#OnThisDay in September 1973, 47-years ago today, a radical democratic movement that swept to victory in Chile just 3 years before was destroyed in a single night #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – Sept.11: The hopes and dreams of millions of Chileans were drowned in blood by a United States-backed military overthrow of Santiago’s elected left-wing president, Salvador Allende: ​Allende, a Marxist who helped found the Chilean Socialist Party, stood in numerous elections as a candidate for Popular Unity (PU) – an alliance of socialists, the Communist Party, and other left-wing organisations: His platform was developed amid a backstop of political polarisation and widespread working-class discontent. By 1970, the country had become embroiled in thousands of strikes and land seizures, involving hundreds of thousands of people:

Waiting for Spring: The 1973 Chilean Coup and a Lesson for the Left

On Sept 11 1973, a CIA-backed coup overthrew Chile’s democratic socialist president Salvador Allende & worked to install Gen. Pinochet’s brutal dictatorship, who killed thousands, tortured tens of thousands & imprisoned over 130,000. pic.twitter.com/pjaEme54qF

— American Values (@Americas_Crimes) September 10, 2020

The Christian Democrat (CD) reformist president, Eduardo Nicanor Frei Montalva, who won the 1963 election by pitching himself to the middle classes as the only alternative to Marxism, had promised to end the economic problems that plagued the country, including stagnation and widespread unemployment. He also offered to “Chileanize” the economy by taking the US-owned copper firms into national ownership.

Very little changed, however, and popular pressure pushing the representatives of Chilean capital to the left led to a slim victory for Allende in the 1970 election, with 37 percent of the vote, forcing his left-wing alliance to rely on support from the Christian Democrats.

As a precondition for his ascension to office, the CD party demanded Allende sign a “Statute of Guarantees”, preventing him from making any sweeping changes to the state, the legal system, and, fatally, the armed forces.

Radical Democracy

Despite the structural handicaps of an uneasy coalition and an inherited and decrepit economy, the PU government did embark on sweeping reforms.

The Allende government quickly nationalised the US-dominated copper industry, which accounted for three-quarters of the country’s exports. He brought banking and the financial sector into public ownership, as well as 91 other industries, in his first year alone. The PU also embarked on diversification projects to unlink the economy from its reliance on copper, one of which included an embryonic version of the internet.

Project Cybersyn; Chilean project from 1971–73 during the presidency of Allende aimed at constructing a distributed decision support system to aid in the management of the national economy. pic.twitter.com/2TVPRCcCRu

— Post-Comprehension📼 (@RGravare) September 11, 2020

​This experiment in democratic socialism looked to use its limited powers to restructure the economy and provide a more equal distribution of national resources – policies which received massive support from the working class and poor but scorn from the middle and wealthy classes, who hitherto had been the primary beneficiaries of state policy.

Allende oversaw an economic boom in his first year. He succeeded in reducing unemployment, improving income equality, an average increase in real wages of 22%, and reduced inflation from 33% to 19%. In a reflection of their popularity, the 1971 municipal elections saw the PU received 50% of the vote.

‘Make the Economy Scream’

Despite the achievements, hyperinflation soon returned, and in 1972, the Chilean Escudo became next to worthless. In an attempt to address the problem, Allende sought to introduce anti-inflationary policies through tax increases on the wealthy but was blocked by an opposition-dominated congress.

The problem was not purely home grown. In Washington, the administration of US President Richard Nixon, and his key foreign policy advisor, Henry Kissinger, had never truly accepted the election of an overtly Marxist president and rejected the government’s legitimacy.

“I don’t see why we have to let a country go Marxist just because its people are irresponsible” – Henry Kissinger, Nixon’s Secretary of State.

The imperialists tried to prevent him from taking office, even killing a general to help foment a coup before Allende was sworn in. During his time in office, they tried to overthrow him every single day. The military – under Pinochet – was given authority to take him out. pic.twitter.com/8HzpWezT9x

— Vijay Prashad (@vijayprashad) September 11, 2020

​​As part of its Cold War strategy against the Soviet Union, the United States had pursued a policy of attempting to sabotage the Allende government. Throughout 1972 and 1973, the Central Intelligence Agency funneled money to labour organisations and trade unions to take strike action and harm the economy.

According to sources in the New York Times, the CIA gave direct subsidies to shopkeepers, taxi drivers, and others which led to widespread disruption. In a kind of middle-class general strike, 250,000 truck drivers and other professionals created an economic downturn that set the foundations for the eventual coup.

