Snippets of History – Frederick Douglass ╽Escaping Slavery – A Story Of Risk, Freedom & Triumph

Today In History – Frederick Douglass is born on February 14th, 1818. He was a social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, and statesman after …

Frederick Douglass ╽Escaping Slavery – A Story Of Risk, Freedom & Triumph

Featured: (CAIRO) Archaeologists have discovered a 5,000-year-old brewery that could produce thousands of litres of beer in the ancient Egyptian city of Abydos, Egypt’s tourism and antiquities ministry said #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – Feb.14: A high-production brewery believed to be more than 5,000 years old has been uncovered by a team of archaeologists in southern Egypt:

Egypt unearths ‘world’s oldest’ mass-production brewery, dating back to era of King Narmer, more than 5,000 years ago

A high shot of ancient-dig site shows hole in ground surrounded by modern buildings.
The ancient brewery was uncovered in the Abydos archaeological site near Egypt’s southern city of Sohag.(AFP: Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities)

https://t.me/reuters_news_agency/61866
Reuters Wire News, [Feb 14, 2021 at 1:02 PM]: ABC News: Via AFP: Posted 8h ago

The site, containing about 40 earthenware pots arranged in two rows, was uncovered at North Abydos, Sohag, by a joint Egyptian-American team, the Egyptian tourism ministry said.

The brewery is believed to date back to the era of King Narmer, who founded the First Dynasty and unified Upper and Lower Egypt.

Mostafa Waziry, the secretary general of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities, said it was “the oldest high-production brewery in the world”, created by a society that was ahead of its time.

British archaeologists first discovered the existence of the brewery at the beginning of the 20th century but its location was never precisely determined, Mr Waziry said.Loading

The joint Egyptian-American team “was able to re-locate and uncover its contents”.

According to Mr Waziry, the brewery consisted of eight large areas that were used as “units for beer production”.

Each sector contained about 40 earthenware pots arranged in two rows.

A brown hole in the ground looks like a tree trunk on parched ground surrounded by dirt.
The Egyptian site is believed to be the the world’s oldest high-production brewery.(AFP: Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities)

A mixture of grains and water used for beer production was heated in the vats, with each basin “held in place by levers made of clay placed vertically in the form of rings”.

Fresh brew for ‘royal rituals’

Archaeologist Matthew Adams of New York University, who headed the joint mission with Deborah Vischak of Princeton University, said studies have shown that beer was produced at a large scale, with about 22,400 litres made at a time.

Depiction of Ptolemy XIII and Isis from Kom Ombo
The ancient Egyptians may have enjoyed the occasional glass of amber fluid.(Wikimedia commons: Hedwig Storch)

“The brewery may have been built in this place specifically to supply the royal rituals that were taking place inside the funeral facilities of the kings of Egypt,” Mr Adams said.

“Evidence for the use of beer in sacrificial rites was found during excavations in these facilities.”

Evidence of beer-making in ancient Egypt is not new, and past discoveries have shed light on such production. 

Seven holes on brown ancient ground, with narrow black and white marker.
The remains of a row of Egyptian beer vats were founds by researchers at the archaeological site.(AFP: Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities)

Fragments of pottery used by Egyptians to make beer and dating back 5,000 years were discovered on a building site in Tel Aviv, the Israeli Antiquities Authority announced in 2015.

Abydos, where the latest discovery was unearthed, has yielded many treasures over the years and is famous for its temples

Authorities had expected 15 million tourists to visit Egypt in 2020, compared to 13 million the previous year, but the pandemic has kept visitors away.

AFP

#AceHistoryDesk report ……Published: Feb.14: 2021:

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports by https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all our posts, also links can be found at here for Twitter and Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

Snippets of History: Remains Of At Least 6 Pirates Found At Whydah Shipwreck Site Off Cape Cod #AceHistoryDesk report

The skeletal remains of at least six pirates were discovered at the site of a shipwreck that happened off Wellfleet in 1717.

Remains Of At Least 6 Pirates Found At Whydah Shipwreck Site Off Cape Cod

#AceHistoryDesk report ……….Published: Feb.10: 2021:

Featured Blogger GP – The U.S.O.’s 80th Anniversary #AceHistoryDesk report

“Until everyone comes home” is the motto of the U.S.O., the nonprofit organization has stuck to that motto, doing its best to bring support and entertainment to American military personnel around the world.

