GERMANY: ‘ CELEBRATES THE FALL OF THE BERLIN WALL 25 YEARS AGO TODAY ‘

#AceHistory2ResearchNews – BERLIN – Germany on Sunday celebrates the 25th anniversary of the night the Berlin Wall fell, a pivotal moment in the collapse of communism and the start of the country’s emergence as the major power at the heart of Europe as was reported by AP.  

'East and West Germans converse at the newly created opening in the Berlin Wall after a crane removed a section of the structure beside the Brandenburg Gate.'

‘East and West Germans converse at the newly created opening in the Berlin Wall after a crane removed a section of the structure beside the Brandenburg Gate.’ 

A 15-kilometer (nine-mile) chain of lighted balloons along the former border will be released into the air early Sunday evening – berlin09-1around the time on Nov. 9, 1989 when a garbled announcement by a senior communist official set off the chain of events that brought down the Cold War’s most potent symbol.

' Berlin Mauer '

‘ Berlin Mauer ‘

The Berlin Wall (German: Berliner Mauer) was a barrier that existed between 1961 and 1990,[1] constructed by the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) starting on 13 August 1961, that completely cut off (by land) West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and from East Berlin until it was opened in 1989.[2]

' Berlin Wall Death Strip '

‘ Berlin Wall Death Strip ‘

The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls,[3] which circumscribed a wide area (later known as the “death strip”) that contained anti-vehicle trenches, “fakir beds” and other defences. The Eastern Bloc claimed that the wall was erected to protect its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the “will of the people” in building a socialist state in East Germany.

Berlin_Wall_1961-11-20

In practice, the Wall served to prevent the massive emigration and defection that marked East Germany and the communist Eastern Bloc during the post-World War II period.

East_Berlin_Death_Strip_seen_from_Axel_Springer_Building_1984

East Berlin Death Strip seen from Axel Springer Building 1984

The Berlin Wall was officially referred to as the “Anti-Fascist Protection Rampart” (German: Antifaschistischer Schutzwall) by GDR authorities, implying that neighbouring West Germany had not been fully de-Nazified.[4] The West Berlin city government sometimes referred to it as the “Wall of Shame“—a term coined by mayor Willy Brandt—while condemning the Wall’s restriction on freedom of movement.

Along with the separate and much longer Inner German border (IGB), which demarcated the border between East and West Germany, it came to symbolize the “Iron Curtain” that separated Western Europe and the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War.

Before the Wall’s erection, 3.5 million East Germans circumvented Eastern Bloc emigration restrictions and defected from the GDR, many by crossing over the border from East Berlin into West Berlin, from where they could then travel to West Germany and other Western European countries. Between 1961 and 1989, the wall prevented almost all such emigration.[5] During this period, around 5,000 people attempted to escape over the wall, with an estimated death toll of over 100[6] in and around Berlin, although that claim is disputed.[7]

In 1989, a series of radical political changes occurred in the Eastern Bloc, associated with the liberalization of the Eastern Bloc’s authoritarian systems and the erosion of political power in the pro-Soviet governments in nearby Poland and Hungary. After several weeks of civil unrest, the East German government announced on 9 November 1989 that all GDR citizens could visit West Germany and West Berlin.

Crowds of East Germans crossed and climbed onto the wall, joined by West Germans on the other side in a celebratory atmosphere. Over the next few weeks, euphoric public and souvenir hunters chipped away parts of the wall; the governments later used industrial equipment to remove most of what was left.

Contrary to popular belief the wall’s actual demolition did not begin until Summer 1990 and was not completed until 1992.[1]

The fall of the Berlin Wall paved the way for German reunification, which was formally concluded on 3 October 1990.

AP – Wikipedia – Media Sources 

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‘ Tutankhamun Boy King Image Majestic in Burnished Gold Virtual Autopsy Reveals the Real Truth ‘

#AceHistory2ResearchNews – October 27 – The boy king’s face as revealed by the ‘virtual autopsy’. With strong features cast in burnished gold, Tutankhamun’s burial mask projects an image of majestic beauty and royal power.

The boy king’s face as revealed by the ‘virtual autopsy’.

The boy king’s face as revealed by the ‘virtual autopsy’.

But in the flesh, King Tut had buck teeth, a club foot and girlish hips, according to the most detailed examination ever of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh’s remains.

And rather than being a boy king with a love of chariot racing, Tut relied on walking sticks to get around during his rule in the 14th century BC, researchers said.

A ‘virtual autopsy’, composed of more than 2,000 computer scans, was carried out in tandem with a genetic analysis of Tutankhamun’s family, which supports evidence that his parents were brother and sister.

The scientists believe that this left him with physical impairments triggered by hormonal imbalances. And his family history could also have led to his premature death in his late teens.

Various myths suggest he was murdered or was involved in a chariot crash after fractures were found in his skull and other parts of his skeleton.

