OnThisDay 31st:January:1961:Ham flew a suborbital flight on the Mercury-Redstone 2 mission, part of the U.S. space program’s Project Mercury: Ham’s name is an acronym for the laboratory that prepared him for his historic mission—the Holloman Aerospace Medical Center, located at Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico, southwest of Alamogordo #AceHistoryDesk report …..

#AceHistoryReport- Jan.30: Ham (July 1957 – January 19, 1983), also known as Ham the Chimpand Ham the Astrochimp, was a chimpanzee and the first hominidlaunched into space. On January 31, 1961, Ham flew a suborbital flight on the Mercury-Redstone 2 mission, part of the U.S. space program’s Project Mercury.[1][2] Ham’s name is an acronym for the laboratory that prepared him for his historic mission—the Holloman Aerospace Medical Center, located at Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico, southwest of Alamogordo. His name was also in honor of the commander of Holloman Aeromedical Laboratory, Lieutenant Colonel Hamilton “Ham” Blackshear.[3][4]HamHam in January 1961, before his flight into spaceSpeciesCommon chimpanzeeSexMaleBornJuly 1957
French CameroonDiedJanuary 19, 1983 (aged 25–26)
North Carolina Zoo, North Carolina, U.S.AKnown forFirst hominid in space

Ham (chimpanzee) 1983

Ham the chimp (cropped).jpg

Contents

Early life

Ham was born in July 1957 in French Cameroon (now Cameroon),[5][6]captured by animal trappers and sent to Rare Bird Farm in Miami, Florida, US. He was purchased by the United States Air Force and brought to Holloman Air Force Base in July 1959.[5]

There were originally 40 chimpanzee flight candidates at Holloman. After evaluation, the number of candidates was reduced to 18, then to six, including Ham.[7]:245–246 Officially, Ham was known as No. 65 before his flight,[8] and only renamed “Ham” upon his successful return to Earth. This was reportedly because officials did not want the bad press that would come from the death of a “named” chimpanzee if the mission were a failure.[9] Among his handlers, No. 65 had been known as “Chop Chop Chang”.[10][9]:page 138

Training and mission

A “hand shake” welcome. After his flight on a Mercury-Redstone rocket, chimpanzee Ham is greeted by the commander of the recovery ship, USS Donner(LSD-20).

Beginning in July 1959, the two-year-old chimpanzee was trained under the direction of neuroscientist Joseph V. Brady at Holloman Air Force Base Aero Medical Field Laboratory to do simple, timed tasks in response to electric lights and sounds.[11] During his pre-flight training, Ham was taught to push a lever within five seconds of seeing a flashing blue light; failure to do so resulted in an application of a light electric shock to the soles of his feet, while a correct response earned him a banana pellet.[12]:243

What differentiates Ham’s mission from all the other primate flights to this point is that he was not merely a passenger, and the results from his test flight led directly to the mission Alan Shepard made on May 5, 1961, aboard Freedom 7.[13]

On January 31, 1961, Ham was secured in a Project Mercury mission designated MR-2 and launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on a suborbital flight.[1][12]:314–315 Ham’s vital signs and tasks were monitored by sensors and computers on Earth.[14] The capsule suffered a partial loss of pressure during the flight, but Ham’s space suit prevented him from suffering any harm.[12]:315 Ham’s lever-pushing performance in space was only a fraction of a second slower than on Earth, demonstrating that tasks could be performed in space.[12]:316 Ham’s capsule splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean and was recovered by a rescue ship later that day.[12]:316 His only physical injury was a bruised nose.[14] His flight was 16 minutes and 39 seconds long.[15]

Later life

Ham’s grave at the New Mexico Museum of Space History in Alamogordo, New Mexico

On April 5, 1963, Ham was transferred to the National Zoo in Washington, D.C. where he lived for 17 years[7]:255–257 before joining a small group of captive chimps at North Carolina Zoo on September 25, 1980.[16]

After his death on January 19, 1983, Ham’s body was given to the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology for necropsy. Following the necropsy, the plan was to have him stuffed and placed on display at the Smithsonian Institution, following Soviet precedent with pioneering space dogs Belka and Strelka. However, this plan was abandoned after a negative public reaction.[citation needed] Ham’s remains, minus the skeleton, were buried at the International Space Hall of Fame in Alamogordo, New Mexico. Colonel John Stapp gave the eulogy at the memorial service.[17] The skeleton is held in the collection of the National Museum of Health and Medicine.[6]