Over the course of the USO’s 80-year history, the organization has seen it all: the beaches of France, the jungles of Vietnam, the deserts of Saudi Arabia and the mountains of AfghanistanBut most importantly, the USO has witnessed several generations of service members, military spouses and military families pass through its doors – and has provided them with crucial support by boosting their morale and keeping them connected to one another throughout their time in the military.

Boxing match w/ Sugar Ray Leonard & Bob Hope, Mickey Rooney as referee.

Starting in 1941 and in the eight decades since, the USO has remained committed to always standing by the military’s side, no matter where their service takes them.

Eleven months before the United States’ official entry into World War II, President Franklin D. Roosevelt was already creating a support system for the nation’s Armed Forces. Bringing together the Salvation Army, the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA), the Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA), the National Catholic Community Service, the National Travelers Aid Association and the National Jewish Welfare Board, these six organizations formed the United Service Organizations (USO) on 4 February 1941. The USO was created specifically to provide morale and recreation services to the troops.

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“Until everyone comes home” is the motto of the U.S.O., the nonprofit organization has stuck to that motto, doing its best to bring support and entertainment to American military personnel around the world.

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Military Humor – 

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Farewell Salutes – 

Jesse Anderson – Boise, ID; National Guard, Chief Warrant Officer 4, instructor pilot

Dale F. Bruhs – Milford, MD; US Army, Korea, 187th RCT

Millie Hughes-Fulford –  Mineral Wells, TX; US Army Reserve, Medical Corps / NASA, 1st female astronaut- 

Michael Gastrich – Cincinnati, OH; US Navy, Petty Officer 2nd Class, air crew mechanic/flight engineer

Roland Horn – Des Moines, IA; US Army, WWII, Chief Warrant Officer (Ret.)

George Laubhan – Boise, ID; National Guard, Chief Warrant Officer 3, instructor pilot

Charlotte MacDonough – Boston, MA; Civilian, WWII, made B-17 fuel bladders

Ryan Mason – Carthage, NY & TX; US Army, Middle East, Sgt.

Matthew Peltzer – Napa, ID; National Guard, Chief Petty Officer 3, pilot

George P. Shultz (100) – Englewood, NJ; USMC, WWII, PTO / Secretary of Labor, Treasury and State

Julian Vargas – Silver City, NM; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, 187/11th Airborne Division

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Published: Feb.08: 2021: The U.S.O.’s 80th Anniversary

#OnThisDay in 1941: The United Service Organizations, popularly known as the USO, was incorporated in New York on February 4, to provide recreational opportunities and resources for members of the U.S. armed forces on leave #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – Feb.04: the recommendation of President Franklin Roosevelt, the task was put in the hands of existing public service organizations. The USO was organized by representatives of six social service organizations as a private, nonprofit organization. The organizers included the Jewish Welfare Board, the National Catholic Community Service, the Salvation Army, the Travelers Aid Association of America, the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA), and the Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA). Over the course of World War II, the USO boasted more than 1 million civilian volunteers and operated more than 3,000 recreational clubs. Set up quickly in churches, museums, barns, railroad cars, storefronts, and other locales, USO clubs were places for both lively social activity and quiet contemplation. Some soldiers came to dance and watch movies, others to pursue traveler’s information or assistance, still others to write letters, lounge, eat, or seek religious counsel.

#TodayInHistory 1941 February 04: The United Service Organisations, popularly known as the USO, was incorporated in New York on February 4, 1941, to provide recreational opportunities and resources for members of the U.S. armed forces on leave.Harrisburg U.S.O., Penn Station, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Entrance View I.

