the same phenomena were observed. At Kinsale, at about 6 p.m., the sea rose suddenly 2 feet (0.6 m) and retreated rapidly in 4 minutes, this being repeated, though to a less extent, several times. At Carrick, at 4 pm, the surface of the River Suir rose one foot (0.3 m). in five minutes. At Dungarvan, the sea ebbed and flowed five times between 4 and 9 pm. At Waterford, the sea advanced 30 feet (9 m) along the shore, while at Ross, County Wexford, a violent agitation of the river occurred at 7 p.m.[8][9]

See also

References

  1.  Wronna, Martin; Baptista, Maria Ana; Miranda, Jorge Miguel (2019). “Reanalysis of the 1761 transatlantic tsunami”Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences19 (2): 337–352. doi:10.5194/nhess-2018-30.
  2.  M. A. Baptista (2019). “Tsunamis Along the Azores Gibraltar Plate Boundary”Pure and Applied Geophysics117: 1713–1724. doi:10.1007/s00024-019-02344-8.
  3.  Roy Barkan, Uri S. ten Brink, Jian Lin (2009). “Far field tsunami simulations of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake: Implications for tsunami hazard to the U.S. East Coast and the Caribbean” (PDF). Marine Geology264: 109–122. doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2008.10.010.
  4.  Robert Muir-WoodArnaud Mignan (2009). “A Phenomenological Reconstruction of the Mw9 November 1st 1755 Earthquake Source. In: The 1755 Lisbon Earthquake: Revisited”Geotechnical, Geological, and Earthquake Engineering7: 121–146. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-8609-0_8.
  5.  Baptista, M. & Miranda, Jym & Luis, Joaquim (2006). “In Search of the 31 March 1761 Earthquake and Tsunami Source”Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America96: 713–721. doi:10.1785/0120050111.
  6. a b National Geophysical Data Center / World Data Service (NGDC/WDS): NCEI/WDS Global Significant Earthquake Database. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. “Significant Earthquake Information PORTUGAL: LISBON”doi:10.7289/V5TD9V7K. Retrieved 2021-02-01.
  7. a b c d e Borlase, William (1 January 1761). LXV. Some account of the extraordinary agitation of the waters in Mount’s-bay, and other places, on the 31st of March 1761: In a letter to the Reverend Dr. Charles Lyttelton, Dean of Exeter, from the Reverend William Borlase, M. A. F. R. S. The Royal Society.
  8. a b c NCEI Global Historical Hazard Database. “Tsunami Event Information SW PORTUGAL”www.ngdc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2021-02-01.
  9.  M. A. Baptista and J. M. Miranda (2009). “Revision of the Portuguese catalog of tsunamis” (PDF). Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences9 (1).

#AceHistoryDesk report ……Published: Mar.31: 2021:

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#otd, #tsunami

(PORTUGAL) #OnThisDay March: 29: 1848: An enormous ‘Ice Dam’ at source of the ‘Niagara River’ on the eastern shore of Lake Erie on March 29, 1848. Just after midnight, the thunderous sound of water surging over the great falls came to a halt as the flow of water became severely restricted due to the ice jam #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – Mar.29: The eerie silence persisted throughout the day and into the next evening until the waters of Lake Erie broke through the blockage and resumed their course down the river and over the falls:

#OnThisDay in History – March 29: ‘An enormous ice dam formed at the source of the Niagara River on the eastern shore of Lake Erie on March 29, 1848: Just after midnight, the thunderous sound of water surging over the great falls at Niagara came to a halt as the flow of water became severely restricted due to the ice jam’

The eerie silence persisted throughout the day and into the next evening until the waters of Lake Erie broke through the blockage and resumed their course down the river and over the falls.[Niagara Falls, General View from Hennepin Point, Winter]. A.G. Landreth, c1914. Panoramic Photographs. Prints & Photographs Division

By 1848, Niagara Falls was already a popular tourist spot, attracting thousands of visitors each summer. Daguerreotypist Platt Babbitt set up a studio and began taking images of tourists watching the falls in 1853.American Falls from Goat Island, Niagara. c1908. Detroit Publishing Company. Prints & Photographs Division

The commercial development of the land surrounding the falls sparked a movement to preserve the falls’ natural beauty through public ownership. These efforts culminated in the July 15, 1885, opening of the 400-acre Niagara Reservation State Park. Now known as the Niagara Falls State Park, it is the oldest state park in the country.

