FEATURED BLOGGER: MIS Interpreters ..#AceHistoryDesk report

Throughout the war, more than 6,000 Japanese Americans would serve in the MIS as translators and interrogators—often at great risk—for 130 units across the Pacific. After the war the MIS Nisei were tapped for critical assignments during the occupation of Japan.

MIS Interpreters

1944 MIS class; courtesy of Ted Yenarinat, National WWII Museum Throughout the war, more than 6,000 Japanese Americans would serve in the MIS as …

The Military Intelligence Service (MIS) consisted mainly of Nisei men, for further information on the Japanese-Americans who served, I have a series on them, that can be located HERE>

Nisei interpreters worked closely with American and Japanese officials to recover the war-torn nation and restore a peacetime government. They also worked as translators during war crimes trials held in Japan, China, the Philippines, French Indochina and the East Indies.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

One of the most valuable contributions of the Nisei in the MIS was the translation of the captured documents referred to as the “Z Plan,” which outlined the Japanese plans for counterattack in the Southwest Pacific in 1944.

By the war’s end Nisei linguists had translated an astounding 20.5 million pages of documents. Without a doubt, the intelligence gathered by MIS interpreters shortened the war and saved lives. The work that many Japanese Americans performed with the MIS extended beyond World War II into the Cold War years, including occupation duty. Nisei often served as a bridge between occupation authorities and civilians. This service often continued through the Korean War and into the Vietnam era.

During war crimes trials in the Pacific, Nisei translators and interpreters monitored translations, both English and Japanese, performed by Japanese interpreters. They listened for accuracy and possible corrections, ensuring a correct translation for the court records.

Nisei Women’s Army Corps, Ft. Snelling

The postwar contribution of the MIS included women; Nisei volunteers with the Women’s Army Corps [WAC] were trained in translation of military documents for occupation duty. Until the early 1970s many of the contributions of the MIS were classified, and the stories and service of Nisei linguists went unrecognized.

The first recognition of MIS veterans came with the Presidential Unit Citation awarded in 2000 by President George W. Bush. In 2010, MIS veterans received the Congressional Gold Medal along with the other Japanese American veterans of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team and the 100th Infantry Battalion.

Koso Kanemoto in Japan

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Fellow blogger, Koji Kanemoto speaks of his father’s, Koso Kanemoto’s, MIS duty in his posts….

“There’s No Toilet Paper in the Jungle of Burma”

WWII Military Intelligence Today

################################################################################################################

Military Humor – 

################################################################################################################

Farewell Salutes – 

Gerald Anderson – Coffee Springs, AL; US Air Force, Vietnam

Charles Bringe – Melrose, MN; US Navy, WWII, gunner / Korea

William Cook – Covelo, CA; US Army, Korea, Lt.

Gertrude Drummond – Glen Cove, NY; Civilian, WWII, Grumman Aircraft

Juan Jaurigue – Tucson, AZ; USMC, WWII, PTO, 3 Purple Hearts, Bronze Star

Wilbur F. Kohlmorgan (101) – Montrose, IA; US Army, WWII, ETO, 34th ‘Red Bull’ Division

Pauline Lagarde – New Orleans, LA; Civilian, WWII, Pentagon

Chester ‘Glen’ Norton – Mt. Eerie, IL; US Navy, WWII, gunner

Irving A. Troob – Providence, RI; US Army, WWII, Middle East & CBI, Technician, 96th Signal Battalion

Lionel Woods (100) – Alexandra, NZ; Royal Navy, WWII, # MX70124

######################################################################################################################################################

#OnThisDayInHistory 1777 Second Continental Congress adopted the ‘ Articles of Confederatioin ‘ for ratification but after a review was called it was not until March.01: 1781: before it was fina lised #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – On November 15, 1777: Second Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation. Submitted to the states for ratification two days later, the Articles of Confederation were accompanied by a letter from Congress urging that the document……

…be candidly reviewed under a sense of the difficulty of combining in one general system the various sentiments and interests of a continent divided into so many sovereign and independent communities, under a conviction of the absolute necessity of uniting all our councils and all our strength, to maintain and defend our common liberties…

Monday, November 17, 1777, Journals of the Continental Congress. A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1875. Law Library

Although Congress debated the Articles for over a year, they requested immediate action on the part of the states. However, three-and-a-half years passed before ratification on March 1, 1781.

Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union Between the States… Williamsburg [Va.]: Printed by Alexander Purdie, 1777. Printed Ephemera: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera. Rare Book and Special Collections Division.

Still at war with Great Britain, the colonists were reluctant to establish another powerful national government. Jealously guarding their new independence, the Continental Congress created a loosely structured unicameral legislature that protected the liberty of the individual states at the expense of the nation. While calling on Congress to regulate military and monetary affairs, for example, the Articles of Confederation provided no mechanism to ensure that states complied with requests for troops or revenue. At times this left the military in a precarious position as George Washington wrote in a 1781 letter to the governor of Massachusetts, John Hancock.

The Treaty of Paris, which ended hostilities with England, languished in Congress for months before it was ratified because state representatives failed to attend sessions of the national legislature. Yet, Congress had no power to enforce attendance. Writing to George Clinton in September 1783, George Washington complained:

Congress have come to no determination yet respecting the Peace Establishment, nor am I able to say when they will. I have lately had a conference with a Committee on this subject, and have reiterated my former opinions, but it appears to me that there is not a sufficient representation to discuss Great National points.

Letter George Washington to George Clinton, September 11, 1783. Series 3, Varick Transcripts, 1775-1785, Subseries 3H, Personal Correspondence, 1775-1783, Letterbook 3. George Washington Papers. Manuscript Division

Leaders of the Continental CongressLeaders of the Continental Congress–John Adams, Morris, Hamilton, Jefferson / A. Tholey. Augustus Tholey, artist, c1894. Prints & Photographs Division

In May 1786, Charles Pinckney of South Carolina proposed that Congress revise the Articles of Confederation. On August 7, 1786, a committee recommended amendments to the Articles that included granting Congress power over foreign and domestic commerce and providing means for Congress to collect money from state treasuries. Unanimous approval was necessary to make the alterations, however, and Congress failed to reach a consensus.

In September 1786, a convention was held in Annapolis, Maryland, in an effort to deal with problems of interstate commerce. Led by James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, the delegates at the Annapolis Convention issued a proposal for a new convention to revise the Articles of Confederation.