Gottscho-Schleisner, Inc., photographer, Sept. 3, 1943. Gottscho-Schleisner Collection. Prints & Photographs Division

Soon after the founding of the USO, the organization created a subsidiary, Camp Shows Inc., to produce professional-quality shows with volunteers from the entertainment world. Traveling shows, which included dramatic and musical performances, vaudeville-style revues and beyond, featured well-known performers such as Bob Hope, Joe E. Brown, Lena Horn and Joan Blondell, as well as many other actors and production staff members from stage and screen.“The audience response is terrific. Entertaining troops spoils you for regular performances,” lots of United Service Organization (USO) entertainers say. United States. Office of War Information, Apr. 1943. Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Black-and-White Negatives. Prints & Photographs Division

The USO was disbanded in 1947, then reorganized during the Korean War and expanded considerably during the Vietnam War. It continues to provide a variety of services to members of the armed forces and their families.

Addtional Information:

  • Throughout an extraordinary professional career of nearly seventy years, Bob Hope made numerous live USO appearances all around the world in support of the U.S. armed forces. See On the Road: USO Shows and Public Service, two sections of the exhibition Bob Hope and American Variety to learn more.
  • Read more details about the USO in the In Custodia Legis blog postcelebrating the 75th anniversary of the founding of the USO in 2016.
  • To learn more about the experiences of soldiers during wartime, consult the Library’s Veterans History Project. The collection contains several interviews with individuals who have USO associations, including several which have been digitized.
  • To locate photographs of USO facilities, entertainers, and World War II service members on leave, search the Library’s prints and photographs collections on terms such as USOfurloughservicemenand servicemen’s center

#AceHistoryDesk report ………Published: Feb.04: 2021:

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports by https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all our posts, also links can be found at here for Twitter and Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

Featured Blogger GP – DDT, Aerosol Cans and WWII #AceHistoryDesk report

DDT, Aerosol Cans and WWII

With millions of troops moving into tropical and subtropical campaigns, WWII military leaders and planners sought ways to fight diseases endemic to these regions. Two WWII era innovations were combined to save the lives of many combatants during the war years. Malaria was the primary concern at the time.

Malaria was commonly avoided by prophylactic treatments with quinine. Larger doses could be given to those known to be infected. Quinine came from the bark of a South American shrub that came to be grown on commercial plantations in the South Pacific. The Japanese occupied these plantations early in the war, and substitutes for it were less effective.

In 1939, Paul Hermann Muller discovered that dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) effectively killed insects.. In 1943 tests showed it to be effective against the mosquitoes that carried malaria, and the US Military started using it. At first they used hand pumps that pressurized a canister, and applying DDT this way replaced spraying fuel oil in streams and ditches. In 1948 Muller received the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for his discovery.

USDA researchers Lyle Goodhue and William Sullivan developed the first effective aerosol spray can in 1941. There were earlier patents for aerosol spray, but no one had yet made an effective disposable canister. Goodhue and Sullivan were looking for ways to spray insecticides, and found a way to compress chlorofluorocarbon gases in a can with the chemical to be dispersed. With a valve at the top that controlled emission of the contents, the active chemical was carried by the expanding carrier gas

Combining DDT with a working disposable aerosol can, the US military was able to give its troops a way to spray inside tents, nets and clothes to kill mosquitoes (and just about all the other insects that came in contact).

Dr. Lyle D. Goodhue, 1942

In the 1970s scientists showed that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) used in aerosol cans and refrigeration, were causing a degradation of the ozone layer in the atmosphere. Ozone is a toxic pollutant at ground levels, but a concentrated layer of ozone high in the atmosphere shields the Earth’s surface from a large amount of ultra-violet radiation from the sun. Regulations in the US and around the world phased out the use of CFCs as propellants first, and then as refrigerants, by the late 1980s. Metal spray cans are more rare now, but they dominated the shelves of stores for many decades of the 20th century.

Both products have since been removed from sale due to side effects.

From: the National WWII Museum, New Orleans

CLICK ON IMAGES TO ENLARGE.

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Military Humor – 

How’s this for recycling? We get some heavily polluted air, put it an aerosol can, and use it as an insecticide.