Ham’s backup, Minnie, was the only female chimpanzee trained for the Mercury program. After her role in the Mercury program ended, Minnie became part of an Air Force chimpanzee breeding program, producing nine offspring and helping to raise the offspring of several other members of the chimpanzee colony.[7]:258–259 She was the last surviving astro-chimpanzee and died at age 41 on March 14, 1998.[7]:259

In popular culture

  • In the 1967 I Dream of Jeannie episode “Fly Me to the Moon” Larry Storch played an astrochimp named Sam who was accidentally turned into a human.[18]
  • Tom Wolfe‘s 1979 book The Right Stuff depicts Ham’s spaceflight,[19]as do the subsequent film and TV adaptations.
  • The 2001 film Race to Space was a fictionalized version of Ham’s story; the chimpanzee in the movie is named “Mac”.[20]
  • In 2007, a French documentary made in association with Animal PlanetHam—Astrochimp #65, tells the story of Ham as witnessed by Jeff, who took care of Ham until his departure from the Air Force base after the success of the mission. It is also known as Ham: A Chimp into Space / Ham, un chimpanzé dans l’espace.[21]
  • A 2008 animated film, Space Chimps, was about sending chimpanzees to space. The main character and hero of the movie was named Ham III, the grandson of Ham.[22]
  • In 2008, Bark Hide and Horn, a folk-rock band from Portland, Oregon, released a song titled “Ham the Astrochimp”, detailing the journey of Ham from his perspective.[23]

See also

References

  1. a b “Chimp survives 420-mile ride into space”Lewiston Morning Tribune. Idaho. Associated Press. February 1, 1961. p. 1.
  2.  “Chimp sent out on flight over Atlantic”The Bulletin. Bend, Oregon. UPI. January 31, 1961. p. 1.
  3.  Swenson Jr., Loyd S.; Grimwood, James M.; Alexander, Charles C. (1989). “This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury”NASA History Series. NASA Special Publication-4201. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
  4.  Brown, Laura J. (November 13, 1997). “Obituary: NASA Medical director Hamilton ‘Ham’ Blackshear”Florida Today. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
  5. a b Gray, Tara (1998). “A Brief History of Animals in Space”National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved May 12,2008.
  6. a b Nicholls, Henry (February 7, 2011). “Cameroon’s Gagarin: The Afterlife of Ham the Astrochimp”.
  7. a b c d Burgess, Colin; Dubbs, Chris (January 24, 2007). Animals in Space: From Research Rockets to the Space Shuttle. Springer-Praxis Books in Space Exploration. Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-36053-9OCLC 77256557.
  8.  Hanser, Kathleen (November 10, 2015). “Mercury Primate Capsule and Ham the Astrochimp”airandspace.si.edu. Smithsonian National Air & Space Museum. Archived from the original on May 20, 2018. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
  9. a b Haraway, Donna (1989). Primate Visions: Gender, Race, and Nature in the World of Modern Science. New York: Routledge.
  10.  “Chop Chop Chang Commemorative Patch (HAM the Astrochimp)”Retrorocket EmblemsArchived from the original on May 20, 2018. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
  11.  House, George (April–June 1991). “Project Mercury’s First Passengers”. Spacelog8 (2): 4–5. ISSN 1072-8171OCLC 18058232.
  12. a b c d e Swenson Jr., Loyd S.; Grimwood, James M.; Alexander, Charles C. (1966). This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury. NASA History Series. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. OCLC 00569889. Retrieved May 11, 2008.
  13.  Burgess, Colin (2014). “The Mercury flight of chimpanzee Ham”(PDF). Freedom 7. Springer. pp. 58–59. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-01156-1_2ISBN 978-3-319-01155-4.
  14. a b Zackowitz, Margaret G. (October 2007). “The Primate Directive”National Geographic. Archived from the original on November 12, 2007. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
  15.  “NASA Project Mercury Mission MR-2”. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved May 11, 2008.
  16.  “Ham the astrochimp: hero or victim?”The Guardian. December 16, 2013.
  17.  Roach, Mary (2010). Packing for Mars: The Curious Science of Life in the Void. Norton. pp. 160–163. ISBN 978-0393068474.
  18.  Lathers, Marie (May 3, 2012). Space Oddities: Women and Outer Space in Popular Film and Culture, 1960–2000. A&C Black. p. 128. ISBN 9781441172051.
  19.  Wolfe, Tom (March 4, 2008). The Right Stuff. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 178. ISBN 9781429961325.
  20.  Foundas, Scott (March 14, 2002). “Race to Space”Variety. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
  21.  Kerviel, Sylvie (July 13, 2007). “Ham, un chimpanzé dans l’espace”Le Monde (in French). Retrieved January 30, 2019.
  22.  Space Chimps at AllMovie
  23.  For Melville, With Love, by Ezra Ace Caraeff, August 14, 2008, Portland Mercury