In 1970, in an effort to “prevent Allende from coming to power or to unseat him”, President Nixon ordered the CIA to “make the economy scream”, and scream it did.

That same year, two military officers supplied by the United States intelligence services assassinated General René Schneider in a botched kidnapping after the nationalist Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean military rejected the idea of preventing Allende from taking office through military force.

How the @nytimes and @TheEconomist covered what we now know was a military coup against Allende in Chile in 1973.

Looks eerily similar to #venezuela today.

Via @cuttlefish_btc pic.twitter.com/uVKVhXQllD

— Aaron Bastani (@AaronBastani) January 29, 2019

However, despite the internal and external crippling of the economy through intentional sabotage by the government’s enemies, Allende increased his share of the vote to 44% in the March 1973 election.

While he was unable to reform the military, one of Allende’s final moves was bringing two generals into his own cabinet after losing the support of the CD.

The Chicago Coup & After Allende

The London based newspaper ‘the Socialist Worker’ predicted at the time that the same military that had repressed striking workers “would not sit by and let the ruling class be voted out of existence”.

On 11 September 1973, ­General Augusto Pinochet and the military, supported by the US and using fighter jets purchased from the United Kingdom, besieged the presidential palace.

Before taking his own life, President Allende issued a final address to the Chilean working class.

“Other men will overcome this dark and bitter moment when treason seeks to prevail. Keep in mind that, much sooner than later, the great avenues will again be opened through which will pass free men to construct a better society. Long live Chile!”

Salvador #Allende, the elected socialist president of #Chile makes his final speech hours before his death, #OnThisDay in 1973.
His government was brutally overthrown in military coup. Thousands more socialists were murdered as a fascist junta led by Augusto Pinochet took power. pic.twitter.com/fosTim7N2C

— Durham Miners’ Association (@DurhamMiners) September 11, 2018

​Following his overthrow, civilian rule ended and a military dictatorship was established. During General Pinochet’s nearly-3 decade rule, 30,000 people were murdered and thousands more were tortured and imprisoned in concentration camps.

The economic gains were also reversed. The junta invited Milton Friedman’s ‘Chicago Boys’ to serve as economic advisors and, freed from the shackles of democratic accountability, implemented a neoliberal experiment of privatisation and deregulation.

September 11th in Chile is always one of the toughest days of the year.

Today marks 47 years since the bloody military coup backed by the USA/CIA & led by Pinochet overthrew a democratically elected socialist government.

The Estadio Nacional was used as a concentration camp. pic.twitter.com/VnZfWaDuV7

— Adam Brandon (@AdamBrandon84) September 11, 2020

​After just ten years of free-market policies, unemployment reached 22%, real wages declined by 40%, and productivity dropped. By the end of Pinochet’s rule in 1990, Chile had reached a 45% poverty rate.

Despite the Pinochet regime being overthrown by popular pressure and democracy eventually restored, many of the military government’s policies became enshrined in the countrie’s constitution, outlawing any serious attempt to reassert the state sector over the economy and leading to the outburst of discontent seen in Chile today.

A man takes part in a demonstration commemorating the 44nd anniversary of Chile's 1973 military coup, in Santiago, Chile, Sunday, Sept. 10, 2017.

© AP Photo / Esteban Felix

A man takes part in a demonstration commemorating the 44nd anniversary of Chile’s 1973 military coup, in Santiago, Chile, Sunday, Sept. 10, 2017.

Lessons for the Left

Pablo Neruda, a poet and personal friend of President Allende, who was likely murdered by the Pinochet regime, wrote: “You can cut all the flowers but you cannot keep Spring from coming”.

The Chilean experience is not unique. From Mossadegh in Iran, the overthrow of President Sukarno in Indonesia, the toppling of Jacob Árbenz in Guatemala on behalf of United Fruit, the removal of democratically elected governments to protect United States corporate interests has become a historical cliche.

The same tactics of economic strangulation are being employed today by the Trump Administration and its sanctions against the elected Maduro government in Venezuela.

This 1954 file photo shows Guatemalan Col. Castillo Armas (C) surrounded by supporters days before Armas led a coup that deposed President Jacobo Arbenz. Armas assumed the presidency 01 September and would be assassinated while in office 26 July 1957

© AFP 2020 / CIRMA/FILES

This 1954 file photo shows Guatemalan Col. Castillo Armas (C) surrounded by supporters days before Armas led a coup that deposed President Jacobo Arbenz. Armas assumed the presidency 01 September and would be assassinated while in office 26 July 1957

A question is raised, however, of how does one maneuver an opposition that has no intention of playing by the rules? Even in developed first-world democracies those who propose a radical redistribution of wealth are structurally crippled.