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Farewell Salutes – 

John Ashcroft – Wilmington, DE; US Navy, WWII, PTO, USS LCI – 688 / Korea

Russell Bishop – Wickenburg, AZ; US Army, Korea, 187th RCT

Frank M. Fonte – Northport, NY; US Navy, WWII

Russell Harvey (105) – Philadelphia, PA; US Army, WWII

Hal Holbrook – Cleveland, OH; US Army, WWII, SSgt. / beloved actor

Bruce Mock – Dodge City, KS; US Army, Japanese Occupation, Sgt. Major, 808, 836th Engineering Battalion

Eugene Reilly (100) – Boston, MA; US Army, WWII, ETO, 2nd Lt., 3rd Infantry Division

Robert Skyles – Hill City, ID;US Navy, WWII, PTO

Irwin Stahl – Delray Beach, FL; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, Co. C/ 187/11th Airborne Division

Robert Max Willocks – Maryville, TN; US Navy, WWII, PTO

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Featured Blogger GP – Duct Tape and WWII #AceHistoryDesk report

During the WWII, U.S. troops in the heat of battle had a strangely impractical way of reloading their weapons. Cartridges used for grenade launchers was one example. Boxed, sealed with wax and taped over to protect them from moisture, soldiers would need to pull on a tab to peel off the paper tape and break the seal. Sure, it worked… except when it didn’t, soldiers were left scrambling to pry the boxes open.

waterproof ammo boxesVesta Stoudt had been working at a factory packing and inspecting these cartridges when she got to thinking that there had to be a better way. She also happened to be a mother of two sons serving in the Navy and was particularly perturbed that their lives and countless others were left to such chance. Concerned for the welfare of sons, she discussed with her supervisors an idea she had to fabricate a tape made from strong, water-resistant cloth. And when nothing came of her efforts, she penned a letter to then-President Franklin Roosevelt detailing her proposal (which included a hand-sketched diagram) and closing by making a plea to his conscience: « We can’t let them down by giving them a box of cartridges that takes a minute or two to open, enabling the enemy to take lives that might be saved had the box been taped with strong tape that can be opened in a split second. Please, Mr. President, do something about this at once; not tomorrow or soon, but now. »

Oddly enough, Roosevelt passed Stoudt’s recommendation on to military officials, and in two weeks time, she received notice that her suggestion is being considered and not too long after was informed that her proposal had been approved. The letter also commended her idea was of « exceptional merit. » Before long, Johnson & Johnson, which specialized in medical supplies, was assigned and developed a sturdy cloth tape with a strong adhesive that would come to be known as “duck tape,” which garnered the company an Army/Navy « E » Award, an honor given out as a distinction of excellence in the production of war equipment.

Army/Navy E PennantWhile Johnson & Johnson was officially credited with the invention of duct tape, it’s a concerned mother who will be remembered as the mother of duct tape. The initial iteration that Johnson & Johnson came up with isn’t much different from the version on the market today. Comprised of a piece of mesh cloth, which gives it tensile strength and rigidity to be torn by hand and waterproof polyethylene (plastic), duct tape is made by feeding the materials into a mixture that forms the rubber-based adhesive. Unlike glue, which forms a bond once the substance hardens, duct tape is a pressure-sensitive adhesive that relies on the degree in which pressure is applied. The stronger the pressure, the stronger the bond, particularly with surfaces that are clean, smooth and hard.

Duct tape was a huge hit with soldiers due to its strength, versatility and waterproof properties. Used to make all sorts of repairs from boots to furniture, it’s also a popular fixture in the world of motorsports, where crews use strips to patch up dents. During the war duck tape was distributed to soldier’s to use in sealing ammo cans. Industrious soldiers quickly started using it for all manner of repairs thanks to its strong adhesive and sturdy construction. When millions of soldiers returned home from the war, they brought their respect for duct tape with them, rapidly introducing the now ubiquitous tape into popular culture. Film crews working on-set have a version called gaffer’s tape, which doesn’t leave a sticky residue. Even NASA Astronauts pack a roll when they go on space missions.

on aircraftBesides repairs, other creative uses for duct tape include strengthening cellular reception on the Apple iPhone 4 and as a form of medical treatment for removing warts called duct tape occlusion therapy, which research hasn’t been proven to be effective. « Duct » or « duck » tape? In this case, either pronunciation would be correct. According to Johnson & Johnson’s website, the original green sticky cloth tape got its name during world war II when soldiers started calling it duck tape for the way liquids seem to roll off like water off a duck’s back. Not long after the war, the company launched a metallic-silver version called duct tape after executives discovered it can also be used to seal heating ducts. Interestingly enough, however, scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory conducted field tests on heating ducts and determined that duct tape was insufficient for that purpose. By :  Tuan C. Nguyen CLICK ON IMAGES TO ENLARGE.################################################################################################################

Military Humor – 

DUCT TAPE DOESN’T FIX EVERYTHING!

