Featured Blogger: Restoring WWII with accuracy // Pacific Paratrooper #AceHistoryDesk reports

TSF BP 382P HQ
Jeep of the Military Police, Theater Service Forces with complete unit markings. This photograph is most likely a post-war photograph taken during occupation duty.

I’ve created this post to help out a reader now restoring an authentic WWII 1942 Ford GPW. I needed help myself – Matt Underwood, past Editor of “The Voice of the Angels” newspaper of the 11th Airborne Division Association – and I’m proud to say – my friend, came to my rescue.

The only drawback to the Army Manual was that Airborne Divisions had not really developed at the time the text of this book was written, and therefore, the examples of actual vehicle markings on jeeps, etc., of Airborne Divisions are not among the samples/examples in the manual itself. Armies, Corps, and Infantry Divisions, Armored Divisions, and Cavalry Divisions are covered, and all smaller units, but no Airborne Divisions. Everything else about Airborne jeeps are the same as the rest of the Army, with the exception of distinguishing between, say, the 11th Armored Division and 11th Airborne Division. Other than being in two different theaters of war, they are almost the same.

The world of military vehicles, especially American WWII stuff, is a growing field, as old junkers are discovered in barns, landfills, junkyards, and out in the woods, and collectors are buying them and restoring them. When they get their special treasure all completed, they want total accuracy in these unique unit markings to add the final tough of authenticity. So the number of websites featuring vehicle markings has grown rapidly over the past 10 years.

28-103E HQ-4
A jeep from the 103rd Engineer Combat Battalion, 28th Infantry Division photographed on a bridge somewhere in Europe. The unit bumper markings are applied according to regulations and designate the 4th vehicle of the Headquarters of 103rd Engineers, 28th Infantry Division. The windshield carries the addition marking “T4 Cole” in white.

http://www.classicjeeps.co.uk/american-vehicle-markings/

https://blog.kaiserwillys.com/military-jeep-markings

http://www.lonesentry.com/panzer/jeep-markings.html

http://jeepdraw.com/

https://g503.com/

http://www.kingtigerebooks.co.uk/p/world-war-ii.html

Now back to the last part of the problem. The 11th Airborne Division, like other Airborne Divisions from 1942 to 1944, followed the Army’s Table of Organization & Equipment No. 71, dated 17 Feb 1942. The A/B units in Europe and the States updated this TO&E in Dec 44, but not the 11th or 503rd…not till the early summer of ’45. So almost all of the time the 11th was in combat, it had the same set-up for everything that it always had—at least on paper. I do have a substitute source for part of the data, however, and here’s what I believe your reader will need to know.

11th A/B Div. repairs a truck in Japan

I think that for most of the War, MOST of the 11th Airborne’s jeeps and trucks bore vehicle markings like your sepia-colored photo of the jeep from the 188th. Its bumper markings are important in solving this puzzle:

11AB..188-I…………SV8 = 11th Airborne, 188th Infantry, Service Company, 8th Vehicle

No one unit in a WWII airborne division would have such a high number of jeeps unless they were all numbered in a regiment-wide motor pool.

I have some proof that the 511th—being a Parachute Infantry Regiment—had probably all of its vehicles marked for its Service Company, as the motor pool for the whole regiment, which had 3 Parachute Inf. Battalions. It is probable that the 187th and 188th, being Glider Infantry Regiments with only 2 Glider Inf. Battalions each, probably also had all its vehicles marked for its respective Service Cos., which had charge of the motor pool for the whole regiment.

The vehicle allowance for the motor pool of the 511th PIR, seems to TOTAL out as follows: (1) Sedan; (2) Ambulances; (13) 1/4-ton Trucks (which are what Jeeps were usually referred to in official tables); (15) 3/4-ton Trucks; (16) 2-1/2 ton Trucks; and (14) 1-ton Trailers. These totals are for the whole Regiment, but are internally divided between the Service Company’s “HQ Co. Squad”, its “1st Bn. Squad” and 2nd & 3rd Bn. Squads as well, and its own “Transportation Platoon”—-which would be maybe what we would think of as a vehicle “reserve”, or were the vehicles under current repair. It probably allowed a flexibility that couldn’t be had otherwise. What this tells me is that when Col. Haugen needed his staff car, his adjutant called the “motor pool” (the Service Company’s Transportation Platoon) and said “Bring around the Colonel’s staff car.” Then the Colonel’s driver, a NCO from the Transportation Platoon’s “HQ Co. Squad” pulled his staff car up to the Colonel’s CP (command post) and waited. Same with the Colonel’s jeep, etc. When Lt.Col. John Strong, CO of 3rd Bn., needed his jeep, he or his adjutant called up the motor pool and ordered his jeep—-then a driver from the Transp. Platoon’s “3rd Bn. Squad” brought his jeep to Lt.Col. Strong’s CP and waited. When I say “his jeep” it was likely the same one every time, but could be a substitute on any given occasion if the main jeep was getting repaired or cleaned, etc. The pooling of all vehicles into the Service Company may have simply been the best idea to allow flexibility whenever a vehicle was needed on short notice.