After debate, Congress endorsed the plan to revise the Articles of Confederation on February 21, 1787.

Although ultimately supplanted by the United States Constitution, the Articles of Confederation provided stability during the Revolutionary Waryears. Most importantly, the experience of drafting and living under this initial document provided valuable lessons in self-governance and somewhat tempered fears about a powerful central government. Still, reconciling the tension between state and federal authority continued to challenge Americans from the 1832 nullification crisis to the Supreme Court’s landmark Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka decision.

#AceHistoryDesk report …………..Published: Nov.15: 2020:

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports by https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all our posts, also links can be found at here for Twitter and Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

FEATURED BLOGGER: Pacific War Trials – Part Two – #AceHistoryDesk report

Courtroom spectators, ManilaThe Allies also established the United Nations War Crimes Commission (the UNWCC) in 1943. The UNWCC collected evidence on Axis war crimes and drew up lists of suspected war criminals for Allied prosecution after the war.

In 1944, a sub-commission of the UNWCC was established in Chungking to focus on the investigation of Japanese atrocities. The major trials being held in Tokyo were presided by the U.S., Britain, Australia, the Netherlands, France, China and the Philippines and began in May 1946. General MacArthur, as supreme commander of the Allied powers, largely controlled the progress of the trials. They started with 25 defendants, but two passed away during the proceedings and another was evaluated as too mentally deficient to participate.

Hideki Tojo listening to testimonies.Hideki Tojo was the most infamous face to symbolize Japanese aggression being that he was the Prime Minister at the time of Pearl Harbor. A 55-count indictment was drafted by the British prosecutor, Arthur Comyns-Carr. Every nation’s prosecutor signed the document listing: 36 counts of ‘crimes against peace’, 16 for murder and 3 counts for ‘other conventional war crimes and crimes against humanity’ for the major persons involved. These proceedings were held at the Japanese War Ministry Building and would last until November 1948. During this time, the prosecution called 400 witnesses and produced 800 affidavits.

Foreign Minister, Koki Hirota at his sentencing.Tojo took responsibility as premier for anything he or his country had done; others argued that they had operated in self-defense due to the ABCD power’s embargo and military assistance given to China. In Tokyo, all defendants were found guilty. The death sentence was given to: Hideki Tojo; Foreign Minister Koki Hirota; Generals Kenji Doihara, Seishiro Itagaki, Akiro Muto, Hyoturo Kimura and Iwane Matsui – these sentences were carried out three days later. Sixteen others received life in prison. Eight of the judges agreed on all of the sentences. Sir William Webb dissented, Delfin Jaramilla of P.I. thought they were too lenient, H. Bernard of France found fault with the proceedings, B.V.A. Roeling of the Netherlands voted to acquit Hirota and several others.  A complete dissent came from Radhabinod Pal of India.

Tomaya Kawakita and his attorneyAnother series of tribunals were held in Yokohama, Japan. These were for lower ranking officers, Shinto priests, medical personnel and farmers in association with the treatment of prisoners. One case involved the ship, Oryoko Maru, upon which 1,300 POWs died in 1944. The secret police, the Kempeitai, were brought to justice along with other spies. The trial of Tomaya Kawakita was moved from Yokohama to Los Angeles at his request being that he was born in the United States. This was a clear case of “be careful what you wish for” – the American court sentenced him to death. American tribunals were held in Shanghai for those accused of executing American airmen under the “Enemy Airmen’s Act” due to the Doolittle raid on Japan in April 1942, when many prisoners were murdered as an act of revenge for that mission of bombing Japan early in the war.

To be continued…CLICK ON IMAGES TO ENLARGE.################################################################################################################

Military Humor – 

################################################################################################################

Farewell Salutes – 

Ralph Becker – South Bend, IN; US Army Air Corps, WWII, 388th Bomb Group/8th Air Force Alice Keller Clark – Lebanon, PA; US Army Air Corps WAC, WWII David A. Deatherage – Independence, MO; US Army, Korea, Co. A/187th RCT James M. Flanagan – Jacksonville, FL; US Navy, WWII, Seaman 2nd Class, USS Oklahoma, KIA (Pearl Harbor) George Homer Jr. – New Rochelle, NY; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, Medical/457th Artillery/11th Airborne Division George La Marsh – New Haven, CT; US Army, WWII John Price – Muskogee, OK; US Navy, WWII, PTO, PB4Y-2 bombardier Charles ‘Chuck’ Reiner (100) – Rochester, NY; US Army Air Corps, WWII / 31 y. career as volunteer, Red Cross, VA Hospital, DAV Jack Schouten – Keokuk, IA; US Army, WWII, SSgt., 588th Signal Depot Company Edward Wall – Riverside, CA; US Army, Vietnam, 101st Airborne Division

Source: Pacific War Trials – part two

FEATURED: BLOGGER: Pacific War Trials – part one #AceHistoryDesk report

One of the most monumental surrenders in the Pacific War was General Tomoyuki Yamashita.

General Tomoyuki Yamashita as he led his staff officers of the 14th Area Army to surrender, 2 Sept. 1945. He did not believe in hara-kiri.  He said, “If I kill myself, someone else will have to take the blame.”

Just as the Japanese surrenders occurred in different places and on different dates, so were the trials. The regulations used differed and the criminal charges varied. Preparations for the war crimes started early in mid-1942 due to the heinous reports coming out of China during the Japanese invasion in 1937. The home front recollections of these proceedings might differ from the facts stated here because of the media slant at the time and sensationalism.

Trial correspondents

Often, the stories were even inaccurate, such as in Time magazine, the writer ranted about Yamashita’s brutality during the Bataan Death March. The truth of the matter was – Yamashita was in Manchuria at the time. All in all, 5,600 Japanese were prosecuted during 2,200 trials. More than 4,400 men and women were convicted and about 1,000 were executed and approximately the same number of acquittals.

Soviet trials are not included here as these were held merely as propaganda show pieces. The defendants mostly pleaded guilty, made a public apology and said something wonderful about communism and the “People’s Paradise” of Russia.