Recent examples include the US Democratic Party rallying to stop Bernie Sanders from being the 2020 presidential nominee. In the UK, leaked internal documents indicate that the Labour Party was actively working against its own election victory to prevent Jeremy Corbyn from becoming prime minister. This came amid active threats from the Trump Administration that the US would cease information sharing with the UK if a left-wing government was elected.

Following the 1917 Russian revolution, the introduction of ‘War Communism’ saved the fledgling socialist state from being overthrown by the White Army and the invasion coalition which including the United States and the British Empire.

Much criticism is made of the heavy-handedness of the Actually Existing Socialist movements that secured power in Russia, China, Cuba, and other countries throughout the 20th century but without exception, these revolutions had been subject to constant sabotage, blockade, and subversion, just like in Chile.

It’s not sufficient for a revolution just to win power. If it is to survive, it needs to be actively defended. This is the lesson the left needs to take on board. Lenin knew his palace was about to be besieged, while Allende invited the generals inside.

There’s a reason why every progressive on earth knows the name ‘Augusto Pinochet’ and almost no one has heard of Admiral Kolchak.

#AceHistoryDesk report ………….Published: Sept.11: 2020:

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports by https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all our posts, also links can be found at here for Twitter and Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

Featured Blogger Report: Conscientious Objector and the Medal of Honour #AceHistoryDesk

The President of the United States, in the name of Congress, awarded more than 3,400 Medals of Honor to the Nation’s bravest Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, Marines and Coast Guard personnel, since the decoration’s creation in 1861!

This article was compiled from a variety of resources to honor one such person…

Desmond T. Doss:

Desmond T. Doss was born on February 7, 1919 in Lynchburg, Virginia, USA as Desmond Thomas Doss. He was married to Frances Duman and Dorothy Schutte. He died on March 23, 2006 in Piedmont, Alabama, USA.

Doss receives Medal of Honor from Pres. Truman

Rank & Unit: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Medical Detachment, 307th Infantry Regiment, 77th Infantry Division
Place & Date: Near Urasoe Mura, Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 29 April-21 May 1945

He was a company aid man when the 1st Battalion, 77th Infantry Division assaulted a jagged escarpment 400 feet high. As the troops gained the summit, a heavy concentration of artillery, mortar and machine gun fire crashed into them, inflicting approximately 75 casualties and driving the others back. Pfc. Doss refused to seek cover and remained in the fire-swept area with the many stricken, carrying them 1 by 1 to the edge of the escarpment and there lowering them on a rope-supported litter down the face of a cliff to friendly hands. On 2 May, he exposed himself to heavy rifle and mortar fire in rescuing a wounded man 200 yards forward of the lines on the same escarpment; and 2 days later he treated 4 men who had been cut down while assaulting a strongly defended cave, advancing through a shower of grenades to within 8 yards of enemy forces in a cave’s mouth, where he dressed his comrades’ wounds before making 4 separate trips under fire to evacuate them to safety.

On 5 May, he unhesitatingly braved enemy shelling and small arms fire to assist an artillery officer. He applied bandages, moved his patient to a spot that offered protection from small arms fire and, while artillery and mortar shells fell close by, painstakingly administered plasma. Later that day, when an American was severely wounded by fire from a cave, Pfc. Doss crawled to him where he had fallen 25 feet from the enemy position, rendered aid, and carried him 100 yards to safety while continually exposed to enemy fire.

On 21 May, in a night attack on high ground near Shuri, he remained in exposed territory while the rest of his company took cover, fearlessly risking the chance that he would be mistaken for an infiltrating Japanese and giving aid to the injured until he was himself seriously wounded in the legs by the explosion of a grenade. Rather than call another aid man from cover, he cared for his own injuries and waited 5 hours before litter bearers reached him and started carrying him to cover. The trio was caught in an enemy tank attack and Pfc. Doss, seeing a more critically wounded man nearby, crawled off the litter; and directed the bearers to give their first attention to the other man. Awaiting the litter bearers’ return, he was again struck, this time suffering a compound fracture of 1 arm. With magnificent fortitude he bound a rifle stock to his shattered arm as a splint and then crawled 300 yards over rough terrain to the aid station.