From late 1940 to February 1945, markings were to be made in blue-drab. This type of color scheme would prevent enemy intelligence from gathering and identifying military markings as the two colors were hard to distinguish from one another when viewed in black and white photographs. The official color of these markings was changed to flat white in February 1945, but the reserves of blue-drab paint were used until exhausted.

In other words, ALL the jeeps and other vehicles would have Service Co. marks on the bumpers, regardless of who in the Regiment was using them. Therefore, the 511th would have a fleet of jeeps marked SV1 through SV13. I am GUESSING (for now) that the 187th and 188th had similar systems, which would explain your photo of a 188th jeep marked SV8. I am guessing that if the system holds, the 188th was only allotted 9 jeeps total.

Anyway, I will get back to you on that.

As to 11th Division HQ, I’m not sure yet as to its markings. Probably they had their own vehicles, but unsure as yet. If so, Gen. Swing’s jeep would probably have been bumper marked like this:

11ABX………………..HQ1 = 11th Airborne Division, HQ Company, 1st Vehicle

As always, these are 3″ tall letters, and the center of the bumper may or may not have a star painted on—it is the US star for all vehicles, found all over most other big surfaces. The bumpers often had them to start with, and as paint wore off and was repainted, sometimes the bumper stars were skipped, leading to the frequent blank space in the center where a star once was.

MATTHEW UNDERWOOD

Bookbinder/Conservator, Boyce Centennial Library,

The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary;

Editor Emeritus, Voice of the Angels,

11th Airborne Division Association

********** **********

The 11th Airborne uniform examples

Click to view slideshow.

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Click on images to enlarge.

Military Humor –

Uuh… guys…?

11th A/B Div. repairs a truck in Japan

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Farewell Salutes –

Dominic “Mickey” Bria – Smithers, SC; US Army, Korea, 187th RCT ‘Rakkasans’

William Conklin – Stony Point, NY; US Army, 11th Airborne Division

George D’Arcy – Liverpool, ENG; British Army, WWII, ETO, CBI & Africa, 2/South Lancashire Regiment

Homer Godair – Griffithville, AR; US Army, 11th Airborne Division

Scott Humbird – Brentwood, CA; US Army, WWII, PTO, Malaria Control Unit

Charles Pittman Sr. – Pensacola, FL; USMC, Vietnam, Silver Star, Distinguished Flying Cross, Purple Heart, Lt.General (Ret. 40 y.)

William Sartain – Mineral Wells, TX; US Merchant Marines, WWII, PTO

Mary Sweeney – Nanticoke, PA; US Army Air Corps WAC; WWII, Medical/Surgical Tech.

William Taylor – Grant, AL; US Army, Korea, 187th RCT “Rakkasans’

William Whiteman – Hood River, OR; US Navy, WWII, Korea, Vietnam, Lt. Commander (Ret. 27 y.)

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Source: // Pacific Paratrooper

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FEATURED: (VIRGINIA) A group of paleontologists say the tiny freckles they found on a rock could hold the key to understanding the origins of plant life on earth are actually billion-year-old seaweed microfossils #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – Feb.26: The freckles, Virginia Tech researchers say, are actually billion-year-old seaweed microfossils: They substantially push back the current record of the multicellular green plant by nearly 200 million years, according to the study published on Monday. Previously, the oldest known fossilised green alga was 800 million years old.

Scientists found a billion-year-old fossil believed to be an ancestor of earth’s very first plants CNN Science

Scientists have found 1 billion-year-old seaweed fossils.Scientists have found 1 billion-year-old seaweed fossils.

The fossils are so tiny — about 2 millimeters in length or the size of a flea — that they are barely visible without a microscope. But despite their miniscule size, researchers said the microplants may have contributed to the evolution of the land plants that appeared nearly 550 million years later.

The green seaweed, a form of algae known as Proterocladus antiquus, was unearthed by post-doctoral researcher Qing Tang. Tang found the fossils in a rock near the city of Dailan in northern China using maps which show researchers where in the world they can find millions to billions-year-old rocks.