Now scientists believe he may have died of an inherited illness because only one of the breaks occurred before he died, while his club foot would have made chariot racing impossible.

In 1907, Lord Carnarvon George Herbert asked English archaeologist and Egyptologist Howard Carter to supervise excavations in the Valley of the Kings.

Tutankhamun (illustrated) was reliant on a walking stick thanks to his club foot, which may have been due to the fact that his parents were brother and sister.

On 4 November 1922, Carter’s group found steps that led to Tutankhamun’s tomb and spent several months cataloguing the antechamber.

They opened the burial chamber and discovered the the sarcophagus in February the following year.

The revelations are made in BBC One documentary Tutankhamun: The Truth Uncovered.

Albert Zink, from the Institute for Mummies and the Iceman in Italy, deciphered the truth about the ruler’s parents by studying the royal family’s DNA.

He found that Tut was born after his father Akhenaten, dubbed the heretic king, had a relationship with his sister. Incest was not frowned upon by the ancient Egyptians and they did not know about the health implications for any offspring.

Hutan Ashrafian, a lecturer in surgery at Imperial College London, said that several members of the family appeared to have suffered from ailments which can be explained by hormonal imbalances. He said: ‘A lot of his family predecessors lived to a ripe old age. Only his immediate line were dying early, and they were dying earlier each generation.’

Egyptian radiologist Ashraf Selim: ‘The virtual autopsy shows the toes are divergent, in layman’s terms it’s club foot. He would have been heavily limping.

‘There is only one site where we can say a fracture happened before he died and that is the knee.’

Evidence of King Tut’s physical limitations were also backed up by 130 used walking canes found in his tomb.

 

King Tutankhamun’s tomb was found in the Valley of the Kings, a valley in Egypt where pharoahs and nobles from the 18th, 19th and 20th dynasties (known as the ‘New Kingdom’) in Ancient Egypt were buried from the 16th to 11th century BC (marked).

In November 1922, Howard Carter found steps that led to Tutankhamun’s tomb. He spent several months cataloguing the antechamber before opening the burial chamber and discovering the sarcophagus in February the following year. Carter and an unnamed assistant are shown inspecting Tutankhamun’s inner-most coffin.

Presenter Dallas Campbell, said: ‘Trying to navigate through the intense speculation and politics that surround one of the most famous characters in history is both daunting and thrilling in equal measure.

‘Foolhardy perhaps! But using solid science and a truly multi-disciplinary approach we’ve finally been able to put to bed some of the myths and pre-conceived ideas that have surrounded his life and death, and hopefully add a new chapter that will ensure the Tutankhamun story continues to fascinate.’

Earlier this year, egyptologists from the American University in Cairo shed light on some of the bizarre burial rituals discovered in the tomb, including the fact the king’s penis was embalmed at a 90-degree angle, the only mummy to have ever been found with this feature.

 On the outside of the tomb, decorations depicted Tutankhamun as underworld god Osiris, while wall paintings (pictured) showed the king being embraced by the underworld god. It is believed that if Tutankhamun was shown to be this powerful god it would quash a religious revolution taking place in the 1320s BC.

 Earlier this year, egyptologists from the American University in Cairo shed light on some of the bizarre burial rituals discovered in the tomb, including the fact the king’s penis was embalmed at a 90-degree angle – the only mummy to have ever been found with this feature.

They claimed that this may have been carried out on purpose to make the king appear like Osiris, the god of the underworld, in an attempt to frighten religious revolutionaries.

At the time of his death in 1323 BC, the father of the teenage Egyptian king was said to be leading a religious revolution in the country.

It is believed Akhenaten wanted to destroy the belief in the Egyptian gods and instead worship a sun disc called the Aten.

Tutanhkhamun was trying to tackle this revolution when he was believed to have broken his leg and died from an infection in the wound. DNA analysis in 2010 also found traces of malaria in his system.

During mummification a decision was made to not only embalm the erect penis, but also to cover the king’s body in black liquid – similar in colour to the skin of Osiris – and remove his heart.

These rituals, according to Professor Salima Ikram from the university, were done in order to make people think Tutankhamun was the underworld god.

 At the time of his death in 1323 BC, the father of the teenage Egyptian king was said to be leading a religious revolution in the country. Tutanhkhamun (replica pictured on display in Oxford) was trying to tackle this revolution when he was believed to have broken his leg and died from an infection in the wound.

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PERU: ‘ STONE TOOLS DISCOVERED HIGH IN THE ANDES SHOW ANCIENT SETTLEMENT EXISITED ‘

#AceHistory2ResearchNews – October 23 – The air was thin, the nights were cold, the sun could easily burn the skin.

' STONE TOOLS SHOW ANCIENT SETTLEMENT HIGH IN ANDES '

‘ STONE TOOLS SHOW ANCIENT SETTLEMENT HIGH IN ANDES ‘

But about 12,000 years ago, small groups of hunter-gatherers found a home very high up in the Peruvian Andes.