Further reading

  • Farbman, Melinda; Gaillard, Frye (June 2000) [2000]. Spacechimp: NASA’s Ape in Space. Countdown to Space. Berkeley Heights, New Jersey: Enslow Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7660-1478-7OCLC 42080118. Brief biography of Ham, aimed at children ages 9–12.
  • Rosenstein, Andrew (July 2008). Flyboy: The All-True Adventures of a NASA Space Chimp. Windham, Maine: Yellow Crane Press. ISBN 978-0-9758825-2-8. A novel about Ham and his trainer.
  • Burgess, Colin; Dubbs, Chris (January 24, 2007). Animals in Space: From Research Rockets to the Space Shuttle. Springer-Praxis Books. ISBN 978-0-387-36053-9. Book covering the life and flight of Ham, plus other space animals.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ham the Chimp.

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports by https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all our posts, also links can be found at here for Twitter and Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

Snippet Of History – A 17th Century Organ Gun from Lviv — ULTIMA RATIO

Mariana Verkhoturovawith Thorsten Peger & N.R. Jenzen-Jones Introduction Since gunpowder was first developed, humans have strived to refine and …

A 17th Century Organ Gun from Lviv — ULTIMA RATIO

#OnThisDay 1986: The Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster Happened 35 Years Ago Today #AceHistoryDesk report

(CBSMiami)- Today marks 35 years since the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster: The accident on Jan. 28, 1986 — just 73 seconds into flight — killed all seven on board, including schoolteacher Christa McAuliffe.

The Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster Happened 35 Years Ago Today

The disaster unfolded on live TV before countless schoolchildren eager to see McAuliffe, an everyday teacher, rocketing toward space. She would have been the first teacher in space: The Challenger disintegrated over the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of central Florida, after a booster engine failed:

Published: Jan.28: 2021:

#Featured Blogger GP – Static Line” 11th Airborne newspaper #AceHistoryDesk report

On 7 January 2021, I ran a post about the L-4 Grasshopper, the plane that most think of as a Piper Cub.  This note was included…

« While some of the men were confined to fighting up in the mountains, the division’s newspaper called the Static Line, used a piper cub plane to drop bundles of the publication down to the men.  This was the only news of the outside world that the troopers could receive.  One day, a roll of the papers was dropped with a note attached addressing it: “To the girls, with the compliments of Art Mosley and Jack Keil, Phone Glider 3.”  It was discovered later that the WAC camp received the roll meant for the 11th airborne. »

I located an issue of « Static Line » on the internet and wanted to share it.  News included kept the men up to date on the war around the globe, home front news, Hollywood, Books, Sports, a cooking corner, Humor and even obituaries.

‘Static Line’ column

Here is the list of top 10 models.  (Do you remember these names?)

Static line, top 10 models

Static Line’s Books

Static Line’s Sports Corner

« Hard time ahead if we don’t find a post-war place for the pin-up girl. »

CLICK ON IMAGES TO ENLARGE.

###############################################################################################################

Military Humor – 

‘Bloody air mail!’

‘Air Mail’

##############################################################################################################################

Farewell Salutes – 

Richard Born – New Haven, CT; US Army Air Corps, WWII, ETO, 9th Air Force, B-26 pilot

William Denlinger – Gentry, AR; US Army Air Corps, WWII, POW

William Johns – Roeland Park, KS; US Army, WWII, PTO

Christian Koch – Honeoye Falls, NY; National Guard, Middle East, Chief Warrant Officer 4, pilot

Timothy Manchester – Austin, TX; USMC / National Guard, Kuwait, SSgt., 36th Infantry Division

Louis Monaco – Brooklyn, NY; US Navy, WWII, PTO, gunner’s mate 2nd Class, USS San Francisco

Walter Pasiak – Scranton, PA; US Army, WWII, PTO, MSgt., Pearl Harbor survivor, Bronze Star, Purple Heart / Korea, Silver Star, (Ret. 22 y.)

Daniel Prial – Rochester, NY; National Guard, Afghanistan, Chief Warrant Officer 2, pilot

Steven Skoda – Rochester, NY; National Guard, Afghanistan, Chief Warrant Officer 5, pilot

Eleanor Wadsworth (103) – Bury St. Edmonds, ENG; Air Transport Auxiliary, WWII, pilot

GP: “Static Line” 11th Airborne newspaper Published: Jan.28: 20221:

Honor in War Provided By GP Our Featured Blogger

Honor in War

Originally posted on A Song of Joy by Caroline Furlong: Details of the fighting in the Pacific Theater during World War II are not well recalled in …

Take another look at the ‘other side’ supplied by an excellent blogger, Caroline!