Once the rocks were found, they were shipped back to Virginia Tech’s paleontological lab where each one was analyzed under a microscope. To Tang’s surprise, what appeared as just “little brownish grey freckles on mudstone rocks” turned out to be the oldest multicellular green seaweed ever discovered.

“I was very excited when I found the first specimen of the seaweed fossil,” Tang told CNN. “I immediately showed it to my supervisor, Professor Shuhai Xiao at Virginia Tech, and we both agreed that this is something really important.”

A treasure worth celebrating

Shuhai Xiao, a paleobiologist and one of the researchers who led the study, told CNN the discovery deserved a celebration.

“This is a huge discovery,” Xiao said. “Algae like this makes oxygen which is a critical element in the atmosphere that allows us and animals to survive. They are also important plants to maintain the habitability of our planet.”

The seaweeds were green when they were alive, but were buried so deep and at such high temperatures for nearly 1 billion years they lost their color, according to Tang. When the seaweeds died, they were “cooked” beneath sediment and their organic remains imprinted on rock found on dry land that once was the ocean

An artist's reconstruction of the seafloor a billion years ago.

An artist’s reconstruction of the seafloor a billion years ago.

“These new fossils suggest that green seaweeds were important players in the ocean long before their land plant descendants moved and took control of dry land,” Xiao said in the news release. “The entire biosphere is largely dependent on plants and algae for food and oxygen, yet land plants did not evolve until about 450 million years ago.”

These fossils are related to the ancestors of the earliest land plants and trees that first developed 450 million years ago.

Although the issue is widely debated amongst scientists, the current hypothesis, according to Xiao, is that land plants such as trees, grass, and bushes, evolved from green seaweeds, an aquatic plant.

Throughout millions of years, the plants moved out of the water and adapted to dry land.

Without these photosynthetic plants, Earth would face an ecological imbalance if it weren’t for their ability to produce organic carbon and oxygen, as well as provide food and shelter for animals.

So, next time you eat, ponder for a moment the tiny seaweed that may have made it all possible, hundreds of millions of years ago.

#AceHistoryDesk report ………….Published: Feb.26: 2020:

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Snippets of History: Slavery Advertisements Published February 26, 1770 #AceHistoryDesk report

The Slavery Adverts 250 Project chronicles the role of newspaper advertising in perpetuating slavery in the era of the American Revolution. The project seeks to reveal the ubiquity of slavery in eighteenth-century life from New England to Georgia by republishing advertisements for slaves – for sale, wanted to purchase, runaways, captured fugitives – in daily digests on this site as well as in real time via the @SlaveAdverts250 Twitter feed, utilizing twenty-first-century media to stand in for the print media of the eighteenth century.

https://adverts250project.org/2020/02/26/slavery-advertisements-published-february-26-1770/

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FEATURED: (ROME) A sarcophagus discovered in the remains of an ancient temple is causing a stir among historians who cannot agree if it belongs to the Italian city’s legendary founder, Romulus: The stone tomb, along with circular altar, dates from the 6th Century BC. #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – Feb.21: According to legend, Romulus founded the city on Palatine Hill in 753 BC after killing his twin brother Remus: But experts are divided over whether the empty tomb can be linked to Romulus – or if the brothers even existed………….The discovery was unveiled by Italian archaeologists at the Roman Forum on Friday………Historians said that while the find in the heart of the city was significant, it represented a symbolic rather than a real grave.

Romulus mystery: Experts divided on ‘tomb of Rome’s founding father’ BBC History News

An ancient tomb linked to Rome's founder Romulus, 21 February 2020Getty ImagesAn ancient tomb that has been linked to Rome’s legendary founder, Romulus

They argue that even if Romulus had existed, there would be no body in the tomb because – depending on your sources – he was either raised to heaven as the Roman god Quirinius, or was torn to pieces by senators envious of his power: “This is not the tomb of Romulus, but is a place of memory where the cult of Romulus was celebrated, a cenotaph,” Alfonsina Russo, director of Rome’s Colosseum Archaeological Park, said.

Archaeologist Patrizia Fortini said that while it was wise to exercise caution, the idea that the tomb may be linked to Romulus was “a suggestion based on ancient sources” “[Stories] speak of the presence of the tomb of Romulus in this area of the Roman Forum,” she told AFP news agency.