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While serving with his platoon in 1944 on Guam and the Philippines, he was awarded two Bronze Stars with a “V” device,  for exceptional valor in aiding wounded soldiers under fire. During the Battle of Okinawa, he saved the lives of 50–100 wounded infantrymen atop the area known by the 96th Division as the Maeda Escarpment or Hacksaw Ridge.   Doss was wounded four times in Okinawa and was evacuated on May 21, 1945, aboard the USS Mercy.   Doss suffered a left arm fracture from a sniper’s bullet and at one point had seventeen pieces of shrapnel embedded in his body.  

His name became a symbol throughout the 77th Infantry Division for outstanding gallantry far above and beyond the call of duty.  The movie, “Hacksaw Ridge” was made to honor this man and his actions.

CLICK ON IMAGES TO ENLARGE!

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Current News – Honoring 9/11

9/11 Tribute

My past posts to give tribute to those affected by 9/11 …

https://pacificparatrooper.wordpress.com/2016/09/10/911-patriot-and-national-service-day/

https://pacificparatrooper.wordpress.com/2015/09/10/benghazi-9112012/

https://pacificparatrooper.wordpress.com/2015/09/11/patriot-day-9112001/

https://pacificparatrooper.wordpress.com/2014/09/11/national-service-patriot-day-911/

https://pacificparatrooper.wordpress.com/2013/09/11/patriot-national-service-remembrance-day-911/

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Military Humor – 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Farewell Salutes – 

Myrwin ‘Red’ Anderson – Madison, IN; US Navy, WWII

Gladys Blum – Philadelphia, PA; US Army WAC, WWII, nurse

Joseph S. Forzley – Lemont, IL; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, 5th Air Force

Charles Herrmann – Cincinnati, OH; USMC, WWII

Joseph Kurata – Acampo, CA; US Army, Japanese Occupation & Korea, Counter Intelligence Corps, Col. (Ret. 32 y.)

Ian McKnight – NC; US Navy, USS Nimitz, 5th Fleet, Information Tech 2nd Class, MIA (Arabian Gulf)

Kathryn Phillips – Columbus, GA; Civilian, US Red Cross, WWII

Amy Ponech – Lethbridge, CAN; WRC Air Force, WWII

Philip Savage Jr. – Buffalo, NY; US Army Air Corps, WWII, ETO, 505/82nd Airborne Division

Michael Wadeck – Bradenton, FL; US Army, WWII, Korea & Vietnam (Ret. 27 y.)

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Conscientious Objector and the Medal of Honor

#OnThisDay August.25: Founder of ‘ Pinkerton’s National Detective Agency ‘ was bor n ‘ Allan Pinkerton ‘ in 1819 in Glasgow, Scotland: He was an ardent abolitionist, and his s hop functioned as a “station” for escaped slaves traveling the Underground Railroad to freed om in the North #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – Aug.25: Allan Pinkerton (1819-84), founder of Pinkerton’s National Detective Agency, was born in Glasgow, Scotland, on August 25, 1819: Pinkerton emigrated to the United States in 1842 and eventually established a barrel-making shop in a small town outside of Chicago. He was an ardent abolitionist, and his shop functioned as a “station” for escaped slaves traveling the Underground Railroad to freedom in the North: The Late Allan Pinkerton. Illustration from Harper’s Weekly, July 12, 1884. p.452. Prints & Photographs Division

Pinkerton’s career as a detective began by chance when he discovered a gang of counterfeiters operating in an area where he was gathering wood. His assistance—first in arresting these men and then another counterfeiter, led to his appointment as deputy sheriff of Kane County, Illinois, and, later, as Chicago’s first full-time detective.

Secret Service by Wm Gillette. “It Looks Like a Plot on Our Telegraph Lines!” New York: Strobridge & Co. Lith, c1896. Posters: Performing Arts Posters.Prints & Photographs Division

Pinkerton left his job with the Chicago police force to start his own detective agency. One of the first of its kind, this predecessor to Pinkerton’s National Detective Agency provided an array of private detective services—specializing in the capture of train robbers and counterfeiters and in providing private security services for a variety of industries. By the 1870s, Pinkerton’s growing agency had accumulated an extensive collection of criminal dossiers and mug shots that became a model for other police forces.

In 1861, while investigating a railway case, Pinkerton uncovered an apparent assassination plot against Abraham Lincoln. It was believed that conspirators intended to kill Lincoln in Baltimore during a stop along the way to his inauguration. Pinkerton warned Lincoln of the threat, and the president-elect’s itinerary was changed so that he passed through the city secretly at night.

Union General George McClellan later hired Pinkerton to organize a “secret service” to obtain military information in the Southern states during the Civil War. Pinkerton sent agents into Kentucky and West Virginia, and, traveling under the pseudonym “Major E. J. Allen,” performed his own investigative work in Tennessee, Georgia, and Mississippi.

After McClellan was replaced as the commander of the Army of the Potomac in 1862, Pinkerton resumed the management of his detective agency. The agency expanded after the Civil War, opening offices in New York City (1865) and Philadelphia (1866). As his business grew, Pinkerton drew public attention to its work by producing a series of popular “true crime” stories.

Antietam, Md. Allan Pinkerton (“E. J. Allen”) of the Secret Service on Horseback. Alexander Gardner, photographer, September 1862. Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints. Prints & Photographs DivisionAntietam, Md. Allan Pinkerton, President Lincoln, and Maj. Gen. John A. McClernand; another view. Alexander Gardner, photographer, October 3, 1862. Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints. Prints & Photographs Division

In time, because Pinkerton’s Agency was often hired by industrialists to provide intelligence information on union-organizing efforts, Pinkerton guards and agents gained notoriety as strikebreakers. Notable confrontations between Pinkerton agents and laborers include the 1886 Haymarket Riot and the 1892 Homestead Strike, both of which occurred after Pinkerton’s death in 1884.

Illinois-The Anarchist-Labor Troubles in Chicago, from a sketch by C. Bunnell. Illus. in Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, May 15, 1886. Prints & Photographs Division.The Labor Troubles at Homestead, Pa.- Attack of the Strikers and Their Sympathizers… Drawn by Miss G. A. Davis from a sketch by C. Upham; illus. in Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Weekly, July 14, 1892. Prints & Photographs Division
#AceHistoryDesk report ………..Published: Aug.25: 2020:

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#OnThisDay August 5, 1775, the Spanish ship San Carlos, commanded by Juan Manuel de Ayala, entered what woul d soon be called San Francisco Bay: Unnoticed by such early naval explorers as Sir Francis Drake and Sebasti án Vizcaíno, the bay had been sighted by land during a Spanish scouting expedition six years earli er #AceHistoryDesk report

Spanish authorities, intent on offering proof of Spain’s claim to the area, promptly sent nearly two hundred settlers to populate the region. In 1776 both a presidio, or garrison, and a Catholic mission were established. Mission San Francisco de Asís (Mission Dolores) was started by Franciscans, who named both the bay and the mission after the founder of their religious order, St. Francis of Assisi View of San Francisco, Formerly Yerba Buena, in 1846-7 Before the Discovery of Gold. [San Francisco?]: Bosqui Eng. & Print. Co., 1884. Panoramic Maps.Geography & Map Division

As early as 1835, the United States sought to buy San Francisco Bay from Mexico (independent of Spain since 1821), the same year that a small town called Yerba Buena was founded. It was not until after the end of the Mexican War that California was ceded to the United States as a provision of the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed within days of the discovery of gold along the American River. By then, Yerba Buena had claimed its new name, San Francisco—and the Gold Rush was on.

I soon shall be in Frisco,
And then I’ll look around;
And when I see the gold lumps there,
I’ll pick them off the ground. O California,
That’s the land for me:
I’m bound for San Francisco,
With my washboard on my knee.

I Soon Shall be in Frisco.” [Text, c1914]. California Gold: Northern California Folk Music from the Thirties Collected by Sidney Robertson Cowell. American Folklife Center

Holmes Reaches Pikes Peak!

On August 5, 1858, Julia Archibald Holmes became the first woman on record to reach the summit of Pikes Peak. She, her husband James Holmes, and two others began their trek on August 1. For the ascent, Julia Holmes wore what she called her “American costume” — a short dress, bloomers, moccasins, and a hat. In a letter written to her mother from the summit, she said:

“I have accomplished the task which I marked out for myself…Nearly everyone tried to discourage me from attempting it, but I believed that I should succeed…”

A Bloomer Girl on Pike’s Peak, 1858: Julia Archibald Holmes, First White Woman to Climb Pike’s Peak. Agnes Wright Spring, ed.; Denver: Western History Department, Denver Public Library, 1949), 39.

Pikes Peak Panorama. H. (Henry) Wellge; Milwaukee, Wis., American Publishing Co. [1890]. Panoramic Maps. Geography & Map Division

Pikes Peak takes its name from Lieutenant Zebulon Pike, who, fifty years prior to Holmes’ ascent, led an expedition to reconnoiter the southwestern boundary of the Louisiana Purchase. In November 1806, Pike, with a small party, began an ascent of the peak. Weather conditions forced them to abandon their frustrating attempt to climb to the summit.

A Pike’s Peak Prospector. William Henry Jackson, photographer, ca. 1900. Detroit Publishing Company. Prints & Photographs Division

In 1820, during the administration of President James Monroe, another party, under Major Stephen H. Long, was sent to explore this area. Dr. Edwin James, historian of Long’s expedition, led the first recorded ascent of Pikes Peak in July of that year.

When gold was discovered in Colorado in 1858, the phrase “Pikes Peak or Bust” entered American parlance. Pikes Peak was used as verbal shorthand for a vast area in the general range of the peak presumed to be rich in gold. In 1891, the year of the discovery of the great gold field at Cripple Creek, the Pikes Peak cog railroad began operating.

Katharine Lee Bates’ 1893 climb to the top of Pikes Peak inspired her to compose a poem. Her text, later set to music, is the beloved American hymn, “America, the Beautiful,” which vied with “The Star-Spangled Banner” to become the national anthem:

The mountain of the Holy Cross, Colorado. Thomas Moran, artist: L. Prang & Co., c1876. Popular Graphic Arts. Prints & Photographs Division

O beautiful for spacious skies,
for amber waves of grain
For purple mountain majesties
Above the fruited plain!
America! America! God shed his grace on thee
And crown thy good with brotherhood
From sea to shining sea!

The advent of the automobile brought more visitors to Pikes Peak. Capitalizing on this phenomenon, Spencer Penrose built a toll road, completed in 1915, for auto travel to the top of Pikes Peak. The Pikes Peak International Hill Climb, started in 1916 to commemorate the opening of the highway, continues to be a grueling challenge to race car enthusiasts.

Today, Pikes Peak is easy to access by trail, railroad, or car. Located in the southeastern corner of the Pike National Forest, it is one of more than 50 peaks in Colorado that are at least 14,000 feet high.

#AceHistoryDesk report …………….Published: Aug.05: 2020:

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#OnThisDayInHistory After its first bid for statehood was vetoed by President Andrew Johnson, Colorado entered the Union on August 1, 1876, the year the United States celebrated its centennial. Thus, the thirty-eighth state is known as the Centennial State #AceHistoryDesk

After its first bid for statehood was vetoed by President Andrew Johnson, Colorado entered the Union on August 1, 1876, the year the United States celebrated its centennial. Thus, the thirty-eighth state is known as the Centennial State.Ute Indian Camp, Garden of the Gods, Shan Kive, 1913. [Colorado]. Stewart Brothers, c1913. Panoramic Photographs. Prints & Photographs Division

Among the early inhabitants of the land encompassed by Colorado were the Anasazi cliff dwellers. They were forced by drought and other factors to abandon their Mesa Verde homes in the late 1200s. At the time of European exploration and settlement Colorado’s population was made up of Arapaho, Cheyenne, and Ute peoples. Their territory was explored by the Spanish who, after Napoleon’s conquest of Spain, turned over its title to the French.

The United States acquired the eastern part of Colorado in 1803 through the Louisiana Purchase and the western portion in 1848 through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. In 1850, the federal government also purchased a Texas claim in Colorado. This combined property eventually became the Colorado Territory in 1861.

Rocks and stream along the Million Dollar Highway, Ouray County, Colorado. Russell Lee, photographer, Oct., 1940. Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Color Photographs. Prints & Photographs Division

The 1858 discovery of gold caused a population influx in Colorado, just as it had in California in 1849. After Horace Greeley notified readers of the New-York Tribune of this news, as many as 5,000 miners per week poured into the territory. By 1900 gold production had reached over $20,000,000 annually at Cripple Creek, one of the world’s richest gold camps.

Colorado proved rich in other minerals as well, and smelting ores to separate gold and other valuable metals became commercially profitable. As late as the 1940s, mountain streams in Ouray County, Colorado, ran yellow because of the tailings from the gold mills, as documented by Farm Security Administration photographer Russell Lee.