A Song of Joy by Caroline Furlong

Details of the fighting in the Pacific Theater during World War II are not well recalled in public memory, especially these days. The most recent films to deal with the subject are Midway*, Unbroken*, and Hacksaw Ridge*. But even these excellent films do not necessarily capture the entirety of events which occurred in the Pacific.

Click the link below to learn about a very interesting incident involving stranded British sailors and an Imperial Japanese destroyer, readers:

Japanese destroyer Ikazuchi (1931) - Wikipedia

Chivalry in War and Peace

POSTED ON DECEMBER 11, 2008

BY GUEST AUTHOR

Scott Farrell comments:

Even in the most fearsome times of warfare and battle, like the naval fighting that occurred between Japan and its enemies at the height of World War II, the spirit of chivalry has a crucial function — not, as some might claim, to provide any sense of comfort or courtesy to the enemy, but rather…

View original post 427 more words

Alexander the Great’s Memory and Legacy – A guest post by Grigoris Charalampidis

The Freelance History Writer is pleased to welcome Grigorios Charalampidis, philologist and private tutor as a guest on the blog. Find him on …

Alexander the Great’s Memory and Legacy – A guest post by Grigoris Charalampidis

Featured Blogger GP – Military Radio – Armed Forces Network #AceHistoryDesk report

Although American Forces Network Radio has officially been on the air for 60 years, listeners began tuning in at the end of World War I.

Military Radio – Armed Forces Network

1943 ‘G.I. Jive’ sheet music by Johnny Mercer

ARMED FORCES NETWORK

A Navy lieutenant in France broadcasted information and live entertainment to troops accompanying President Wilson to the 1919 Paris Peace Conference.  Radio was a novelty then, and little equipment was given to overseas military broadcasting until the United States started gearing up for World War II.

playing music for the troops

Bored soldiers in Panama and Alaska created makeshift transmitters and aired records, according to an Armed Forces Radio pamphlet. The U.S. military was unaware of the broadcasts until celebrities wrote asking how to send the stations recordings.

During the first days of the U.S. entry into World War II, Gen. Douglas MacArthur’s staff members set up military radio stations in the Philippines. Their success paved the way for the Armed Forces Radio Service.

In May 1942, the Army commissioned broadcasting executive Tom Lewis as a major and assigned him to create a viable military radio network.

Its primary goal was to keep morale high, a daunting task when the enemy already was broadcasting to Allied troops, in the personas of the infamous “Axis Sally” and “Tokyo Rose.” Playing popular American music, they tried to demoralize troops with talk about missing home.

On July 4, 1943, the Armed Forces Network went on the air, using the BBC’s London studios. With British and Canadian radio stations, it formed the Allied Expeditionary Forces Program. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower wanted to ensure the stations worked together and all allies were getting the same message.

“G.I. Jive” disc, 1943

To boost morale, AFRS headquarters in Los Angeles produced shows such as “G.I. Jive,” shipping them to stations on special “V-Discs.” By early 1945, about 300 Armed Forces Radio Stations worldwide were broadcasting. (There are some V-discs available on e-bay)

Then came peacetime.

By 1949, just 60 stations were operating. But broadcasters who remained in Europe with the occupying forces took on a new role. Music and information were broadcast from Bremen to Berlin — giving many Europeans their first exposure to American culture and music.

AFN brought jazz, blues, rock ’n’ roll and country and western to audiences starved for music. The shows were so popular that when the leftist Greens Party urged Germany to quit NATO in the 1980s and called for U.S. troops to leave, it made one exception.

“The U.S. military should go home, but leave AFN behind,” a Greens leader demanded.

When the Korean War started in 1950, AFRS leased several portable trailers and followed the troops as “Radio Vagabond.” The American Forces Korea Network was established in Seoul later that year.

While the organization changed its name to the Armed Forces Radio and Television Service in 1954, the focus remained on radio.

The American Forces Vietnam Network (AFVN) was established in 1962, during the Vietnam War, mostly for numerous military advisers there. It served as the backdrop for the 1988 movie, “Good Morning, Vietnam!”

But broadcasting to the troops as the war heated up was no day on a Hollywood set.

During the Tet Offensive, AFVN studios in Hue City were attacked. The staff fought off the Viet Cong for five days before the station manager and several others were captured. They spent five years in a North Vietnamese prisoner-of-war camp.

Recently, Armed Forces Radio quickly mobilized for operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm.