Now, their stone tools and other arti-facts have revealed their presence at about 14,700 feet above sea level, about as high as the Matterhorn and much higher than Machu Picchu.

They lived there nearly 1,000 years earlier than any other known human habitation anywhere above even 13,000 feet, researchers report.

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GREECE: ‘ MOSAIC PORTRAIT OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT UNEARTHED IN BURIAL MOUND ‘

#AceHistory2ResearchNews – GREECE – October 20 – The imposing mosaic unearthed in the burial mound complex at Amphipolis in northern Greece might contain the best-ever portrait of Alexander the Great as a young man, according to a new interpretation of the stunning artwork, which depicts the abduction of Persephone.

Best-Ever Portrait of Alexander the Great Found?

Best-Ever Portrait of Alexander the Great Found?

It might also confirm previous speculation that the tomb belongs to Olympias, the mother of Alexander the Great.

The mosaic portrays the soul-escorting Hermes, Hades (or Pluto, in Latin) and Persephone. In reality, the mosaic most likely has human counterparts represented in the guise of the three mythological characters, said Andrew Chugg, author of “The Quest for the Tomb of Alexander the Great.”

“I am thinking very much that Persephone should be an image of the occupant of the tomb being driven into the Underworld,” Chugg told Discovery News.

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‘ Remains of Alexander The Great’s Father Found ‘

#AceHistory2ResearchNews – A team of Greek researchers has confirmed that bones found in a two-chambered royal tomb at Vergina, a town some 100 miles away from Amphipolis’s mysterious burial mound, indeed belong to the Macedonian King Philip II, Alexander the Great’s father.

Remains of Alexander the Great's Father Confirmed Found

Remains of Alexander the Great’s Father Confirmed Found

Find out how this seemingly impossible task might have been accomplished.

The anthropological investigation examined 350 bones and fragments found in two larnakes, or caskets, of the tomb. It uncovered pathologies, activity markers and trauma that helped identify the tomb’s occupants.

Along with the cremated remains of Philip II, the burial, commonly known as Tomb II, also contained the bones of a woman warrior, possibly the daughter of the Skythian King Athea, Theodore Antikas, head of the Art-Anthropological research team of the Vergina excavation, told Discovery News.

The findings will be announced recently at the Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki. Accompanied by 3,000 digital color photographs and supported by X-ray computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray fluorescence, the research aims to settle a decades-old debate over the cremated skeleton.

Scholars have argued over those bones ever since Greek archaeologist Manolis Andronikos discovered the tomb in 1977-78. He excavated a large mound — the Great Tumulus — at Vergina on the advice of the English classicist Nicholas Hammond.

Among the monuments found within the tumulus were three tombs. One, called Tomb I, had been looted, but contained a stunning wall painting of the Rape of Persephone, along with fragmentary human remains.

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SNIPPETS OF HISTORY: ‘ Rosenberg Spy David Greenglass Who Served Ten Years in Prison Dies at Age Ninety Two’

#AceHistory2ResearchNews – October 15 – David Greenglass, who served 10 years in prison for his role in the most explosive atomic spying case of the Cold War and gave testimony that sent his brother-in-law and sister, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, to the electric chair in 1953, has died at 92.

Atomic bomb spy David Greenglass, whose false testimony sent his own sister and her husband to the electric chair, dies aged 92

Atomic bomb spy David Greenglass, whose false testimony sent his own sister and her husband to the electric chair, dies aged 92

Greenglass — who admitted decades later that he lied on the stand about his own sister — died in New York City on July 1, according to the Rosenbergs’ sons, Michael and Robert Meeropol.

After his release from prison in 1960, Greenglass lived under an assumed name in Queens, hoping to be forgotten for his part in a McCarthy-era cause celebre that is still furiously debated to this day.

A spokeswoman for the Meeropols, Amber Black, said the brothers were aware of their uncle’s death last summer but did not seek media attention and received no inquiries at the time.

Ethel and Julius Rosenberg sit in a police van after being convicted of espionage in 1951

Ethel and Julius Rosenberg sit in a police van after being convicted of espionage in 1951

The Rosenbergs were convicted in 1951 of conspiring to steal secrets about the atomic bomb for the Soviet Union and were executed at New York’s Sing Sing prison, insisting to the very end that they were innocent.

Greenglass, indicted as a co-conspirator, testified for the government that he had given the Rosenbergs research data obtained through his wartime job as an Army machinist at Los Alamos, New Mexico, headquarters of the top-secret Manhattan Project to build the atomic bomb.

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‘ Two Hundred Thousand Year Old Human Bones Found In France ‘

#AceHistory2ResearchNews – FRANCE – October 09 – French archeologists have found 200,000-year-old human bones, probably of the Neanderthal line.

The remains were uncovered in Tourville-la-Riviere, Normandy, in 2010, but the find has only been announced now. 

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