In his address at the opening of the park, James T. Carter, an eminent New York lawyer and legal scholar, made an eloquent plea for the preservation, through public ownership, of scenic wonders. “These visions of Infinite Beauty here unfolded to the eye are not a property,” Carter insisted, “but a shrine—a temple erected by the hand of the Almighty for all the children of men.” Carter’s address is featured in The Evolution of the Conservation Movement, 1850-1920.

#AceHistoryDesk report ……..Published: Mar.29: 2021

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#lake-erie, #niagara-river

#OnThisDayInHistory 1777 Second Continental Congress adopted the ‘ Articles of Confederatioin ‘ for ratification but after a review was called it was not until March.01: 1781: before it was fina lised #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – On November 15, 1777: Second Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation. Submitted to the states for ratification two days later, the Articles of Confederation were accompanied by a letter from Congress urging that the document……

…be candidly reviewed under a sense of the difficulty of combining in one general system the various sentiments and interests of a continent divided into so many sovereign and independent communities, under a conviction of the absolute necessity of uniting all our councils and all our strength, to maintain and defend our common liberties…

Monday, November 17, 1777, Journals of the Continental Congress. A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1875. Law Library

Although Congress debated the Articles for over a year, they requested immediate action on the part of the states. However, three-and-a-half years passed before ratification on March 1, 1781.

Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union Between the States… Williamsburg [Va.]: Printed by Alexander Purdie, 1777. Printed Ephemera: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera. Rare Book and Special Collections Division.

Still at war with Great Britain, the colonists were reluctant to establish another powerful national government. Jealously guarding their new independence, the Continental Congress created a loosely structured unicameral legislature that protected the liberty of the individual states at the expense of the nation. While calling on Congress to regulate military and monetary affairs, for example, the Articles of Confederation provided no mechanism to ensure that states complied with requests for troops or revenue. At times this left the military in a precarious position as George Washington wrote in a 1781 letter to the governor of Massachusetts, John Hancock.

The Treaty of Paris, which ended hostilities with England, languished in Congress for months before it was ratified because state representatives failed to attend sessions of the national legislature. Yet, Congress had no power to enforce attendance. Writing to George Clinton in September 1783, George Washington complained:

Congress have come to no determination yet respecting the Peace Establishment, nor am I able to say when they will. I have lately had a conference with a Committee on this subject, and have reiterated my former opinions, but it appears to me that there is not a sufficient representation to discuss Great National points.

Letter George Washington to George Clinton, September 11, 1783. Series 3, Varick Transcripts, 1775-1785, Subseries 3H, Personal Correspondence, 1775-1783, Letterbook 3. George Washington Papers. Manuscript Division

Leaders of the Continental CongressLeaders of the Continental Congress–John Adams, Morris, Hamilton, Jefferson / A. Tholey. Augustus Tholey, artist, c1894. Prints & Photographs Division

In May 1786, Charles Pinckney of South Carolina proposed that Congress revise the Articles of Confederation. On August 7, 1786, a committee recommended amendments to the Articles that included granting Congress power over foreign and domestic commerce and providing means for Congress to collect money from state treasuries. Unanimous approval was necessary to make the alterations, however, and Congress failed to reach a consensus.

In September 1786, a convention was held in Annapolis, Maryland, in an effort to deal with problems of interstate commerce. Led by James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, the delegates at the Annapolis Convention issued a proposal for a new convention to revise the Articles of Confederation.

After debate, Congress endorsed the plan to revise the Articles of Confederation on February 21, 1787.

Although ultimately supplanted by the United States Constitution, the Articles of Confederation provided stability during the Revolutionary Waryears. Most importantly, the experience of drafting and living under this initial document provided valuable lessons in self-governance and somewhat tempered fears about a powerful central government. Still, reconciling the tension between state and federal authority continued to challenge Americans from the 1832 nullification crisis to the Supreme Court’s landmark Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka decision.

#AceHistoryDesk report …………..Published: Nov.15: 2020:

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports by https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all our posts, also links can be found at here for Twitter and Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

#OnThisDay June 23: In the summer of 1770, Amos Throop sold a “compleat Assortment of MEDICINES” at his shop in Providence, appropriately identified by “the Sign of the Golden Pestle and Mortar.”

June 23 What was advertised in a colonial American newspaper 250 years ago today?Providence Gazette (June 23, 1770).