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Farewell Salutes – 

Steven Bailey – Houston, TX; US Army, Kuwait, 82nd Airborne Division, Bronze Star Harry Beal – Meyersdale, PA; US Navy, 1st SEAL

Robert Collins – Rockaway, NJ; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, Co. A/127th Engineers/11th Airborne Division Thomas Hard Sr. – Chicago, IL; US Navy, WWII, PTO, POW Reed Mattair – Williston, FL; US Army, WWII, PTO Paul Moore Sr. – Portsmouth, VA; US Navy, WWII, PTO, USS West Virginia, SeaBee, Pearl Harbor survivor Edward Sulewski – So. Milwaukee, WI; US Army, Korea, 187th RCT Alexander Suprin – brn: Poland; USMC, WWII, PTO Thomas Whitaker – Marquette, MI; US Army, WWII, Engineering Corps Dominic Zangari (100) – Lancaster, PA; US Army Air Corps, WWII, Korea & Vietnam, (Ret. 34 y.) ################################################################################################################

OnThisDay 31st:January:1961:Ham flew a suborbital flight on the Mercury-Redstone 2 mission, part of the U.S. space program’s Project Mercury: Ham’s name is an acronym for the laboratory that prepared him for his historic mission—the Holloman Aerospace Medical Center, located at Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico, southwest of Alamogordo #AceHistoryDesk report …..

#AceHistoryReport- Jan.30: Ham (July 1957 – January 19, 1983), also known as Ham the Chimpand Ham the Astrochimp, was a chimpanzee and the first hominidlaunched into space. On January 31, 1961, Ham flew a suborbital flight on the Mercury-Redstone 2 mission, part of the U.S. space program’s Project Mercury.[1][2] Ham’s name is an acronym for the laboratory that prepared him for his historic mission—the Holloman Aerospace Medical Center, located at Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico, southwest of Alamogordo. His name was also in honor of the commander of Holloman Aeromedical Laboratory, Lieutenant Colonel Hamilton “Ham” Blackshear.[3][4]HamHam in January 1961, before his flight into spaceSpeciesCommon chimpanzeeSexMaleBornJuly 1957
French CameroonDiedJanuary 19, 1983 (aged 25–26)
North Carolina Zoo, North Carolina, U.S.AKnown forFirst hominid in space

Ham (chimpanzee) 1983

Ham the chimp (cropped).jpg

Contents

Early life

Ham was born in July 1957 in French Cameroon (now Cameroon),[5][6]captured by animal trappers and sent to Rare Bird Farm in Miami, Florida, US. He was purchased by the United States Air Force and brought to Holloman Air Force Base in July 1959.[5]

There were originally 40 chimpanzee flight candidates at Holloman. After evaluation, the number of candidates was reduced to 18, then to six, including Ham.[7]:245–246 Officially, Ham was known as No. 65 before his flight,[8] and only renamed “Ham” upon his successful return to Earth. This was reportedly because officials did not want the bad press that would come from the death of a “named” chimpanzee if the mission were a failure.[9] Among his handlers, No. 65 had been known as “Chop Chop Chang”.[10][9]:page 138

Training and mission

A “hand shake” welcome. After his flight on a Mercury-Redstone rocket, chimpanzee Ham is greeted by the commander of the recovery ship, USS Donner(LSD-20).