A mobile broadcasting van deployed to Saudi Arabia, where the American Forces Desert Network was established in 1991 and broadcast for the first time from Kuwait shortly after the Iraqi occupation ended. Since then, it has become a fixture throughout the region.

Tech. Sgt. Mark Hatfield, 36, was “out in the middle of nowhere … at a secret base detached from civilization” as a structural maintainer on F-15s, with the 4th Tactical Fighter Wing (Provisional) during Desert Storm.

About a month after he arrived, AFDN went into operation.

“I remember when they came on line … I had my little transistor radio, and sure enough, there it was,” he said.

Someone also bought a radio for the hangar. “We cranked it because news was coming out left and right about the war,” Hatfield added.

“It was good because that was our only source of real information. You get out in the middle of nowhere, you don’t really hear it from the U.S side of things … uncensored, coming in from the U.S.”

“Good Morning, Vietnam!”

Today, American Forces Radio and Television Service operates about 300 radio and television outlets, serving an audience of 1.3 million listeners and viewers on every continent and U.S. Navy ship at sea.

“As long as there’s military there, we’re going to be there.”

CLICK ON IMAGES TO ENLARGE.

##############################################################################################################

Military Humor –

Marines from Los Angeles

################################################################################################################

Farewell Salutes – 

Anthony Bermudez – Dallas, TX; US Army, Kuwait, SSgt.

Edward R. Burka – Washington D.C.; US Army Medical Corps (airborne), BGeneral

Dorothy (Schmidt) Cole (107) – OH; USMC Women’s 1st Battalion, WWII

Hyman Coran – Sharon, MA; US Army Air Corps, WWII, flight instructor

Michael Domico – Westville, NJ; US Army Air Corps, WWII, Sgt., radio/gunner

Veronica Federici – Fulton, NY; US Navy WAVE, WWII

Michael Morris – Cass Lake, MN; US Air Force, TSgt., 31st Aircraft Maintenance Squadron (Europe)

Vincent Pale – Philadelphia, PA; US Army Air Corps, WWII, POW

Claude Spicer – McComas, WV; US Army Air Corps, WWII, Korea & Vietnam, (Ret. 30 y.)

Robert Wendler – Newport, RI; US Navy, WWII, Navy band

################################################################################################################

Featured Blogger GP – Guam #AceHistoryDesk report

In a lot of Pacific War histories, Guam is swept aside and banished as insignificant.  How soon they forget, many might say.

In Tokyo, soundtrucks festooned with World War II colors still extol those lost in a gallant defeat. In America, elders like Louis H. Wilson Jr. and George Tweed would never forget.

Masashi Ito and Bunzo Minagawa spent young manhood into middle age in the tropical underside of an island that tourists now praise as a paradise. They were holdouts, soldiers who refused to surrender and would forage for
survival for 16 years.

Soichi Yokoi, before and after

The last known Japanese survivor, Shoichi Yokoi, held out until 1972, captured by chance as he ventured out to empty a fish trap. Yokoi had never crept out of dense cover to hear the happy shouts of Japanese tourists and honeymooners. Nor had he walked the lobby of the Hilton or the Cliffside.

Luxury hotels swarm over the beachfront and jungle growth has covered the faint traces of war, and Guam gets only a passing nod as a battlefield beside Guadalcanal, Tarawa, Okinawa and Leyte. Thirty-six years ago [now it is 76 ½ years ago]  shellfire plowed across Guam. Some 18,500 Japanese were trying to pry loose the fingerhold that many more thousands of American soldiers and Marines had fastened on beaches and cliffsides.

Many of the Americans barely had a respite between battles, having first seized Saipan to pull the keystone of the Marianas archway. Guam was almost a point-of-honor afterthought. The island was an American possession until a handful of Marines, soldiers and Guamanian militia made a no-choice surrender only three days after Japanese bombers pounded Hawaii.

The III Amphibious Corps and the 77th Infantry Division are not going in blindfolded that July 21, 1944. Eleven days before the landing, as American warships savage Guam’s coastal defenses, a tall figure sprints down a beach and plunges into the surf, swimming with desperate strength until he is within hailing distance of a destroyer.

George Tweed

George Tweed is pulled aboard and tells an astonishing story. He was one of the 288 men on the island as 5,000 Japanese surged ashore, ignoring the flea-bite firepower of a few .30 cal. machine guns as they overwhelmed the thin garrison and forced the Naval Governor, Capt. George J. McMillin, into quick submission.