“Supplied with genuine Medicines, very cheap.”

In the summer of 1770, Amos Throop sold a “compleat Assortment of MEDICINES” at his shop in Providence, appropriately identified by “the Sign of the Golden Pestle and Mortar.”  His inventory included a variety of popular patent medicines imported from London, including “Hooper’s, Lockyer’s, and Anderson’s genuine Pills,” “Stoughton’s Elixir,” and “Hill’s Balsam of Honey.”

In an advertisement in the Providence Gazette, the apothecary addressed different sorts of prospective customers: He informed “Country Practitioners” that he could fill their orders “as cheap as they can be served in Boston, or elsewhere.”  Throop competed in a regional market; druggists in other port towns also imported medicines from London.  Prospective customers could send away to Boston, Newport, or even New York if they anticipated bargain prices, but Throop sought to assure them that they did not need to do so.  Throop may have anticipated particular benefits from cultivating this clientele.  “Country Practitioners” were more likely than others to purchase by volume.  Their patronage indirectly testified to the efficacy of Throop’s medicines and his standing as a trusted apothecary.

Those factors may have helped him attract other customers who did not practice medicine: Throop also invited “Families in Town and Country” to shop at the Golden Pestle and Mortar.  He promised them low prices, but he also emphasized customer service, stating that they “may depend on being used in the best Manner.”  In addition, he also attempted to allay concerns about purchasing counterfeit remedies.  Throop pledged to supply his customers “with genuine Medicines,” putting his own reputation on the line as a bulwark against bogus elixirs and nostrums.  When it came to patent medicines, the fear of forgeries merited reiterating that his inventory was “genuine” when he listed the choices available at his shop.

The neighborhood pharmacy is ubiquitous in the twenty-first century, but that was not the kind of business that Throop operated in Providence in the eighteenth century: Instead, he served both local residents and “Country Practitioners” and “Families in Town and Country,” competing with apothecaries in Boston and other towns.  To do so effectively, he had to depict the many advantages of choosing the Golden Pestle and Mortar, from low prices to authentic medicines to good customer service.

#AceHistoryDesk report …………….Published: June.23: 2020:

Who was Miss Harrisson? We now know the story of the gardening pioneer denied a scholarship in 1898 for being a woman in a mans world that came to light in a box of archives held by the Royal Horticultural Society #AceHistoryDesk reports

#AceHistoryNews – Oct.16: Miss Harrison had come top in exams on the principles of horticulture – but wasn’t allowed to claim her prize of a scholarship at the RHS because she was a woman: Very little else was known about her, but within hours of the story going out on BBC Breakfast in September, viewers were sending emails and exchanging information on social media: Her family have now come forward with information that fills in the missing gaps in her life: The trail led to the Yorkshire town of Settle, where Olive, by then Mrs Edmundson, spent her final years: Her granddaughter Alison Tyas says her grandmother was a groundbreaker, a heroine – and, for her, a granny who you could rely on for everything.”I think my strongest memory really is as an eight, nine-year-old, being taken for walks in the country and being shown the names of all the flowers,” she says. “She knew all their names.” #AceHistoryDesk reports

Alison Tyas (left) and Fiona Davison (right) looking at old photosAlison Tyas (left) and Fiona Davison (right)

In Alison’s garden, overlooked by the Yorkshire hills, apples hang from neatly cordoned trees, cabbages stand proudly in the vegetable plot and pink sedums nod their heads in the breeze.

It’s clear that her grandmother’s green fingers have passed down the generations

Alison’s memories of her grandmother are of a woman who devoted her life to caring for family. But she never forgot her knowledge of plants. “It was always there, she could always make plants grow.”………………..She says she always knew about her grandmother’s success in the exam. Although Olive was denied her scholarship, she was given a medal, which she cherished all her life……………….Olive was able to train at a college that accepted women – Swanley Horticultural College – and went on to work as a professional gardener.

The medal given to Olive HarrissonThe medal confirms the correct spelling of her surname, which was unclear in the RHS archiveGroup photograph of Swanley female studentsRHS Lindley CollectionsGroup photograph of Swanley female students

Fiona Davison, head of Libraries and Archives at the RHS, visited Settle to meet Olive’s grandchildren and examine family documents……………….She says it is terrific to find out about the real person…………………..”Olive was a gardener all her life, which is really lovely to know and to know that she actually gardened professionally,” Ms Davison says………………..”So despite not getting the scholarship, Olive returned back to Swanley and went on to work for the Cadbury family as a gardener until she got married in 1904 – and then she had a family life…………..Like most women of her time, Olive gave up her career when she married William Edmundson. She devoted her time to looking after her four children and eventually moved to Settle, to be near her daughter, Ruth, and her grandchildren.