Railroad lines with names such as the Denver, Cripple Creek and Southwestern Railroad brought even more travelers and settlers to Colorado. Railroad traveler Sue A. Pike Sanders recorded the following impressions in her journal of an overnight stay in Denver in the summer of 1886:

Denver is a beautiful city of some 75,000 inhabitants, built mostly of stone and brick. It contains the usual amount of fine buildings. One in particular we are lead to observe, and that, Tabor’s Opera House, the largest in the world, excepting one in Paris, France. This building cost $850,000. The County Court House occupies an entire block, with buildings and ground. There are two large smelting works here…

A Journey to, on and from the “Golden Shore,” by Sue A. Sanders. Delavan, Ill.: Times Printing Office, 1887. “California as I Saw It”: First-Person Narratives of California’s Early Years, 1849 to 1900. General Collections

Learn More

#AceHistoryDesk report …………Published: Aug.01: 2020: Loc.Gov/

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#OnThisDayInHistory – On July 30, 1932, U.S VP Charles Curtis declared, “I proclaim open the Olympic Games of LA & Henry Ford was born on July 30,1863, on his family’s farm in what is present-day Dearborn, Michigan #AceHistoryDesk report

On July 30, 1932, United States Vice President Charles Curtis declared, “I proclaim open the Olympic Games of Los Angeles, celebrating the tenth Olympiad of the modern era.”

Automobile manufacturer Henry Ford was born on July 30,1863, on his family’s farm in what is present-day Dearborn, Michigan:

Sterling Publishing & Media News, [Jul 30, 2020 at 13:05] Read More: https://loc.gov

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FEATURED: Supreme Court Report: Purchase documents claim it is a transparent attempt to whitewash an act of cultural appropriation and annihilation on a massive scale. It is useful to recall exactly how Hagia Sophia became a mosque on May 29, 1453 #AceHistoryDesk report

The History of Jihad From Muhammad to ISIS tells the full story: Once they breached the walls of Constantinople, Muslims raided monasteries and convents, emptying them of their inhabitants, and plundered private houses. They entered Hagia Sophia, which for nearly a thousand years had been the grandest church in Christendom. The faithful had gathered within its hallowed walls to pray during the city’s last agony. Inside the great cathedral, the Muslims killed the elderly and weak and led the rest off into slavery.

The London Post: ““Sultan Mehmet ‘Bought’ Haiga [sic] Sophia before converting into (Mosque) Masjid – Purchase documents submitted to Turkish Supreme Court,” by Shahid Qureshi, July 13, 2020: Sultan Mehmet ‘Bought’ Haiga [sic] Sophia before converting into (Mosque) Masjid –

When the slaughter and pillage was finished, the Sultan Mehmet II, the Conqueror, ordered an Islamic scholar to mount the high pulpit of Hagia Sophia and declare that there was no God but Allah, and Muhammad was his prophet: The magnificent old church was turned into a mosque; hundreds of other churches in Constantinople and elsewhere suffered the same fate. Millions of Christians joined the ranks of the dhimmis; others were enslaved, and many were killed:

But now there is a document circulating, claimed to be the bill of sale of Mehmet the Conqueror, when he bought Hagia Sophia: The Turkish Supreme Court apparently used it as one justification for converting the cathedral into a mosque once again. This document could possibly be authentic, but it is noteworthy that it was never spoken of until now. I’ve never seen mention of it in numerous histories of the conquest. Also, if this “sale” did take place, it was obviously done under duress. The Muslims took over Hagia Sophia on May 29, 1453, as they were plundering Constantinople and murdering or enslaving Christians wholesale. The building was considered to have become a mosque when Mehmet sent the muezzin up to the pulpit to proclaim the Islamic shahada, not upon some sales agreement. The Ecumenical Patriarch or Emperor or whoever was deemed to be its owner was in no position to refuse to sell:

If someone came into your house, stole your possessions, killed your grandparents, enslaved your wife and children, and publicly announced that the house was his, and later gave you a bill of sale, would you consider this to be a fair-and-square real estate transaction?

When Sultan Mehmet conquered Constantinople at the age of 21 and ended Byzantine Empire in the 1453, he purchased the property of Hagia Sophia from his personal wealth before converting it into a Masjid (Mosque). The details of the transaction are still stored in the Turkish Museum, as can be seen in the photo below.This is the main reason why the court ordered Aya Sofya to be re converted into a Masjid.

Therefore, the credit the really goes to the forward thinking Sultan Mehmet, the conqueror of Constantinople for purchasing the church and then creating a waqf (endowment). Had it not been for his wisdom, Kemal Ataturk’s decision would not have been able to be legally overturned.