Tweed and five others slipped away, hunted by Japanese who probed the underbrush with bayonets. Only Tweed survived, living on land crabs and coconuts, warily evading the patrols that shook every palm tree and banyan for him. Tweed saw his pursuers far more often than they saw him, and his sketchpad mind has taken it all down — every gun emplacement, trenchline and fortified cave. The Japanese failure to capture or kill this ragged stray will cost them dearly.

Exacting naval gunfire singles out visible and concealed coastal guns – all but a few. As the 3rd Marine Division and the 1st Marine Brigade board barges that cut paint-stroke wakes toward the western side of Guam, sharp flashes burst along the coastline. Barges turn over like crumpled buckets.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

“You never get it for free,” an older Marine mutters as the barges push ashore — the division between Adelup and Asan Points and the brigade wedging between Point Bangi and the town of Agat. Beachheads are “tightly fastened and the coastal guns erased.

There are already wolfish shouts from the jungle along the coastline. Fierce counterattacks tear into the Marine lines and one lunge rips through the brigade. It is contained after a desperate brawl with bullets, blades and even fists.

The Marines begin moving inland, slowly closing a gap between division and brigade as hey crush across Apra Harbor and Orote Peninsula, squeezing
the defenders between them. But the Japanese put no markdown price tags on anything, heaping fallen defenses with Marine dead. As the two Marine forces grasp .hands, another enemy rush pours forth — the futile bravery of 500 Japanese sailors who die in an inferno of shellfire.

Capt. Louis H. Wilson Jr. is a company commander in the 2nd Battalion, 9th Marines. He thrusts ahead of the others to take high and important ground, holding it against human-avalanche counterattacks.

His Medal of Honor citation will stiffly relate that Wilson “contributed essentially” to the success of the assault, passing over the fact that he was wounded three times and fought aside agonized delirium to rally his Marines.

Capt. Louis H. Wilson Jr., USMC

Soldiers of the 77th, fed slowly into the advance, must do the deadly, mop-and-dustpan work in southern Guam as the Marine advance lunges on. The suicidal determined Japanese will tear tiny leaks and large gaps in the line, and the effort to repulse them will often get down to hand-to-hand piecework.

The advance will spider all over the island, with Guam declared secure as Marines reach the northernmost tip on Ritidian Point. Everything is back under American colors by Aug. 10.

The past will be wiped away over the years. Wreckage will be swept aside. Foundations for posh hotels will be sunk along the beachfront. Andersen AFB and Agana NAS will assure a stronger military presence than those unfortunate few of late 1941.

Strangers will be strafed by stiff expense but nothing else.

“Robinson Crusoe, USN” by: George Tweed

Tweed will write a book, “Robinson Crusoe, USN.”

Wilson will become Marine Corps Commandant.

Battle histories will little note nor long remember Guam.

But Wilson, Tweed, many Americans and a few Japanese, will always share a thin fund of private memories.

From the Archives of the Stars & Stripes August 10, 1980

################################################################################################################

Military Humor – 

‘Howitzers at dawn.’

################################################################################################################

Farewell Salutes – 

Howard Buescher – Cleveland, OH; US Navy, WWII, PTO

Andrew Caneza – New Orleans, LA; US Army, WWII, PTO

Mead Clark – Joliet, IL; US Army Air Corps, WWII, ETO, 17th Airborne Division

George Fry – St. Paul, MN; US Army Air Corps, WWII

Ed Guthrie (102) Omaha, NE; US Navy, WWII, electrician’s mate 2nd Class, USS Banner, last known Pearl Harbor survivor

John Harris – NY & FL; US Navy, WWII, Korea & Vietnam (Ret. 28 y.)

Glen Kloiber – Milwaukee, WI; US Army Air Corps, WWII, ETO, 791st AAA Battalion

Dallas Lehn – Elba, NE; US Army, WWII, PTO, Purple Heart

Michael D. Miller – OH; US Army Air Corps, WWII

John Rudberg – Minneapolis, MN; US Navy, V-12 Program

Published: Jan.14: 2021: Guam

Featured Blogger GP – Ordnance – M3 Howitzer #AceHistoryDesk report

Should anyone wish to further research the 11th Airborne’s field artillery, the division constituted the 674th and 675th Airborne Field Artillery.

Paratrooper Everett Smith (Smitty, far right) during training

674th Airborne Field Artillery

The 105 mm Howitzer M3 was a light howitzer designed for use by airborne troops. The gun utilized the barrel of the 105 mm howitzer M2, shortened and fitted to a slightly modified split trail carriage of the 75 mm pack howitzer. The howitzer was used by the U.S. Army during WWII.  It was issued to airborne units and the cannon companies of infantry regiments.