Yamashita’s military commission

General Tomoyuki Yamashita’s case was the most famous of the American trials and was presided over by a military commission of 5 American general officers (none of which had any legal training) and held in the ballroom of the U.S. high commissioner’s residence. The charge was “responsibility for the death and murders tolerated – knowingly or not.” The general’s defense council, Col. Harry Clark, argued that no one would even suggest that the Commanding General of an American occupational force would become a criminal every time an American soldier committed a crime – but, Yamashita was just so accused.

Yamashita speaks at his trial.

MacArthur let it be known that Truman wanted the proceedings to be completed at the earliest possible date. It became obvious that the verdict was predetermined; even one correspondent at the scene reported, “In the opinion of probably every correspondent covering the trial, the military commission came into the courtroom the first day with the decision already in its collective pocket.” Many observers felt that Yamashita was not being accorded due process as MacArthur and the commission refused to provide copies of the transcript. Proof that the general had known of the atrocities was never given, but after closing arguments, it was announced that the verdict would be given in two days. Significantly, the guilty verdict was given on 7 December 1945. The general was hanged in Manila, Philippines on 23 February 1946 because the men he commanded had committed evil acts during the war.

Yamashita upon hearing the verdict.

Hundreds of others were also prosecuted in the American trials, including Lt. General Matsaharu Homma, the man who actually did order the Bataan Death March and the bombing of the undefended “open city” of Manila. His headquarters had been 500 yards from the road the prisoners had marched and died on and he had admitted having driven down that road of blood many times. He was sentenced to hang.  His wife appealed to MacArthur to spare him – which he refused, but did execute Homma by the less disgraceful method of firing squad.

Gen. Homma with his attorneys

During these trials in the Philippines, 215 Japanese faced criminal charges and 20 were declared innocent and 92 were given the death sentence. In one case, Philippine President Manuel Roxas appealed to China’s Chiang Kai-shek to spare the life of one Japanese officer who had saved his life and that of several other Filipinos. The request was granted.

Manila Hotel Annex, 1945

CLCIK ON IMAGES TO ENLARGE.

################################################################################################################

Military Humor – 

################################################################################################################

Farewell Salutes – 

Walter Morgan Bryant Jr. – Delray Beach, FL; USMC, Vietnam (2 tours), Sgt.

Sean Connery (Sir Thomas) – Edinburgh, SCOT; Royal Navy, Able Seaman, HMS Formidable,  /  Beloved Actor

Vincent De Magistris – Chester, PA; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, RHQ/503rd RCT/11th Airborne Division

Jean (Love) Glass – Sokane, WA; Civilian, WWII, Boeing Aircraft

Vernon Hogsett – Lamar, NE; US Army, WWII, Bronze Star

Dave Knight – Skowhegan, ME; US Army, Vietnam, Sgt., 173rd Airborne

James Larson – Denver, CO; US Navy, WWII, PTO

Clarence Mantis – Dayton, OH; US Navy, WWII

Ronald Shurer – Puyallup, WA; US Army, Afghanistan, SSgt., Senior Medical Sgt., Silver Star, Medal of Honor

Billy D. Welch – Hendersonville, NC; US Army Air Corps, WWII, Korea & Vietnam, (Ret.)

################################################################################################################

Source: Pacific War Trials – part one

FEATURED BLOGGER: Ted Crosby – An Ace in a Day // Pacific Paratrooper #AceHistoryDesk report

In a dramatic painting by Roy Grinnell, Lieutenant (j.g.) Willis Hardy, a member of Crosby’s VF-17 Squadron from the carrier USS Hornet, flames a Japanese kamikaze plane that was on its way to attack the American naval task force off Okinawa, April 6, 1945. The Hellcat’s distinctive “white checkerboard” markings show it belongs to the USS Hornet (CV12) .

As Ted Crosby watched, Yamato’s giant, 18-inch guns hit the water, their enormous weight probably helping the battleship capsize. Suddenly, Yamato’s No. 1 magazine exploded, sending up a huge coil of smoke and flame that could be seen for over 100 miles. It was a strange foretaste of the atomic mushroom clouds that would envelope Hiroshima and Nagasaki a few months later.

Watching from above, Crosby had no feeling of elation. “I was thinking of the Japanese crew,” he said in a 2011 interview. “Three thousand lives lost.” As a former fighter pilot and Navy man, he could appreciate what it meant to go down fighting with his comrades.

During his World War II career, Ted Crosby served aboard two Essex-class carriers, Bunker Hill (CV 17) and Hornet (CV 12). There were 24 Essex-class carriers built during the war, and they soon became the backbone of America’s naval offensive in the Pacific. The efforts of pilots like Crosby not only turned defeat into victory, but also changed the course of naval warfare forever.

***************************************************

Ensign John T. Crosby, shortly after being commissioned in May 1943.

An autumn raid on Rabaul was a major effort involving several American carriers. It was also Ted Crosby’s first taste of battle. The raid of November 11, 1943, involved dogfights on a massive scale. It was an aerial free-for-all, with the new F6F Hellcat generally gaining the upper hand over the vaunted Mitsubishi A6M Zero or “Zeke.”

On November 26, 1943, Ted got his first kill—a piece of a Mitsubishi G4M Betty bomber. A steady stream of .50-caliber slugs sprayed from Ted’s six machine guns peppered and shattered the Betty’s tail and rear-gun position. Other Hellcats chimed in, joining Crosby’s symphony of destruction until the stricken bomber crashed. When he got back to Bunker Hill, he claimed the Betty, but it was determined that the other pilots had a share in its downing. As a result, Crosby’s official score stood at one-quarter of a Japanese bomber.

In dogfights and strafing runs, Ted had only one rule: “Don’t be in any one spot for more than 10 seconds! When I looked in my rear view mirror, I’d often see flak bursts where my plane had just been.”

In January 1945, Ted joined a newly reformed VF-17 aboard the USS Hornet. The new VF-17 appropriated the old formation’s skull and crossbones logo, but this time the men would be exclusively flying Hellcats, not Corsairs. The commander of the new VF-17 was Lt. Cmdr. Marshall U. “Marsh” Beebe.

On April 16, 1945, Ted Crosby became an ace in a day, shooting down five Japanese planes on a single mission. The Marines had landed on Okinawa on April 1 and, as time went on, the battle for the island intensified. Swarms of kamikazes flew out of Kyushu on suicide missions, crashing into any Allied ship they could find in the area. Ted and his fellow aviators called them “kami-krazies.” They seemed to conform to the wartime stereotype of fanatics who would rather commit suicide than surrender.