Olive Mary HarrissonRHS Lindley CollectionsOlive Mary HarrissonPresentational grey line

Olive Mary Harrisson: An unsung gardening heroine

  • 1898: Enters Swanley College of Horticulture and comes top in the RHS Principle of Horticulture Examination
  • 1899: Takes a second course at Swanley
  • 1901: Employed as a gardener by George Cadbury at Northfield Manor in Birmingham
  • 1904: Marries William Edmundson. Olive gives up her career to look after their four children
  • 1960s: Moves to Settle in Yorkshire to be closer to family

Presentational grey line

In the afternoon, Olive’s granddaughter Alison leads me through the quiet back streets of Settle to see the house where Olive first lived when she moved to the town…………….Even in her final years Olive helped with her daughter’s garden in the grounds of the Quaker Meeting House…………………….She moved into the house in the last few months of her life. The peaceful garden has lawns, flower beds and trees. A few pink crocuses at the base of a tree raise their heads to the autumn sunlight…………………….Olive’s grandson, Chris Harrisson Petrie, who was given her surname as a middle name, joins us there…………….”I suppose it’s her last garden,” he says…………………….He leads me down the steps beside the church to a memorial stone, which bears her name………………………”This is the memorial,” he says. “She died after about four years in Settle. But then she was 92. So a good life, well lived.”

You can see more details of Olive Mary Harrisson’s life in a display at RHS Garden Harlow Carr and RHS Garden Wisley.

https://t.me/SterlingPublishingPanel/313510
The mysterious Miss HarrissonBBC.Com/ By Helen Briggs Published: October.13:2018:

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports & #Brittius says are provided by Sterling Publishing & Media News and all our posts, links can be found at here Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ Ace News Services Posts https://t.me/AceSocialNews_Bot and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com or you can follow our breaking news posts on AceBreakingNews.WordPress.Com or become a member on Telegram https://t.me/acebreakingnews all private chat messaging on here https://t.me/sharingandcaring

#AceNostalgiaNews The Southern Titanic: That’s what the German flagged Monte Cervantes came to be known as, after sinking in 1930 at the time the luxury liner was only three years old built in Hamburg it steamed back and forth from Argentina sailing the South America’s #AceHistoryDesk reports

#AceHistoryNews – Sept.30: The luxury liner was only three years old at the time, a beautiful steamed built in Hamburg, and sailed the South American routes from Buenos Aires to Puerto Madryn, Punta Arenas, Ushuaia, and back to capital city of Argentina again: It was during this cruise in the first month of 1930 that Captain Theodor Dreyer ran into trouble, first with a storm that arrived on January 22 and caused the Captain to look for shelter in nearby Yendegaia Bay #AceHistoryDesk reports

https://t.me/HistoricalPics/9308: They entered the Beagle Channel, skirting between the Argentina coast and a series of Chilean islands, the water ahead was full of seaweed and posed significant troubles for the ship’s lookouts to spot trouble: Carefully observing the known obstacles shown on their charts, the ship eased ahead until a submerged rock was spotted and they veered successfully to miss it. Soon things would change dramatically, as they cruised straight into a rock not shown on their charts, and the hull ripped open while tilting to port as her momentum carried the ship up onto the rocks.

Passengers were flung about on the decks and in their rooms, anything loose fell and broke, water poured in while the crew worked to secure watertight doors and control the flooding:The crew did a fine job, getting all of the 1117 passengers and 255 of her crew into lifeboats. Soon launches from the nearby sea towns who heard the Monte Cervantes SOS began to arrive, one was from a nearby prison and housed dozens of the passengers in the cells until transportation arrived.

There were 70 crewman who remained aboard for the next three days, they worked to repair things and restart the engines, eventually bringing the ship off the rocks: Yet on January 23 her bow began to sink, the survivors knew that this was the end and started to jump to safety in the cold salty sea.