Beginning in July 1959, the two-year-old chimpanzee was trained under the direction of neuroscientist Joseph V. Brady at Holloman Air Force Base Aero Medical Field Laboratory to do simple, timed tasks in response to electric lights and sounds.[11] During his pre-flight training, Ham was taught to push a lever within five seconds of seeing a flashing blue light; failure to do so resulted in an application of a light electric shock to the soles of his feet, while a correct response earned him a banana pellet.[12]:243

What differentiates Ham’s mission from all the other primate flights to this point is that he was not merely a passenger, and the results from his test flight led directly to the mission Alan Shepard made on May 5, 1961, aboard Freedom 7.[13]

On January 31, 1961, Ham was secured in a Project Mercury mission designated MR-2 and launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on a suborbital flight.[1][12]:314–315 Ham’s vital signs and tasks were monitored by sensors and computers on Earth.[14] The capsule suffered a partial loss of pressure during the flight, but Ham’s space suit prevented him from suffering any harm.[12]:315 Ham’s lever-pushing performance in space was only a fraction of a second slower than on Earth, demonstrating that tasks could be performed in space.[12]:316 Ham’s capsule splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean and was recovered by a rescue ship later that day.[12]:316 His only physical injury was a bruised nose.[14] His flight was 16 minutes and 39 seconds long.[15]

Later life

Ham’s grave at the New Mexico Museum of Space History in Alamogordo, New Mexico

On April 5, 1963, Ham was transferred to the National Zoo in Washington, D.C. where he lived for 17 years[7]:255–257 before joining a small group of captive chimps at North Carolina Zoo on September 25, 1980.[16]

After his death on January 19, 1983, Ham’s body was given to the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology for necropsy. Following the necropsy, the plan was to have him stuffed and placed on display at the Smithsonian Institution, following Soviet precedent with pioneering space dogs Belka and Strelka. However, this plan was abandoned after a negative public reaction.[citation needed] Ham’s remains, minus the skeleton, were buried at the International Space Hall of Fame in Alamogordo, New Mexico. Colonel John Stapp gave the eulogy at the memorial service.[17] The skeleton is held in the collection of the National Museum of Health and Medicine.[6]

Ham’s backup, Minnie, was the only female chimpanzee trained for the Mercury program. After her role in the Mercury program ended, Minnie became part of an Air Force chimpanzee breeding program, producing nine offspring and helping to raise the offspring of several other members of the chimpanzee colony.[7]:258–259 She was the last surviving astro-chimpanzee and died at age 41 on March 14, 1998.[7]:259

In popular culture

  • In the 1967 I Dream of Jeannie episode “Fly Me to the Moon” Larry Storch played an astrochimp named Sam who was accidentally turned into a human.[18]
  • Tom Wolfe‘s 1979 book The Right Stuff depicts Ham’s spaceflight,[19]as do the subsequent film and TV adaptations.
  • The 2001 film Race to Space was a fictionalized version of Ham’s story; the chimpanzee in the movie is named “Mac”.[20]
  • In 2007, a French documentary made in association with Animal PlanetHam—Astrochimp #65, tells the story of Ham as witnessed by Jeff, who took care of Ham until his departure from the Air Force base after the success of the mission. It is also known as Ham: A Chimp into Space / Ham, un chimpanzé dans l’espace.[21]
  • A 2008 animated film, Space Chimps, was about sending chimpanzees to space. The main character and hero of the movie was named Ham III, the grandson of Ham.[22]
  • In 2008, Bark Hide and Horn, a folk-rock band from Portland, Oregon, released a song titled “Ham the Astrochimp”, detailing the journey of Ham from his perspective.[23]