Crosby began April 16 on a target combat air patrol with Lt. Cmdr. Beebe. Crosby’s division (four Hellcats) was led by Lieutenant Milliard “Fuzz” Wooley; Ensigns J. Garrett and W.L. Osborn completed the quartet. As VF-17’s war diary put it, “Wooley’s division ‘tallyhoed’ [engaged] 12 Jacks and Zekes at 24,000 feet and started working them over.”

Actually, there were two groups of Japanese planes, a dozen or so at around 24,000 feet and a second group that was flying about 9,000 feet lower. Their main target was a destroyer, possibly a Fletcher-class vessel, that was cruising north of Okinawa. Ted could not recall the name of the ship, but its call sign was “Whiskey Base.”

The fighter director aboard the destroyer was happy to see Hellcats above him but dismayed when it appeared that they were leaving. “The fighter director said, ‘I see what you guys are doing––don’t leave us!’ Wooley replied, ‘Don’t worry. We’ll be back. We want to meet these guys halfway before they can get to you!’”

In the process, Wooley and Crosby became separated from the other pilots. Squadron Commander Beebe called them, asking for their position. Crosby said, “Fuzz” replied, ‘Never mind, skipper, we got them [the Japanese] cornered!’”

The first plane Crosby encountered was a Mitsubishi J2M “Jack” fighter that was coming head on. Crosby and his adversary were seemingly on a collision course, like two medieval knights jousting in a tournament.

“Well, I met that Japanese plane head on with my six .50-caliber guns, and the impact of the bullets blew him apart. Part of his engine and propeller, with the prop still turning, flew right over my head. I picked out another [Japanese plane], executed a turn, and went right after him.”

The second was a Zeke, a kamikaze, not a fighter, so Ted proceeded with caution. “We all realized you had to watch out what you did because the kamikazes were loaded with TNT to do us maximum damage. When you hit one, they would really explode! Once they exploded, you’d find yourself flying through lots of garbage and debris.”

Click to view slideshow.

After he downed the Zeke, Crosby attempted to find his division leader only to notice tracer bullets zipping past his Hellcat. Ironically, Ted had found his leader, but not in the way he wanted! The bullets were from Wooley who, in the excitement, had mistaken Crosby for the enemy. Realizing his error, Wooley sheepishly radioed Ted, “Did I get you, Ted?”

“Noooo.…” Ted replied, “but let’s settle down and get more of these guys!”

Wooley readily complied, going after another Japanese plane, but found he was out of ammunition. Ironically, his last few bursts had been expended when he mistakenly fired on Ted. Wooley dove down, making himself a decoy by luring enemy planes into Crosby’s guns. The ruse was successful, enabling Ted to down two more Japanese planes.

They decided to call it a day, but as they started back to the carrier Crosby spotted kamikaze heading toward the same destroyer they had helped protect earlier. Ted gave chase, tattooing the Japanese plane with a spray of .50-caliber lead. He broke off his attack because they were nearing the destroyer, and he knew that the ship’s radar could not distinguish friend from foe.

Sure enough, the destroyer opened fire, and the kamikaze, already disabled by Ted’s guns, angled down and crashed onto a nearby island. Thus, Ted Crosby became an ace in day, credited with three Jacks, a Zeke, and a Val dive bomber. His skill and valor that day won him the coveted Navy Cross.

Ted says he did not feel too good about downing those kamikazes at first. He realized that most of the suicide pilots had little training and were for the most part sitting ducks to experienced Navy airmen. However, Ted felt better “when I was told the extent of the damage they did on ships, and by shooting them down I was saving American lives.”

Crosby also had a close call on a photo-recon mission near Shokaku, after American carrier planes had attacked Japanese shipping in the area. “I had my plot board out and I’m putting down the time of day, the slant of the sun, and all that had to do with photography. Suddenly, I saw stuff [bullets] bouncing off my wing. I look back, and there’s this guy on my tail—probably a George. Only time I ever had a guy on my tail.”

After one pass the George broke off the attack and seemed to head back to his base. Crosby was not inclined to follow him. At the moment he was alone, and following an enemy plane over enemy territory did not seem like a wise thing to do. After he got back to Hornet, Ted found an unexploded 30mm shell in his cockpit armor, mute testimony to his luck and the fact that American aircraft designs protected their pilots.

Ted Crosby remained in the Navy after the war and retired with the rank of commander.

CLICK ON IMAGES TO ENLARGE.

################################################################################################################

Military Humor –

“Ya might hafta catch a boat. One of those kids ya just chased off th’ field wuz the pilot”

The new “Learn-as-you-Go” pilot training method.

################################################################################################################

Farewell Salutes –

Ed Bearrs – Billings, MT; USMC, WWII, PTO, Cpl., 3rd Marine Raider Battalion & 7/1st Marine Division, Purple Heart / Historian

John Bero Jr. – Buffalo, NY; US Army, WWII, ETO, Bronze Star

Patrick Chess – Yakima, WA; US Navy, WWII shipfitter 3rd Class, USS Oklahoma. KIA (Pearl Harbor)

Gabriel J. Eggud – USA; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, 1st Lt., pilot, 110/71 Reconnaissance Group, KIA (New Guinea)

Ellis Fryer – Dearborn, MI; US Navy, WWII & Korea

Donald Lesmeister – Harvey, ND; US Navy, Korea, USS Wiltsie

Jack McPherson – Casper, WY; US Army, WWII, Chief Warrant Officer/ Korea & Vietnam/ NSA (Ret.)