The howitzer was designed to fire the same ammunition as the longer M2. However, it turned out that shorter barrel resulted in incomplete burning of the propelling charge. The problem could be solved by use of faster burning powder. Otherwise the design was considered acceptable and was standardized as 105 mm Howitzer M3 on Carriage M3. The carriage was soon succeeded by the M3A1, which had trails made from thicker plate. Even stronger tubular trails were designed, but never reached production.

The production started in February 1943 and continued until May 1944; an additional bunch was produced in April–June 1945.Production of М3, pcs.[2]Year194319441945TotalProduced, pcs.1,9654102052,580

The gun fired semi-fixed ammunition, similar to the ammunition of the M2; it used the same projectiles and the same 105 mm Cartridge Case M14, but with different propelling charge. The latter used faster burning powder to avoid incomplete burning; it consisted of a base charge and four increments, forming five charges from 1 (the smallest) to 5 (the largest).

In an emergency, gunners were authorized to fire M1 HE rounds prepared for the Howitzer M2, but only with charges from 1 to 3. M1 HE rounds for the M3 could be fired from an M2 with any charge.

HEAT M67 Shell had non-adjustable propelling charge. For blank ammunition, a shorter Cartridge Case M15 with black powder charge was used.Available ammunitionTypeModelWeight (round/projectile)FillerMuzzle velocityRangeHEHE M1 Shell18.35 kg (40 lb) / 14.97 kg (33 lb)50/50 TNT or amatol*2.18 kg (4 lb 13 oz)311 m/s (1,020 ft/s)7,585 m (8,300 yd)HEAT-THEAT M67 Shell16.62 kg (37 lb) / 13.25 kg (29 lb)311 m/s (1,020 ft/s)7,760 m (8,500 yd)SmokeWP M60 Shell18.97 kg (42 lb) / 15.56 kg (34 lb)White Phosphorus, 1.84 kg (4.1 lb)311 m/s (1,020 ft/s)7,585 m (8,300 yd)SmokeFS M60 Shell19.65 kg (43 lb) /Sulfur trioxide in Chlorosulfonic acid, 2.09 kg (4 lb 10 oz)SmokeHC BE M84 Shell18.29 kg (40 lb) / 14.91 kg (33 lb)Zinc chloride311 m/s (1,020 ft/s)7,585 m (8,300 yd)

* Amatol is a highly explosive material made from a mixture of TNT and ammonium nitrate.   Amatol was used extensively during WWI and WWII.

CLICK ON IMAGES TO ENLARGE.

################################################################################################################

Military Humor – 

Light Artillery

################################################################################################################

Farewell Salutes – 

Mildred (Andrews) Andres – Baton Rouge, LA; US Army WAC, German Occupation, Sgt.

FINAL MISSION

Patricia Delaney – Evanston, IL; US Navy WAVES, WWII, Lt. JG

Thomas A. Dennison – Lander, CAN; RC Air Force, WWII

John Jarvie – Rock Springs, WY; USMC, WWII, PTO / Korea, MSgt., Engineering, (Ret. 21 y.)

Theodore Lumpkin Jr. (100) – Angeleno, CA; US Army Air Corps, WWII, 2nd Lt., 100th Fighter Squadron, Intelligence; Lt. Col. (Ret.)

Davis Mosqueda – Boise, ID; USMC, Silent Drill Corps, LCpl.

Louis V. O’Brien – Providence, RI; US Army Air Corps, WWII, ETO, 486/352 Fighter Group, 2nd Lt., pilot

Madge (Watkins) Redwood – Auckland, NZ; NZ Army WAAC, WWII, # 813240, 9th Coastal Regiment

Brian D. Sicknick – NJ; National Guard, Middle East, Sgt., /  US Capitol Police, 1st Responder Unit

James Wento – Lynn, MA; US Army, SSgt., 2-2 Assault Helicopter Battalion/2nd Combat Assault

Published: Jan.11: 2021: Ordnance – M3 Howitzer

Featured Blogger GP – Ordnance – L-4 Grasshopper in the Pacific #AceHistoryDesk report

Ordnance – L-4 Grasshopper in the Pacific

The « L’series liaison aircraft in US army service were often known as « grasshoppers. » These aircraft served with artillery and outfits spotting …

L-4 Grasshopper, Piper Cub

Primarily to serve at elimination training bases in World War II the Navy acquired 230 Piper NE-1s , basically similar to the Army L-4s with Continental 0-170 engines. Twenty NE-2s were similar.

deHavilland WWI

As war spread around the world at the beginning of the 1940s, the U.S. military, dominated by old soldiers who expected to fight the next war exactly as they fought the last one, had to be convinced that the requirements for certain weapons needed to be redefined. An example was the Army’s observation airplanes, latter-day versions of the World War I, the deHavilland DH-4.