#AceNewsDesk reports ……………..Published: July.17: 2020:

Snippets of History: “A documentary about the history of Japanese orphans in China after the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression (1931-45) will be filmed under cooperation between two companies from China and Japan, according to a press conference held in Changchun, Northeast China’s Jilin Province on Wednesday #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – July.16: The film’s director Liu Guojun said at the conference that Japanese children (under 13 years old) were abandoned in China and raised by Chinese people after the war: China has about 5,000 Japanese orphans, about 90 percent of whom are distributed in the three provinces in Northwest China and North China’s Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region:

File photo shows Lugou Bridge occupied by Japanese invaders in Beijing. China was the first nation to fight against fascist forces. The struggle started on September 18, 1931, when Japanese troops began their invasion of northeast China. It was intensified when Japan’s full-scale invasion began after a crucial access point to Beijing, Lugou Bridge, also known as Marco Polo Bridge, was attacked by Japanese troops on July 7, 1937. (Xinhua) Global Times” https://t.co/MsMSVq9pOr

The film will be based on the stories of the Chinese adoptive parents, Japanese orphans and their descendants: The documentary will be filmed by a joint team from Changchun TV station based in Jilin Province and commercial television news network All-Nippon News Network from Japan………..Experts from China and Japan will be invited to hold script seminars and conduct extensive and in-depth research and interviews………….The documentary is scheduled to be officially filmed in the winter of 2020, and will be broadcast in China and Japan after its production, according to a report by China News.

#AceHistoryDesk report ………….Published: July.16: 2020:

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Snippets of History: Five Xumishan Grottoes dating back to over 1,500 years ago in Northwest China’s Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region reopened to the public on Wednesday after being closed for 38 years #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – July.16: The reopening aims to allow tourists to enjoy the ancient Chinese cultural heritage more closely, according to a report by China News.

Xumishan Grottoes in Northwest China’s Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region Photo: Snapshot of Xinhua News: Global News Times: https://t.co/Ynb2gdwXXM

China’s Ministry of Culture and Tourism announced Tuesday to resume group tours across China: The Xumishan Grottoes, originally built in the late period of the Northern Wei Dynasty (386-534), have 162 caves and more than 1,000 statues, which are scattered on eight mountain peaks that are two kilometers long:

As a main stretch of the ancient Silk Road, it is one of the top ten grottoes in China and was listed as a key state-level cultural site in 1982: Due to destructive human behaviors and natural disasters, cultural relic experts from across China began its restoration project in April, according to reports.

#AceHistoryDesk report ……………..Published: July.16: 2020:

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(ALGERIA) #OnThisDay July.05: 1962: The country at last buried the remains of 24 fighters decapitated for re sisting French colonial forces in the 19th century, in a ceremony Sunday rich with symbolism marking the cou ntry’s 58th anniversary of independence #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – July.06: The fighters’ skulls were taken to Paris as war trophies and held in a museum for decades until their repatriation to Algeria on Friday, amid a growing global reckoning with the legacy of colonialism: Algerian President Abdelmadjid Tebboune said he’s hoping for an apology from France for colonial-era wrongs.“We have already received half-apologies. There must be another step,” he said in an interview broadcast Saturday with France-24 television. He welcomed the return of the skulls and expressed hope that French President Emmanuel Macron could improve relations and address historical disputes:

Country finally buries the remains of 24-fighters who were decapitated and their skulls were taken as war trophies and held in a museum for decades:

Tebboune presided over the interment of the remains Sunday in a military ceremony at El Alia cemetery east of Algiers, in a section for fallen independence fighters: Firefighters lay the coffins, draped with green, white and red Algerian flags, in the earth.The 24 took part in an 1849 revolt after French colonial forces occupied Algeria in 1830.

Algeria formally declared independence on July 5, 1962 after a brutal war: Algeria’s veterans minister, Tayeb Zitouni, welcomed “the return of these heroes to the land of their ancestors, after a century and a half in post-mortem exile.”Algerians from different regions lined up to pay respect to the fighters on Saturday, when their coffins were on public display at the Algiers Palace of Culture.Mohamed Arezki Ferrad, history professor at the University of Algiers, said hundreds of other Algerian skulls remain in France and called for their return, as well as reparations for French nuclear tests carried out in the Algerian Sahara in the early 1960s:

#AceNewsDesk reports, [Jul 5, 2020 at 17:39] https://t.me/acenewsgroup/1021415

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