All but one would make it, Captain Dreyer slipped as he tried to jump, and plummeted instead into an opening in the ship’s promenade: The Monte Cervantes came to rest with her stern out of the water, but not in the shopping lane, so she was left to rust. #shipwrecksaturday #AceHistoryNews

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports & #Brittius says are provided by Sterling Publishing & Media News and all our posts, links can be found at here Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ Ace News Services Posts https://t.me/AceSocialNews_Bot and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com or you can follow our breaking news posts on AceBreakingNews.WordPress.Com or become a member on Telegram https://t.me/acebreakingnews all private chat messaging on here https://t.me/sharingandcaring

On #ThisDayinHistory 1927, American aviator Charles A. Lindbergh takes off from New York’s Roosevelt Field on the world’s first solo, nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean and the first ever nonstop flight between New York to Paris #AceHistoryDesk reports

#AceHistoryNews – May.20: Lindbergh was a dark horse when he entered a competition to fly nonstop from New York to Paris: He ordered a small monoplane, configured it to his own design, and christened it the Spirit of St. Louis in tribute to his sponsor–the St. Louis Chamber of Commerce #AceHistoryDesk reports

https://t.me/HistoricalPics/8577: His greatest challenge was staying awake; he had to hold his eyelids open with his fingers and hallucinated ghosts passing through the cockpit: The next afternoon, after flying 3,610 miles in 33 1/2 hours, Lindbergh landed at Le Bourget field in Paris, becoming the first pilot to accomplish the solo, nonstop transatlantic crossing………………….Lindbergh’s achievement made him an international celebrity and won widespread public acceptance of the airplane and commercial aviation. #LuckyLindy #Historytakesflight #SpiritofStLouis #CharlesLindbergh #Aviation #OTD

#Brittius says …… From an airfield, it became a race track for trotters, now it is a shopping mall area.

http://www.airfields-freeman.com/NY/Airfields_NY.htm

https://www.google.com/maps/place/Roosevelt+Field/@40.7380528,-73.6100746,15.96z/data=!4m5!3m4!1s0x89c27d7c3799f1b1:0xe6dbab6579494bb6!8m2!3d40.7380631!4d-73.6128077

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports & #Brittius says are provided by Sterling Publishing & Media News and all our posts, links can be found at here Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ Ace News Services Posts https://t.me/acenewsdaily and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com or you can follow our breaking news posts on AceBreakingNews.WordPress.Com or become a member on Telegram https://t.me/acebreakingnews all private chat messaging on here https://t.me/sharingandcaring

On #ThisDayinHistory in 1973, America’s eight-year intervention in the Vietnam War had ended. Two mo nths after the signing of the Vietnam peace agreement, the last U.S. combat troops left South Vietnam as Han oi freed remaining American POWs held in North Vietnam

#AceHistoryNews – Mar.29: Two months after the signing of the Vietnam peace agreement, the last U.S. combat troops left South Vietnam as Hanoi freed remaining American POWs held in North Vietnam #AceHistoryDesk reports

https://t.me/HistoricalPics/8212Pictured here is the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, a 2-acre U.S. national memorial in Washington D.C. that honors service members of the U.S. armed forces who fought in the Vietnam War, service members who died in service in Vietnam/South East Asia and service members who were unaccounted for (missing in action, MIA) during the war. More than 8.7 million Americans served in Vietnam, and more than 58,000 died: The total number of soldiers that remain unaccounted for is 1,600. Is there anyone specific in your life who you’re honoring on this #VietnamWarVeteransDay? #VietnamWar #War #USHistory #MilitaryHistory #Veterans 📷: Peter Marlow/ Magnum Photos #OTD #AceHistoryNews

#Brittius says …..Until Obama started running his mouth about rounding up veterans and taking guns, and all the other rubbish, I had almost completely forgotten that war. I would like to return to, forgetting the war. Time hazed much out, but every now and then, it comes back, and none of it is any good. Oil. That is what the war was all about, a select few made millions of dollars. LBJ, and the fake Gulf of Tonkin resolution about an attack that never happened. 58,220 US lives lost, for oil, and an imagined attack that the president must have gloated over. I want my youth back. I want to forget that war.

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports & #Brittius says are provided by Sterling Publishing & Media News and all our posts, links can be found at here https://t.me/acenewsdaily and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com or you can follow our breaking news posts on AceBreakingNews.WordPress.Com or become a member on Telegram https://t.me/acebreakingnews