A two place tandem cockpit, dual-control, modified J-3 civilian light plane built by Piper Aircraft Corporation, Lock Haven, PA. Military models were designated the L-4B, L-4H, L-4J. This lightweight aircraft was among the most useful tactical aircraft of WWII. Dubbed « Grasshoppers » for their ability to fly into and out of small spaces, this military adaptation of the famous Piper J-3 Cub became the center of the toughest inter service turf fights of the war. General George S. Patton, Jr. played a major role in their introduction, a fact often overlooked in light of his other major accomplishments.

The L-4 had a fabric-covered frame with wooden spar, metal-rib wings, a metal-tube fuselage, and a metal-tube empennage. Its fixed landing gear used « rubber-band » bungee cord shock absorbers and had hydraulic brakes and no flaps.

Grasshopper pilots flew dangerous missions over enemy territory without any armor.

The aircrafts flight instruments included an airspeed indicator, and altimeter, compass, and simple turn-and-bank indicator. It was equipped with a two-way radio, powered by a wind-driven generator.

All of the little L-birds land like feathers, but the L-4 is the easiest and softest to land. Put 10 knots of wind on the nose, and all of them seem to come to a halt before gently touching down.

The L-4 retained the metal ribs of the Cub, so only the spar is made of wood. The ribs, however, are trusses of T-sections formed of thin aluminum riveted and screwed together. If poorly treated, these rib trusses are easily damaged and attract corrosion in the corners.

A: Cables or struts braced the Piper L4 tailplanes and wings. These allowed the necessary strength to be built in without resorting to a heavy structure. Rough field operations exert a lot of stress on airframes.  B: Mounted semi-exposed, the Continental flat-four engine powered the majority of more than 5000 Piper L-4s delivered to the Army, Several J-4 Cubs owned by civilians were pressed into service.  C: Structurally. the Piper L-4 was quite simple and had a fabric-covered wooden framework. The wing had no slats or flaps, but was equipped with large, long-span ailerons, Internally the wing was braced with wire.  D: For solo flights the L4 Grasshopper pilot sat in the rear seat, which had a full set of controls but was normally used by the observer. The Grasshopper was also equipped with a map table and the radio fit varied between models.

In Florida, the Civil Air Patrol had a Piper Cub patrolling at a low altitude along the Palm Beach coast (as many other cities had) and on one occasion, the 55-year-old pilot swooped down for a closer look at something he felt was unusual and he was fired on – it was a German submarine. The plane received enough damage to force him to return to the airfield. This is probably the only American plane downed by enemy fire in the continental U.S. history.

While some of the men were confined to fighting up in the mountains, the division’s newspaper called the Static Line, used a piper cub plane to drop bundles of the publication down to the men.  This was the only news of the outside world that the troopers could receive.  One day, a roll of the papers was dropped with a note attached addressing it: “To the girls, with the compliments of Art Mosley and Jack Keil, Phone Glider 3.”  It was discovered later that the WAC camp received the roll meant for the 11th airborne.

21 December 1944, General Swing and Col. Quandt flew to Manarawat in cub planes.  Upon landing, the general was said to look “as muddy as a dog-faced private.”  (Swing would often be in the thick of things and this description of him was common.)  He slept that night in the camp’s only nipa hut, which ended up being destroyed the next day.

CLICK ON IMAGES TO ENLARGE.

###############################################################################################################

Military Humor – 

################################################################################################################

Farewell Salutes –

Angel Balcarcel – Canton, OH; US Navy, WWII

Arthur H. Bishop – Philadelphia, PA; US Army, Korea, 505th Airborne Infantry Regiment

Mare Island Cemetery

Jimmy Coy – Columbia, MO; US Army, 1st Gulf War, 3rd Group/Army Special Forces, Medical surgeon, Colonel (Ret. 25 y.)

Wayne DeHaven Sr. – Roseville, MN; US Army, WWII, 17th Airborne Division

Richard Fry – Hudson, OH; US Air Force  / NASA (Ret. 30 y.)

Georgina Grey – Bristol, ENG; Royal British Navy, WWII, aircraft maintenance

Jessica Mitchell – Topeka, KS; US Army, DSgt., 68E Dental Specialist

David Michaud – Denver, CO; USMC  /  Denver Police Chief

Joseph Papallo (101) – Meriden, CT; US Army, WWII

Doris (White) Ryan – Como, MS; Civilian, WWII, Memphis Army Dept.

################################################################################################################################################################################################################################