June Pearce – Waukon, IA; Civilian, B-17 riveter

Charles Perkins – Quincy, MA; US Navy, WWII, PTO

Donald Schimmels (100) – Kewaunee, WI; US Army Air Corps, WWII

################################################################################################################################################################################################################################

Source: // Pacific Paratrooper

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports by https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all our posts, links can be found at here Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

#OnThatDay In 1853 Elisha Graves Otis sold his first “ Hoist Machines “ or elevators, featu ring an ‘ automatic safety brake ‘ that he had recently patented that led to the possible de velopment of passenger elevators #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – Sept.21: On September 20, 1853: Elisha Graves Otis: His seemingly simple invention—guaranteed to stop a rising platform from falling if the ropes that held it broke—not only launched Otis’s business, but made possible the development of passenger elevators: Elevators enabled the modern high-rise building. Before 1850 most buildings were no more than six stories tall, but today’s skyscrapers range from fifty to more than one hundred stories in height:

#OnThatDay in 1853 …the first Otis Elevator was sold that led to passenger elevators and building of high-rise buildings rising from 50 – 100 storeys in height

New York Crystal Palace for the exhibition of the industry of all nations/ designed by Carstensen & Gildemeister, N.Y. Carl Emil Doepler, artist; Nagel & Weingärtner, lithographer; New York: Goupil & Co., c1852. Popular Graphic Arts. Prints & Photographs Division

Otis opened his small enterprise on the banks of the Hudson River in Yonkers, New York, in a space where he still worked as the foreman of a bedstead factory. At first few people, including Otis himself, recognized the full implications of his new invention. He only abandoned plans to join the California gold rush after receiving an unsolicited order for two freight elevators with safety brakes. To produce them, he went into business with his sons Charles and Norton.

In the elevator [of the Washington Monument]. 1887. Illus. in: Hutchins and Moore, A Souvenir of the Federal Capital. 1887, p. 86. Prints & Photographs Division

Lacking further orders, however, Otis arranged with P. T. Barnum to publicly demonstrate his device at the first American world’s fair in New York City. During May 1854, as the legend goes, Otis would mount an open elevator platform installed at the center of the Crystal Palaceexposition hall, hoist himself to the ceiling, and with the dramatic flash of a saber, cut the rope. As the platform began to plummet toward the ground, Otis’ patented safety brake kicked in with a jolt and broke the elevator’s fall. “All safe, gentlemen, all safe,” became his famous refrain. This showmanship launched the elevator industry, so that by 1856 Otis’s sales totaled twenty-seven elevators.

Broadway: The Store of Messrs. E. V. Haughwout and Co. Illus. in The Illustrated London News, April 2, 1859. Prints & Photographs Division

The world’s first commercial passenger elevator was installed by Otis in 1857, at the E. V. Haughwout & Company department store in New York City. Powered by steam, it rose at a speed of forty feet per minute. Early passenger elevators featured posh decorations and seating and were controlled by conductors. Hotels such as the Occidental in San Francisco, the St. Charles in New Orleans, and Congress Hall in Saratoga Springs, were among the first structures to adopt passenger elevators. A Saratoga guidebook for 1872 reported of Congress Hall that “broad, commodious stairways, with the finest elevator in the country, render every portion readily accessible… The proprietors have endeavored to incorporate into this hotel everything that can afford comfort and pleasure, at whatever expense.” 1

The Chicago Building of The Home Insurance Co. of New York. William LeBaron Jenney, architect; Boston: L. Prang & Co., [1885]. Prints & Photographs Division

The passenger elevator paired with steel frame construction techniques made the development of the skyscraper possible. Generally considered the world’s first skyscraper, William Le Baron Jenney’s ten-story Home Insurance Company Building in Chicago was the first to incorporate steel as a structural material. Built in 1885, it was serviced by four passenger elevators. The 1913 Woolworth Building boasted twenty-six elevators; the 1931 Empire State Building required fifty-eight. The first fully automatic self-service elevators were installed in Dallas, Texas, in 1950. Twenty years later, elevators in Chicago’s John Hancock Center soared upward at 1,800 feet per minute and, until its catastrophic destruction on September 11, 2001, the 110-story World Trade Center in New York operated 252 elevators and 71 escalators manufactured by Otis.

Idlewild Airport Arrivals Building. Escalator. Gottscho-Schleisner, Inc., photographer for Mears Advertising Co., July 23, 1958. Gottscho-Schleisner Collection. Prints & Photographs Division

  1. R. F. Dearborn. Saratoga and How to See It. (Saratoga, NY: C. D. Slocum, 1872). p 72. (Return to text)

#AceHistoryDesk report ……………..Published: Sept.21: 2020:

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports by https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all our posts, also links can be found at here for Twitter and Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

(CAIRO, Egypt.) Twenty seven ‘ Well – Preserved – Sarcophagi ‘ have been discovered at a sac red site in ‘ Saqqara ‘ that is designated ‘ UNESCO World Heritage Site ‘ In itial studies indicate that these coffins are completely closed and haven’t been opened since they were buri ed,” Egypt’s antiquities ministry said in a statement on Saturday #AceHealthDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – Sept.21: A total of 27 sarcophagi buried more than 2,500 years ago have been unearthed by archaeologists in an ancient Egyptian necropolis: They were found inside a newly-discovered well at a sacred site in Saqqara, south of the capital, Cairo: Thirteen coffins were discovered earlier this month, but a further 14 have followed, officials say: The discovery is now said by experts to be one of the largest of its kind:

Twenty seven ‘ Sarcophagi ‘ buried for 2,500-years unearthed in Saqqara BBC.Com/

18 hours ago
Some of the coffins discovered at an ancient burial shaft at an Egyptian necropolis near Cairo, 9 September 2020EPA
Thirteen coffins were initially discovered earlier this month, but a further 14 have been unearthed

Images released show colourfully painted well-preserved wooden coffins and other smaller artefacts: Saqqara was an active burial ground for more than 3,000 years and is a designated Unesco World Heritage Site: “Initial studies indicate that these coffins are completely closed and haven’t been opened since they were buried,” Egypt’s antiquities ministry said in a statement on Saturday: The statement adds that Egypt’s Antiquities Minister Khaled al-Anani initially delayed announcing the find until he could visit the site himself, where he thanked staff for working in difficult conditions down the 11m-deep (36ft) well:

Excavation work is continuing at the site as experts attempt to establish more details on the origins of the coffins: The ministry said it hoped to reveal “more secrets” at a press conference in the coming days: Other artefacts discovered around the wooden coffins also appeared to be well-crafted and colourfully decorated:

In November, a large cache of mummified animals discovered in 2018 by archaeologists near the Step Pyramid of Saqqara were displayed to the public for the first time: The discovery included mummified cats, crocodiles, cobras and birds: https://history2research.wordpress.com/2019/11/24/featured-report-egypt-sky-news-ministry-of-antiquities-reveals-recently-discovered-animal-mummies-saying-they-contain-lion-cubs-among-other-animals-found-in-pyramids-acehistorydesk-reports/

#AceHistoryDesk …………..Published: Sept.21: 2020:

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports by https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all our posts, also links can be found at here for Twitter and Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

(COLUMBIA) #OnThisDay In 1850 U.S. Abolished the ‘ Slave Trade ‘ as part of the package known as the ‘ Compromise of 1850 ‘ but continued to exist in Washington until April.16: 18 62: and on that day President Lincoln signed legislation freeing the 3,000 African Americans bound by ‘ Districts Slave Code ‘ #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – Sept.20: The United States Congress abolished the slave trade in the District of Columbia on September 20, 1850, as part of the legislative package called the Compromise of 1850. Since the founding of the District of Columbia in 1800, enslaved people had lived and worked in the nation’s capital. By the mid-nineteenth century, laws regulating slavery in the District were considerably more lenient than slave codes in the rest of the South, but slavery continued to exist in Washington until April 16, 1862. On that day, President Lincoln signed legislation freeing the 3,000 African Americans bound by the District’s slave code.

#OnThisDay In History – September 20: 2020: U.S. Abolished ‘ Slave Trade ‘ as part of the package known as the “ Compromise of 1850 “ that eventually freed 3,000 African Americans

The Slavery Code of the District of Columbia… Washington: L. Towers, 1862. Slaves and the Courts, 1740 to 1860. Law Library

Antebellum Washington was home to a thriving community of free blacks: The laws of Southern states commonly prohibited manumitted slaves from remaining within state boundaries: Forced to seek a new life far from friends and family, many former slaves migrated to Washington. By 1860, free blacks outnumbered slaves by nearly four to one in the city:

Certificate of Freedom of Harriet Bolling, Petersburg, Virginia, 1851. Free Blacks in the Antebellum Period. The African American Odyssey: A Quest for Full Citizenship. Carter G. Woodson Collection. Manuscript Division

Many Northern states abolished slavery and slave trading during the early national period. However, section 9 of the United States Constitution specified, “The migration or importation of such persons as any of the states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight. Urging New Yorkers to ratify the Constitution, revolutionary patriot and Federalist John Jay noted:

What is proposed to be done by England is already done in Virginia, Delaware, and Rhode-Island, and it is likely to take place in all the States of America. It will be an honour to this country, and the most glorious event in the present reign, if the example should be followed here.

Extract from an Address to the People of the State of New-York, on the Subject of the Constitution.” [New York: 1788]. Documents from the Continental Congress and Constitutional Convention, 1774 to 1789. Rare Book & Special Collections Division

The United States banned further importation of slaves in 1808, as soon as the Constitution allowed: Essentially a dead letter by the end of the Civil War, the institution of slavery was permanently dismantled by passage of the Thirteenth Amendment.

Alexandria, Va. Price, Birch & Co., Dealers in Slaves, 283 Duke St.. William Redish Pywell, photographer, August 1863. Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints. Prints & Photographs Division

#AceHistoryDesk report …………..Published: Sept.20: 2020:

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports by https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all our posts, also links can be found at here for Twitter and Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

#OnThisDay in September 1973, 47-years ago today, a radical democratic movement that swept to victory in Chile just 3 years before was destroyed in a single night #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – Sept.11: The hopes and dreams of millions of Chileans were drowned in blood by a United States-backed military overthrow of Santiago’s elected left-wing president, Salvador Allende: ​Allende, a Marxist who helped found the Chilean Socialist Party, stood in numerous elections as a candidate for Popular Unity (PU) – an alliance of socialists, the Communist Party, and other left-wing organisations: His platform was developed amid a backstop of political polarisation and widespread working-class discontent. By 1970, the country had become embroiled in thousands of strikes and land seizures, involving hundreds of thousands of people:

Waiting for Spring: The 1973 Chilean Coup and a Lesson for the Left

On Sept 11 1973, a CIA-backed coup overthrew Chile’s democratic socialist president Salvador Allende & worked to install Gen. Pinochet’s brutal dictatorship, who killed thousands, tortured tens of thousands & imprisoned over 130,000. pic.twitter.com/pjaEme54qF

— American Values (@Americas_Crimes) September 10, 2020

The Christian Democrat (CD) reformist president, Eduardo Nicanor Frei Montalva, who won the 1963 election by pitching himself to the middle classes as the only alternative to Marxism, had promised to end the economic problems that plagued the country, including stagnation and widespread unemployment. He also offered to “Chileanize” the economy by taking the US-owned copper firms into national ownership.

Very little changed, however, and popular pressure pushing the representatives of Chilean capital to the left led to a slim victory for Allende in the 1970 election, with 37 percent of the vote, forcing his left-wing alliance to rely on support from the Christian Democrats.

As a precondition for his ascension to office, the CD party demanded Allende sign a “Statute of Guarantees”, preventing him from making any sweeping changes to the state, the legal system, and, fatally, the armed forces.

Radical Democracy

Despite the structural handicaps of an uneasy coalition and an inherited and decrepit economy, the PU government did embark on sweeping reforms.

The Allende government quickly nationalised the US-dominated copper industry, which accounted for three-quarters of the country’s exports. He brought banking and the financial sector into public ownership, as well as 91 other industries, in his first year alone. The PU also embarked on diversification projects to unlink the economy from its reliance on copper, one of which included an embryonic version of the internet.

Project Cybersyn; Chilean project from 1971–73 during the presidency of Allende aimed at constructing a distributed decision support system to aid in the management of the national economy. pic.twitter.com/2TVPRCcCRu

— Post-Comprehension📼 (@RGravare) September 11, 2020

​This experiment in democratic socialism looked to use its limited powers to restructure the economy and provide a more equal distribution of national resources – policies which received massive support from the working class and poor but scorn from the middle and wealthy classes, who hitherto had been the primary beneficiaries of state policy.

Allende oversaw an economic boom in his first year. He succeeded in reducing unemployment, improving income equality, an average increase in real wages of 22%, and reduced inflation from 33% to 19%. In a reflection of their popularity, the 1971 municipal elections saw the PU received 50% of the vote.

‘Make the Economy Scream’

Despite the achievements, hyperinflation soon returned, and in 1972, the Chilean Escudo became next to worthless. In an attempt to address the problem, Allende sought to introduce anti-inflationary policies through tax increases on the wealthy but was blocked by an opposition-dominated congress.

The problem was not purely home grown. In Washington, the administration of US President Richard Nixon, and his key foreign policy advisor, Henry Kissinger, had never truly accepted the election of an overtly Marxist president and rejected the government’s legitimacy.

“I don’t see why we have to let a country go Marxist just because its people are irresponsible” – Henry Kissinger, Nixon’s Secretary of State.

The imperialists tried to prevent him from taking office, even killing a general to help foment a coup before Allende was sworn in. During his time in office, they tried to overthrow him every single day. The military – under Pinochet – was given authority to take him out. pic.twitter.com/8HzpWezT9x

— Vijay Prashad (@vijayprashad) September 11, 2020

​​As part of its Cold War strategy against the Soviet Union, the United States had pursued a policy of attempting to sabotage the Allende government. Throughout 1972 and 1973, the Central Intelligence Agency funneled money to labour organisations and trade unions to take strike action and harm the economy.

According to sources in the New York Times, the CIA gave direct subsidies to shopkeepers, taxi drivers, and others which led to widespread disruption. In a kind of middle-class general strike, 250,000 truck drivers and other professionals created an economic downturn that set the foundations for the eventual coup.

In 1970, in an effort to “prevent Allende from coming to power or to unseat him”, President Nixon ordered the CIA to “make the economy scream”, and scream it did.

That same year, two military officers supplied by the United States intelligence services assassinated General René Schneider in a botched kidnapping after the nationalist Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean military rejected the idea of preventing Allende from taking office through military force.

How the @nytimes and @TheEconomist covered what we now know was a military coup against Allende in Chile in 1973.

Looks eerily similar to #venezuela today.

Via @cuttlefish_btc pic.twitter.com/uVKVhXQllD

— Aaron Bastani (@AaronBastani) January 29, 2019

However, despite the internal and external crippling of the economy through intentional sabotage by the government’s enemies, Allende increased his share of the vote to 44% in the March 1973 election.

While he was unable to reform the military, one of Allende’s final moves was bringing two generals into his own cabinet after losing the support of the CD.

The Chicago Coup & After Allende

The London based newspaper ‘the Socialist Worker’ predicted at the time that the same military that had repressed striking workers “would not sit by and let the ruling class be voted out of existence”.

On 11 September 1973, ­General Augusto Pinochet and the military, supported by the US and using fighter jets purchased from the United Kingdom, besieged the presidential palace.

Before taking his own life, President Allende issued a final address to the Chilean working class.

“Other men will overcome this dark and bitter moment when treason seeks to prevail. Keep in mind that, much sooner than later, the great avenues will again be opened through which will pass free men to construct a better society. Long live Chile!”

Salvador #Allende, the elected socialist president of #Chile makes his final speech hours before his death, #OnThisDay in 1973.
His government was brutally overthrown in military coup. Thousands more socialists were murdered as a fascist junta led by Augusto Pinochet took power. pic.twitter.com/fosTim7N2C

— Durham Miners’ Association (@DurhamMiners) September 11, 2018

​Following his overthrow, civilian rule ended and a military dictatorship was established. During General Pinochet’s nearly-3 decade rule, 30,000 people were murdered and thousands more were tortured and imprisoned in concentration camps.

The economic gains were also reversed. The junta invited Milton Friedman’s ‘Chicago Boys’ to serve as economic advisors and, freed from the shackles of democratic accountability, implemented a neoliberal experiment of privatisation and deregulation.

September 11th in Chile is always one of the toughest days of the year.

Today marks 47 years since the bloody military coup backed by the USA/CIA & led by Pinochet overthrew a democratically elected socialist government.

The Estadio Nacional was used as a concentration camp. pic.twitter.com/VnZfWaDuV7

— Adam Brandon (@AdamBrandon84) September 11, 2020

​After just ten years of free-market policies, unemployment reached 22%, real wages declined by 40%, and productivity dropped. By the end of Pinochet’s rule in 1990, Chile had reached a 45% poverty rate.

Despite the Pinochet regime being overthrown by popular pressure and democracy eventually restored, many of the military government’s policies became enshrined in the countrie’s constitution, outlawing any serious attempt to reassert the state sector over the economy and leading to the outburst of discontent seen in Chile today.

A man takes part in a demonstration commemorating the 44nd anniversary of Chile's 1973 military coup, in Santiago, Chile, Sunday, Sept. 10, 2017.

© AP Photo / Esteban Felix

A man takes part in a demonstration commemorating the 44nd anniversary of Chile’s 1973 military coup, in Santiago, Chile, Sunday, Sept. 10, 2017.

Lessons for the Left

Pablo Neruda, a poet and personal friend of President Allende, who was likely murdered by the Pinochet regime, wrote: “You can cut all the flowers but you cannot keep Spring from coming”.

The Chilean experience is not unique. From Mossadegh in Iran, the overthrow of President Sukarno in Indonesia, the toppling of Jacob Árbenz in Guatemala on behalf of United Fruit, the removal of democratically elected governments to protect United States corporate interests has become a historical cliche.

The same tactics of economic strangulation are being employed today by the Trump Administration and its sanctions against the elected Maduro government in Venezuela.

This 1954 file photo shows Guatemalan Col. Castillo Armas (C) surrounded by supporters days before Armas led a coup that deposed President Jacobo Arbenz. Armas assumed the presidency 01 September and would be assassinated while in office 26 July 1957

© AFP 2020 / CIRMA/FILES

This 1954 file photo shows Guatemalan Col. Castillo Armas (C) surrounded by supporters days before Armas led a coup that deposed President Jacobo Arbenz. Armas assumed the presidency 01 September and would be assassinated while in office 26 July 1957

A question is raised, however, of how does one maneuver an opposition that has no intention of playing by the rules? Even in developed first-world democracies those who propose a radical redistribution of wealth are structurally crippled.

Recent examples include the US Democratic Party rallying to stop Bernie Sanders from being the 2020 presidential nominee. In the UK, leaked internal documents indicate that the Labour Party was actively working against its own election victory to prevent Jeremy Corbyn from becoming prime minister. This came amid active threats from the Trump Administration that the US would cease information sharing with the UK if a left-wing government was elected.

Following the 1917 Russian revolution, the introduction of ‘War Communism’ saved the fledgling socialist state from being overthrown by the White Army and the invasion coalition which including the United States and the British Empire.

Much criticism is made of the heavy-handedness of the Actually Existing Socialist movements that secured power in Russia, China, Cuba, and other countries throughout the 20th century but without exception, these revolutions had been subject to constant sabotage, blockade, and subversion, just like in Chile.

It’s not sufficient for a revolution just to win power. If it is to survive, it needs to be actively defended. This is the lesson the left needs to take on board. Lenin knew his palace was about to be besieged, while Allende invited the generals inside.

There’s a reason why every progressive on earth knows the name ‘Augusto Pinochet’ and almost no one has heard of Admiral Kolchak.

#AceHistoryDesk report ………….Published: Sept.11: 2020:

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports by https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all our posts, also links can be found at here for Twitter and Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

Featured Blogger Report: Conscientious Objector and the Medal of Honour #AceHistoryDesk

The President of the United States, in the name of Congress, awarded more than 3,400 Medals of Honor to the Nation’s bravest Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, Marines and Coast Guard personnel, since the decoration’s creation in 1861!

This article was compiled from a variety of resources to honor one such person…

Desmond T. Doss:

Desmond T. Doss was born on February 7, 1919 in Lynchburg, Virginia, USA as Desmond Thomas Doss. He was married to Frances Duman and Dorothy Schutte. He died on March 23, 2006 in Piedmont, Alabama, USA.

Doss receives Medal of Honor from Pres. Truman

Rank & Unit: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Medical Detachment, 307th Infantry Regiment, 77th Infantry Division
Place & Date: Near Urasoe Mura, Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 29 April-21 May 1945

He was a company aid man when the 1st Battalion, 77th Infantry Division assaulted a jagged escarpment 400 feet high. As the troops gained the summit, a heavy concentration of artillery, mortar and machine gun fire crashed into them, inflicting approximately 75 casualties and driving the others back. Pfc. Doss refused to seek cover and remained in the fire-swept area with the many stricken, carrying them 1 by 1 to the edge of the escarpment and there lowering them on a rope-supported litter down the face of a cliff to friendly hands. On 2 May, he exposed himself to heavy rifle and mortar fire in rescuing a wounded man 200 yards forward of the lines on the same escarpment; and 2 days later he treated 4 men who had been cut down while assaulting a strongly defended cave, advancing through a shower of grenades to within 8 yards of enemy forces in a cave’s mouth, where he dressed his comrades’ wounds before making 4 separate trips under fire to evacuate them to safety.

On 5 May, he unhesitatingly braved enemy shelling and small arms fire to assist an artillery officer. He applied bandages, moved his patient to a spot that offered protection from small arms fire and, while artillery and mortar shells fell close by, painstakingly administered plasma. Later that day, when an American was severely wounded by fire from a cave, Pfc. Doss crawled to him where he had fallen 25 feet from the enemy position, rendered aid, and carried him 100 yards to safety while continually exposed to enemy fire.

On 21 May, in a night attack on high ground near Shuri, he remained in exposed territory while the rest of his company took cover, fearlessly risking the chance that he would be mistaken for an infiltrating Japanese and giving aid to the injured until he was himself seriously wounded in the legs by the explosion of a grenade. Rather than call another aid man from cover, he cared for his own injuries and waited 5 hours before litter bearers reached him and started carrying him to cover. The trio was caught in an enemy tank attack and Pfc. Doss, seeing a more critically wounded man nearby, crawled off the litter; and directed the bearers to give their first attention to the other man. Awaiting the litter bearers’ return, he was again struck, this time suffering a compound fracture of 1 arm. With magnificent fortitude he bound a rifle stock to his shattered arm as a splint and then crawled 300 yards over rough terrain to the aid station.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

While serving with his platoon in 1944 on Guam and the Philippines, he was awarded two Bronze Stars with a “V” device,  for exceptional valor in aiding wounded soldiers under fire. During the Battle of Okinawa, he saved the lives of 50–100 wounded infantrymen atop the area known by the 96th Division as the Maeda Escarpment or Hacksaw Ridge.   Doss was wounded four times in Okinawa and was evacuated on May 21, 1945, aboard the USS Mercy.   Doss suffered a left arm fracture from a sniper’s bullet and at one point had seventeen pieces of shrapnel embedded in his body.  

His name became a symbol throughout the 77th Infantry Division for outstanding gallantry far above and beyond the call of duty.  The movie, “Hacksaw Ridge” was made to honor this man and his actions.

CLICK ON IMAGES TO ENLARGE!

################################################################################################################

Current News – Honoring 9/11

9/11 Tribute

My past posts to give tribute to those affected by 9/11 …

https://pacificparatrooper.wordpress.com/2016/09/10/911-patriot-and-national-service-day/

https://pacificparatrooper.wordpress.com/2015/09/10/benghazi-9112012/

https://pacificparatrooper.wordpress.com/2015/09/11/patriot-day-9112001/

https://pacificparatrooper.wordpress.com/2014/09/11/national-service-patriot-day-911/

https://pacificparatrooper.wordpress.com/2013/09/11/patriot-national-service-remembrance-day-911/

################################################################################################################

Military Humor – 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

################################################################################################################

Farewell Salutes – 

Myrwin ‘Red’ Anderson – Madison, IN; US Navy, WWII

Gladys Blum – Philadelphia, PA; US Army WAC, WWII, nurse

Joseph S. Forzley – Lemont, IL; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, 5th Air Force

Charles Herrmann – Cincinnati, OH; USMC, WWII

Joseph Kurata – Acampo, CA; US Army, Japanese Occupation & Korea, Counter Intelligence Corps, Col. (Ret. 32 y.)

Ian McKnight – NC; US Navy, USS Nimitz, 5th Fleet, Information Tech 2nd Class, MIA (Arabian Gulf)

Kathryn Phillips – Columbus, GA; Civilian, US Red Cross, WWII

Amy Ponech – Lethbridge, CAN; WRC Air Force, WWII

Philip Savage Jr. – Buffalo, NY; US Army Air Corps, WWII, ETO, 505/82nd Airborne Division

Michael Wadeck – Bradenton, FL; US Army, WWII, Korea & Vietnam (Ret. 27 y.)

################################################################################################################################################################################################################################

Conscientious Objector and the Medal of Honor