See also

References

  1. a b “Chimp survives 420-mile ride into space”Lewiston Morning Tribune. Idaho. Associated Press. February 1, 1961. p. 1.
  2.  “Chimp sent out on flight over Atlantic”The Bulletin. Bend, Oregon. UPI. January 31, 1961. p. 1.
  3.  Swenson Jr., Loyd S.; Grimwood, James M.; Alexander, Charles C. (1989). “This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury”NASA History Series. NASA Special Publication-4201. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
  4.  Brown, Laura J. (November 13, 1997). “Obituary: NASA Medical director Hamilton ‘Ham’ Blackshear”Florida Today. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
  5. a b Gray, Tara (1998). “A Brief History of Animals in Space”National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved May 12,2008.
  6. a b Nicholls, Henry (February 7, 2011). “Cameroon’s Gagarin: The Afterlife of Ham the Astrochimp”.
  7. a b c d Burgess, Colin; Dubbs, Chris (January 24, 2007). Animals in Space: From Research Rockets to the Space Shuttle. Springer-Praxis Books in Space Exploration. Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-36053-9OCLC 77256557.
  8.  Hanser, Kathleen (November 10, 2015). “Mercury Primate Capsule and Ham the Astrochimp”airandspace.si.edu. Smithsonian National Air & Space Museum. Archived from the original on May 20, 2018. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
  9. a b Haraway, Donna (1989). Primate Visions: Gender, Race, and Nature in the World of Modern Science. New York: Routledge.
  10.  “Chop Chop Chang Commemorative Patch (HAM the Astrochimp)”Retrorocket EmblemsArchived from the original on May 20, 2018. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
  11.  House, George (April–June 1991). “Project Mercury’s First Passengers”. Spacelog8 (2): 4–5. ISSN 1072-8171OCLC 18058232.
  12. a b c d e Swenson Jr., Loyd S.; Grimwood, James M.; Alexander, Charles C. (1966). This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury. NASA History Series. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. OCLC 00569889. Retrieved May 11, 2008.
  13.  Burgess, Colin (2014). “The Mercury flight of chimpanzee Ham”(PDF). Freedom 7. Springer. pp. 58–59. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-01156-1_2ISBN 978-3-319-01155-4.
  14. a b Zackowitz, Margaret G. (October 2007). “The Primate Directive”National Geographic. Archived from the original on November 12, 2007. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
  15.  “NASA Project Mercury Mission MR-2”. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved May 11, 2008.
  16.  “Ham the astrochimp: hero or victim?”The Guardian. December 16, 2013.
  17.  Roach, Mary (2010). Packing for Mars: The Curious Science of Life in the Void. Norton. pp. 160–163. ISBN 978-0393068474.
  18.  Lathers, Marie (May 3, 2012). Space Oddities: Women and Outer Space in Popular Film and Culture, 1960–2000. A&C Black. p. 128. ISBN 9781441172051.
  19.  Wolfe, Tom (March 4, 2008). The Right Stuff. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 178. ISBN 9781429961325.
  20.  Foundas, Scott (March 14, 2002). “Race to Space”Variety. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
  21.  Kerviel, Sylvie (July 13, 2007). “Ham, un chimpanzé dans l’espace”Le Monde (in French). Retrieved January 30, 2019.
  22.  Space Chimps at AllMovie
  23.  For Melville, With Love, by Ezra Ace Caraeff, August 14, 2008, Portland Mercury

Further reading

  • Farbman, Melinda; Gaillard, Frye (June 2000) [2000]. Spacechimp: NASA’s Ape in Space. Countdown to Space. Berkeley Heights, New Jersey: Enslow Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7660-1478-7OCLC 42080118. Brief biography of Ham, aimed at children ages 9–12.
  • Rosenstein, Andrew (July 2008). Flyboy: The All-True Adventures of a NASA Space Chimp. Windham, Maine: Yellow Crane Press. ISBN 978-0-9758825-2-8. A novel about Ham and his trainer.
  • Burgess, Colin; Dubbs, Chris (January 24, 2007). Animals in Space: From Research Rockets to the Space Shuttle. Springer-Praxis Books. ISBN 978-0-387-36053-9. Book covering the life and flight of Ham, plus other space animals.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ham the Chimp.

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Snippet Of History – A 17th Century Organ Gun from Lviv — ULTIMA RATIO

Mariana Verkhoturovawith Thorsten Peger & N.R. Jenzen-Jones Introduction Since gunpowder was first developed, humans have strived to refine and …

A 17th Century Organ Gun from Lviv — ULTIMA RATIO

#OnThisDay 1986: The Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster Happened 35 Years Ago Today #AceHistoryDesk report

(CBSMiami)- Today marks 35 years since the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster: The accident on Jan. 28, 1986 — just 73 seconds into flight — killed all seven on board, including schoolteacher Christa McAuliffe.

The Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster Happened 35 Years Ago Today

The disaster unfolded on live TV before countless schoolchildren eager to see McAuliffe, an everyday teacher, rocketing toward space. She would have been the first teacher in space: The Challenger disintegrated over the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of central Florida, after a booster engine failed:

Published: Jan.28: 2021: