FEATURED: Chinese noblemen were using cosmetics made from animal fat and cave ‘milk’ on their faces some 2,700 years ago, a study has reported #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – Feb.16: Experts from the Chinese Academy of Sciences excavated a nobleman’s tomb filled with assorted grave goods at the Liujiawa site in northern China:

Fancy some moonmilk moisturiser? Analysis of 2,700-year-old face cream reveals ancient Chinese noblemen used cosmetics made from animal fat and cave ‘milk’

‘During the so-called ‘Spring and Autumn’ period (771–476 BC), before China was unified by the Qin dynasty, Liujiawa was the capital of a vassal state named Rui’

14:00, 8 February 2021

  • Researchers excavated a tomb at the site of Liujiawa, the capital city of Rui
  • This was a vassal state prior to the unification of China by the Qin Dynasty
  • Bronze funerary weapons in the tomb indicated that it belonged to a nobleman
  • The team also found an ornate bronze vessel full of a yellow-white cosmetic
  • It would have turned the wearer’s face white and may have been a status symbol
  • Alternatively, the moonmilk in the cream may have been thought magical 

By Ian Randall For Mailonline

Published: 13:47, 8 February 2021 | 

Amid the nobleman’s possessions were characteristic bronze funerary weapons and also an ornate bronze jar containing the remains of the ancient face cream.

Chinese noblemen were using cosmetics made from animal fat and cave 'milk' on their faces some 2,700 years ago, a study has reported. Pictured, the ornate jar containing the remains of the face cream dating back to China's so-called 'Spring and Autumn' period (771–476 BC)

WHAT IS MOONMILK? 

Moonmilk is a soft plastic carbonate mud, that forms on the ceilings of certain limestone and dolomite-based cave systems.

When wet, it’s gooey and pasty, with a texture like cream cheese, becoming crumbly and powdery when dry. 

Previous studies have identified micro-organisms such as bacteria, algae, and fungus in moonmilk.

According to the researchers, they immediately suspected that the soft, yellow-white material in the ornate bronze jar was a cosmetic cream.

This was confirmed by chemical analyses, which identified the two main ingredients as being fat from a well-fed ruminant animal (most likely cattle reared in pens) and a white, creamy substance known as moonmilk.

Moonmilk is a soft plastic carbonate mud, that dries into a powder, that forms on the ceilings of certain limestone and dolomite-based cave systems. 

‘The residue, made of ruminant adipose fat mixed with monohydrocalcite coming from cave moonmilk, was likely used as cosmetic face cream by the nobleman of ancient Rui State,’ the researchers wrote in their paper.

‘This work provides an early example of cosmetic production in China and, together with the prevalence of similar cosmetic containers during this period, suggests the rise of an incipient cosmetics industry.’

Experts from the Chinese Academy of Sciences excavated a nobleman's tomb — filled with assorted grave goods — at the Liujiawa dig site in northern China. Amid the nobleman's possessions were characteristic bronze funerary weapons and also an ornate bronze jar containing the remains of the ancient face cream, pictured
According to the researchers, they immediately suspected that the soft, yellow-white material in the ornate bronze jar — pictured after being cleaned up — was a cosmetic cream

The cream, the team said, would have made the user’s face white, and may have represented either a way for the wearer to stand out, or else an influence of the early Taoist Schools of religion which believed that caves minerals had magic properties. 

According to the researchers, this face cream is the earliest known example from China to have been associated with a man, with the next oldest examples dating from the Three Kingdoms Period (from 220–280 AD), a millennia later.

In contrast, evidence for the use of cosmetics in China by women goes back much further. 

Amid the nobleman's possessions were characteristic bronze funerary weapons and also an ornate bronze jar containing the remains of the ancient face cream. Pictured, an aerial view of the excavated tomb, with the location of the cosmetics jar highlighted in red
According to the researchers, this face cream is the earliest known example from China to have been associated with a man — with the next oldest examples dating from the Three Kingdoms Period (from 220–280 AD), a millennia later. Pictured, a graph of the artefacts found in the tomb, with the nobleman's remains centre and the cosmetics jar highlighted in red
'The residue, made of ruminant adipose fat mixed with monohydrocalcite coming from cave moonmilk, was likely used as cosmetic face cream by the nobleman of ancient Rui State,' the researchers wrote in their paper. Pictured: two parts of the cream seen under the microscope
Moonmilk is a soft plastic carbonate mud, that dries into a powder, that forms on the ceilings of certain limestone and dolomite-based cave systems, as pictured

In 2016, for example, the researchers found red cosmetic sticks which were thought to have been used between around 1980–1450 BC.

In Africa, meanwhile, ancient Egyptians were thought to be using cosmetic as early as 2,000 BC.

The full findings of the study were published in the journal Archaeometry.

'This work provides an early example of cosmetic production in China and, together with the prevalence of similar cosmetic containers during this period, suggests the rise of an incipient cosmetics industry,' the experts wrote. Pictured, the Liujiawa site, with the tomb highlighted
During the so-called 'Spring and Autumn' period (771–476 BC) — before China was unified by the Qin dynasty — Liujiawa was the capital of a vassal state named Rui

Researchers are able to work out what our earliest ancestors had for dinner through modelling and studying bones

Researchers recently concluded that people living in southern Scandinavia during the Stone Age were more reliant on fish than was previously believed.

They reached this conclusion by studying the bones of 82 individuals who lived thousands of years ago.

The researchers employed Bayesian statistical modeling to learn about human diets following the melting of ice from the last ice age.

In addition to looking at human bones the scientists examined animal bone material in order to ‘gain an insight into how diets vary between different places’, the study said.

The report states that fish were essential for people living in territories both coastal and inland.

The analysis explains: ‘The results show that the water’s resources dominated protein intake in both marine and fresh water environments.

‘The results also show there are considerable local variations in the preferred species but that fishing has been highly significant for human subsistence, and the significance of fishing appears to constantly increase.’ 

#AceHistoryDesk report …….Published: Feb.16: 2021:

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports by https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all our posts, also links can be found at here for Twitter and Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

Snippets of History – Frederick Douglass ╽Escaping Slavery – A Story Of Risk, Freedom & Triumph

Today In History – Frederick Douglass is born on February 14th, 1818. He was a social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, and statesman after …

Frederick Douglass ╽Escaping Slavery – A Story Of Risk, Freedom & Triumph

Featured: (CAIRO) Archaeologists have discovered a 5,000-year-old brewery that could produce thousands of litres of beer in the ancient Egyptian city of Abydos, Egypt’s tourism and antiquities ministry said #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – Feb.14: A high-production brewery believed to be more than 5,000 years old has been uncovered by a team of archaeologists in southern Egypt:

Egypt unearths ‘world’s oldest’ mass-production brewery, dating back to era of King Narmer, more than 5,000 years ago

A high shot of ancient-dig site shows hole in ground surrounded by modern buildings.
The ancient brewery was uncovered in the Abydos archaeological site near Egypt’s southern city of Sohag.(AFP: Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities)

https://t.me/reuters_news_agency/61866
Reuters Wire News, [Feb 14, 2021 at 1:02 PM]: ABC News: Via AFP: Posted 8h ago

The site, containing about 40 earthenware pots arranged in two rows, was uncovered at North Abydos, Sohag, by a joint Egyptian-American team, the Egyptian tourism ministry said.

The brewery is believed to date back to the era of King Narmer, who founded the First Dynasty and unified Upper and Lower Egypt.

Mostafa Waziry, the secretary general of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities, said it was “the oldest high-production brewery in the world”, created by a society that was ahead of its time.

British archaeologists first discovered the existence of the brewery at the beginning of the 20th century but its location was never precisely determined, Mr Waziry said.Loading

The joint Egyptian-American team “was able to re-locate and uncover its contents”.

According to Mr Waziry, the brewery consisted of eight large areas that were used as “units for beer production”.

Each sector contained about 40 earthenware pots arranged in two rows.

A brown hole in the ground looks like a tree trunk on parched ground surrounded by dirt.
The Egyptian site is believed to be the the world’s oldest high-production brewery.(AFP: Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities)

A mixture of grains and water used for beer production was heated in the vats, with each basin “held in place by levers made of clay placed vertically in the form of rings”.

Fresh brew for ‘royal rituals’

Archaeologist Matthew Adams of New York University, who headed the joint mission with Deborah Vischak of Princeton University, said studies have shown that beer was produced at a large scale, with about 22,400 litres made at a time.

Depiction of Ptolemy XIII and Isis from Kom Ombo
The ancient Egyptians may have enjoyed the occasional glass of amber fluid.(Wikimedia commons: Hedwig Storch)

“The brewery may have been built in this place specifically to supply the royal rituals that were taking place inside the funeral facilities of the kings of Egypt,” Mr Adams said.

“Evidence for the use of beer in sacrificial rites was found during excavations in these facilities.”

Evidence of beer-making in ancient Egypt is not new, and past discoveries have shed light on such production. 

Seven holes on brown ancient ground, with narrow black and white marker.
The remains of a row of Egyptian beer vats were founds by researchers at the archaeological site.(AFP: Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities)

Fragments of pottery used by Egyptians to make beer and dating back 5,000 years were discovered on a building site in Tel Aviv, the Israeli Antiquities Authority announced in 2015.

Abydos, where the latest discovery was unearthed, has yielded many treasures over the years and is famous for its temples

Authorities had expected 15 million tourists to visit Egypt in 2020, compared to 13 million the previous year, but the pandemic has kept visitors away.

AFP

#AceHistoryDesk report ……Published: Feb.14: 2021:

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports by https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all our posts, also links can be found at here for Twitter and Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

Snippets of History: Remains Of At Least 6 Pirates Found At Whydah Shipwreck Site Off Cape Cod #AceHistoryDesk report

The skeletal remains of at least six pirates were discovered at the site of a shipwreck that happened off Wellfleet in 1717.

Remains Of At Least 6 Pirates Found At Whydah Shipwreck Site Off Cape Cod

#AceHistoryDesk report ……….Published: Feb.10: 2021:

Featured Blogger GP – The U.S.O.’s 80th Anniversary #AceHistoryDesk report

“Until everyone comes home” is the motto of the U.S.O., the nonprofit organization has stuck to that motto, doing its best to bring support and entertainment to American military personnel around the world.

Over the course of the USO’s 80-year history, the organization has seen it all: the beaches of France, the jungles of Vietnam, the deserts of Saudi Arabia and the mountains of AfghanistanBut most importantly, the USO has witnessed several generations of service members, military spouses and military families pass through its doors – and has provided them with crucial support by boosting their morale and keeping them connected to one another throughout their time in the military.

Boxing match w/ Sugar Ray Leonard & Bob Hope, Mickey Rooney as referee.

Starting in 1941 and in the eight decades since, the USO has remained committed to always standing by the military’s side, no matter where their service takes them.

Eleven months before the United States’ official entry into World War II, President Franklin D. Roosevelt was already creating a support system for the nation’s Armed Forces. Bringing together the Salvation Army, the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA), the Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA), the National Catholic Community Service, the National Travelers Aid Association and the National Jewish Welfare Board, these six organizations formed the United Service Organizations (USO) on 4 February 1941. The USO was created specifically to provide morale and recreation services to the troops.

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“Until everyone comes home” is the motto of the U.S.O., the nonprofit organization has stuck to that motto, doing its best to bring support and entertainment to American military personnel around the world.

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Military Humor – 

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Farewell Salutes – 

Jesse Anderson – Boise, ID; National Guard, Chief Warrant Officer 4, instructor pilot

Dale F. Bruhs – Milford, MD; US Army, Korea, 187th RCT

Millie Hughes-Fulford –  Mineral Wells, TX; US Army Reserve, Medical Corps / NASA, 1st female astronaut- 

Michael Gastrich – Cincinnati, OH; US Navy, Petty Officer 2nd Class, air crew mechanic/flight engineer

Roland Horn – Des Moines, IA; US Army, WWII, Chief Warrant Officer (Ret.)

George Laubhan – Boise, ID; National Guard, Chief Warrant Officer 3, instructor pilot

Charlotte MacDonough – Boston, MA; Civilian, WWII, made B-17 fuel bladders

Ryan Mason – Carthage, NY & TX; US Army, Middle East, Sgt.

Matthew Peltzer – Napa, ID; National Guard, Chief Petty Officer 3, pilot

George P. Shultz (100) – Englewood, NJ; USMC, WWII, PTO / Secretary of Labor, Treasury and State

Julian Vargas – Silver City, NM; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, 187/11th Airborne Division

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Published: Feb.08: 2021: The U.S.O.’s 80th Anniversary

#OnThisDay in 1941: The United Service Organizations, popularly known as the USO, was incorporated in New York on February 4, to provide recreational opportunities and resources for members of the U.S. armed forces on leave #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – Feb.04: the recommendation of President Franklin Roosevelt, the task was put in the hands of existing public service organizations. The USO was organized by representatives of six social service organizations as a private, nonprofit organization. The organizers included the Jewish Welfare Board, the National Catholic Community Service, the Salvation Army, the Travelers Aid Association of America, the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA), and the Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA). Over the course of World War II, the USO boasted more than 1 million civilian volunteers and operated more than 3,000 recreational clubs. Set up quickly in churches, museums, barns, railroad cars, storefronts, and other locales, USO clubs were places for both lively social activity and quiet contemplation. Some soldiers came to dance and watch movies, others to pursue traveler’s information or assistance, still others to write letters, lounge, eat, or seek religious counsel.

#TodayInHistory 1941 February 04: The United Service Organisations, popularly known as the USO, was incorporated in New York on February 4, 1941, to provide recreational opportunities and resources for members of the U.S. armed forces on leave.Harrisburg U.S.O., Penn Station, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Entrance View I.

Gottscho-Schleisner, Inc., photographer, Sept. 3, 1943. Gottscho-Schleisner Collection. Prints & Photographs Division

Soon after the founding of the USO, the organization created a subsidiary, Camp Shows Inc., to produce professional-quality shows with volunteers from the entertainment world. Traveling shows, which included dramatic and musical performances, vaudeville-style revues and beyond, featured well-known performers such as Bob Hope, Joe E. Brown, Lena Horn and Joan Blondell, as well as many other actors and production staff members from stage and screen.“The audience response is terrific. Entertaining troops spoils you for regular performances,” lots of United Service Organization (USO) entertainers say. United States. Office of War Information, Apr. 1943. Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Black-and-White Negatives. Prints & Photographs Division

The USO was disbanded in 1947, then reorganized during the Korean War and expanded considerably during the Vietnam War. It continues to provide a variety of services to members of the armed forces and their families.

Addtional Information:

  • Throughout an extraordinary professional career of nearly seventy years, Bob Hope made numerous live USO appearances all around the world in support of the U.S. armed forces. See On the Road: USO Shows and Public Service, two sections of the exhibition Bob Hope and American Variety to learn more.
  • Read more details about the USO in the In Custodia Legis blog postcelebrating the 75th anniversary of the founding of the USO in 2016.
  • To learn more about the experiences of soldiers during wartime, consult the Library’s Veterans History Project. The collection contains several interviews with individuals who have USO associations, including several which have been digitized.
  • To locate photographs of USO facilities, entertainers, and World War II service members on leave, search the Library’s prints and photographs collections on terms such as USOfurloughservicemenand servicemen’s center

#AceHistoryDesk report ………Published: Feb.04: 2021:

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports by https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all our posts, also links can be found at here for Twitter and Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

Featured Blogger GP – DDT, Aerosol Cans and WWII #AceHistoryDesk report

DDT, Aerosol Cans and WWII

With millions of troops moving into tropical and subtropical campaigns, WWII military leaders and planners sought ways to fight diseases endemic to these regions. Two WWII era innovations were combined to save the lives of many combatants during the war years. Malaria was the primary concern at the time.

Malaria was commonly avoided by prophylactic treatments with quinine. Larger doses could be given to those known to be infected. Quinine came from the bark of a South American shrub that came to be grown on commercial plantations in the South Pacific. The Japanese occupied these plantations early in the war, and substitutes for it were less effective.

In 1939, Paul Hermann Muller discovered that dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) effectively killed insects.. In 1943 tests showed it to be effective against the mosquitoes that carried malaria, and the US Military started using it. At first they used hand pumps that pressurized a canister, and applying DDT this way replaced spraying fuel oil in streams and ditches. In 1948 Muller received the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for his discovery.

USDA researchers Lyle Goodhue and William Sullivan developed the first effective aerosol spray can in 1941. There were earlier patents for aerosol spray, but no one had yet made an effective disposable canister. Goodhue and Sullivan were looking for ways to spray insecticides, and found a way to compress chlorofluorocarbon gases in a can with the chemical to be dispersed. With a valve at the top that controlled emission of the contents, the active chemical was carried by the expanding carrier gas

Combining DDT with a working disposable aerosol can, the US military was able to give its troops a way to spray inside tents, nets and clothes to kill mosquitoes (and just about all the other insects that came in contact).

Dr. Lyle D. Goodhue, 1942

In the 1970s scientists showed that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) used in aerosol cans and refrigeration, were causing a degradation of the ozone layer in the atmosphere. Ozone is a toxic pollutant at ground levels, but a concentrated layer of ozone high in the atmosphere shields the Earth’s surface from a large amount of ultra-violet radiation from the sun. Regulations in the US and around the world phased out the use of CFCs as propellants first, and then as refrigerants, by the late 1980s. Metal spray cans are more rare now, but they dominated the shelves of stores for many decades of the 20th century.

Both products have since been removed from sale due to side effects.

From: the National WWII Museum, New Orleans

CLICK ON IMAGES TO ENLARGE.

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Military Humor – 

How’s this for recycling? We get some heavily polluted air, put it an aerosol can, and use it as an insecticide.

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Farewell Salutes – 

John Ashcroft – Wilmington, DE; US Navy, WWII, PTO, USS LCI – 688 / Korea

Russell Bishop – Wickenburg, AZ; US Army, Korea, 187th RCT

Frank M. Fonte – Northport, NY; US Navy, WWII

Russell Harvey (105) – Philadelphia, PA; US Army, WWII

Hal Holbrook – Cleveland, OH; US Army, WWII, SSgt. / beloved actor

Bruce Mock – Dodge City, KS; US Army, Japanese Occupation, Sgt. Major, 808, 836th Engineering Battalion

Eugene Reilly (100) – Boston, MA; US Army, WWII, ETO, 2nd Lt., 3rd Infantry Division

Robert Skyles – Hill City, ID;US Navy, WWII, PTO

Irwin Stahl – Delray Beach, FL; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, Co. C/ 187/11th Airborne Division

Robert Max Willocks – Maryville, TN; US Navy, WWII, PTO

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Featured Blogger GP – Duct Tape and WWII #AceHistoryDesk report

During the WWII, U.S. troops in the heat of battle had a strangely impractical way of reloading their weapons. Cartridges used for grenade launchers was one example. Boxed, sealed with wax and taped over to protect them from moisture, soldiers would need to pull on a tab to peel off the paper tape and break the seal. Sure, it worked… except when it didn’t, soldiers were left scrambling to pry the boxes open.

waterproof ammo boxesVesta Stoudt had been working at a factory packing and inspecting these cartridges when she got to thinking that there had to be a better way. She also happened to be a mother of two sons serving in the Navy and was particularly perturbed that their lives and countless others were left to such chance. Concerned for the welfare of sons, she discussed with her supervisors an idea she had to fabricate a tape made from strong, water-resistant cloth. And when nothing came of her efforts, she penned a letter to then-President Franklin Roosevelt detailing her proposal (which included a hand-sketched diagram) and closing by making a plea to his conscience: « We can’t let them down by giving them a box of cartridges that takes a minute or two to open, enabling the enemy to take lives that might be saved had the box been taped with strong tape that can be opened in a split second. Please, Mr. President, do something about this at once; not tomorrow or soon, but now. »

Oddly enough, Roosevelt passed Stoudt’s recommendation on to military officials, and in two weeks time, she received notice that her suggestion is being considered and not too long after was informed that her proposal had been approved. The letter also commended her idea was of « exceptional merit. » Before long, Johnson & Johnson, which specialized in medical supplies, was assigned and developed a sturdy cloth tape with a strong adhesive that would come to be known as “duck tape,” which garnered the company an Army/Navy « E » Award, an honor given out as a distinction of excellence in the production of war equipment.

Army/Navy E PennantWhile Johnson & Johnson was officially credited with the invention of duct tape, it’s a concerned mother who will be remembered as the mother of duct tape. The initial iteration that Johnson & Johnson came up with isn’t much different from the version on the market today. Comprised of a piece of mesh cloth, which gives it tensile strength and rigidity to be torn by hand and waterproof polyethylene (plastic), duct tape is made by feeding the materials into a mixture that forms the rubber-based adhesive. Unlike glue, which forms a bond once the substance hardens, duct tape is a pressure-sensitive adhesive that relies on the degree in which pressure is applied. The stronger the pressure, the stronger the bond, particularly with surfaces that are clean, smooth and hard.

Duct tape was a huge hit with soldiers due to its strength, versatility and waterproof properties. Used to make all sorts of repairs from boots to furniture, it’s also a popular fixture in the world of motorsports, where crews use strips to patch up dents. During the war duck tape was distributed to soldier’s to use in sealing ammo cans. Industrious soldiers quickly started using it for all manner of repairs thanks to its strong adhesive and sturdy construction. When millions of soldiers returned home from the war, they brought their respect for duct tape with them, rapidly introducing the now ubiquitous tape into popular culture. Film crews working on-set have a version called gaffer’s tape, which doesn’t leave a sticky residue. Even NASA Astronauts pack a roll when they go on space missions.

on aircraftBesides repairs, other creative uses for duct tape include strengthening cellular reception on the Apple iPhone 4 and as a form of medical treatment for removing warts called duct tape occlusion therapy, which research hasn’t been proven to be effective. « Duct » or « duck » tape? In this case, either pronunciation would be correct. According to Johnson & Johnson’s website, the original green sticky cloth tape got its name during world war II when soldiers started calling it duck tape for the way liquids seem to roll off like water off a duck’s back. Not long after the war, the company launched a metallic-silver version called duct tape after executives discovered it can also be used to seal heating ducts. Interestingly enough, however, scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory conducted field tests on heating ducts and determined that duct tape was insufficient for that purpose. By :  Tuan C. Nguyen CLICK ON IMAGES TO ENLARGE.################################################################################################################

Military Humor – 

DUCT TAPE DOESN’T FIX EVERYTHING!

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Farewell Salutes – 

Steven Bailey – Houston, TX; US Army, Kuwait, 82nd Airborne Division, Bronze Star Harry Beal – Meyersdale, PA; US Navy, 1st SEAL

Robert Collins – Rockaway, NJ; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, Co. A/127th Engineers/11th Airborne Division Thomas Hard Sr. – Chicago, IL; US Navy, WWII, PTO, POW Reed Mattair – Williston, FL; US Army, WWII, PTO Paul Moore Sr. – Portsmouth, VA; US Navy, WWII, PTO, USS West Virginia, SeaBee, Pearl Harbor survivor Edward Sulewski – So. Milwaukee, WI; US Army, Korea, 187th RCT Alexander Suprin – brn: Poland; USMC, WWII, PTO Thomas Whitaker – Marquette, MI; US Army, WWII, Engineering Corps Dominic Zangari (100) – Lancaster, PA; US Army Air Corps, WWII, Korea & Vietnam, (Ret. 34 y.) ################################################################################################################