Fabled characters Romulus and Remus were said to have been the twin sons of the god Mars and priestess Rhea Silvia: According to myth, the brothers were nursed by a she-wolf: Romulus is said to have set out an area around Palatine Hill to mark the city’s boundary: One element of the Romulus and Remus story has Remus defying his brother by leaping over the settlement’s boundary walls – an act that cost him his life. “All myths and legends have an element of truth,” Ms Russo added. “I am convinced that there was a founding hero.”……….The newly discovered temple will now be the subject of a thorough archaeological investigation, and is expected to open to the public in two years:

p06hzwtb.jpg

‘Recipe’ for creating mummies in ancient Egypt revealed
#AceHistoryDesk report ……………..Published: Feb.21: 2020:

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FEATURED REPORT: Skeleton found in Shanidar Cave of a Neanderthal from around 700,000 years ago has its own intriguing story to tell after its first discovery 20yrs-ago according to a new study published on Tuesday #AceHistoryDesk report

Around 70,000 years ago, a Neanderthal was laid to rest in Shanidar Cave” Excavations in recent years have slowly revealed its entire upper body, including a lower back, the clenched bones of a right hand and the left hand almost acting as a pillow beneath the skull:

Skeleton found in cave could reveal Neanderthal death rites CNN

It’s the first discovery of its kind in 20 years, according to a new study published Tuesday. And the cave where the Neanderthal skeleton was found has its own intriguing story to tell. Researchers found the <a href="http://www.cnn.com/2016/10/28/health/fossil-brain-cambridge-trnd/index.html">first preserved dinosaur brain</a> in history in 2016. They believe it was preserved due to the dinosaur dying in a swamp-like environment which mixed low levels of oxygen -- known to slow decay -- and acidity which can preserve soft tissue for long periods. It is 130 million years old.Researchers found the in history in 2016. They believe it was preserved due to the dinosaur dying in a swamp-like environment which mixed low levels of oxygen — known to slow decay — and acidity which can preserve soft tissue for long periods. It is 130 million years old.

The remains of 48 people who were buried in a 14th century Black Death mass grave were found in England's Lincolnshire countryside.The remains of 48 people who were buried in a 14th century Black Death mass grave were found in England’s Lincolnshire countryside.

The articulated remains of a Neanderthal have been found in Shanidar Cave, representing the first discovery of its kind in 20 years.The articulated remains of a Neanderthal have been found in Shanidar Cave, representing the first discovery of its kind in 20 years.

A rare disease that still affects humans today has been found in the fossilized vertabra of a duck-billed dinosaur that roamed the Earth at least 66 million years ago.A rare disease that still affects humans today has been found in the fossilized vertabra of a duck-billed dinosaur that roamed the Earth at least 66 million years ago.

Venezuelan Palaeontologist Rodolfo Sánchez is shown next to a male carapace of the giant turtle Stupendemys geographicus, for scale.

Shanidar Cave in Iraqi Kurdistan is where archaeologist Ralph Solecki found the remains of 10 Neanderthal men, women and children in the 1950s. An advocate for humanizing our Neanderthal ancestors, Solecki suggestedat the time that the grouped remains were found with ancient pollen clumps because Neanderthals buried their dead and included flowers as part of their funeral rites.

All modern humans have Neanderthal DNA, new research finds

He and his colleagues removed some of the skeletons in a block and transported them to the Baghdad Museum on the roof of a taxi in 1960. Solecki’s studies of the Neanderthals excavated from the block were controversial and eye-opening, because he believed that they were capable of sophisticated rituals and behavior — a contrast to the ignorant, brutish way they had previously been depicted.

Shanidar cave.

Unfortunately, Solecki died at age 101 last year, unable to revisit the famous site due to various complications. But another excavation, initially delayed by ISIS activity in 2014, got underway in 2015.

The discovery of the new Neanderthal remains happened between 2016 and 2019, when the research team was looking to date sediments, according to Graeme Barker, study co-author from Cambridge University’s McDonald Institute of Archaeology.

A study including details about the Neanderthal, referred to as Shanidar Z, published Tuesday in the journal Antiquity.
Neanderthals combed beaches and went diving for shells to use as tools, study says

“So much research on how Neanderthals treated their dead has to involve returning to finds from 60 or even a 100 years ago, when archaeological techniques were more limited — and that only ever gets you so far,” said EmmaPomeroy, lead study author at the University of Cambridge’s Department of Archaeology.

“To have primary evidence of such quality from this famous Neanderthal site will allow us to use modern technologies to explore everything from ancient DNA to long-held questions about Neanderthal ways of death, and whether they were similar to our own.”

The Neanderthal's ribs were the first part to be discovered. The Neanderthal’s ribs were the first part to be discovered.

Other ongoing research can help determine the gender, but for now, the researchers believe it was a middle-aged adult, possibly older, based on his or her teeth.

Inbreeding may have helped cause Neanderthals to go extinct, study says

Shanidar Z’s location in the cave, when regarded along with four of the other Neanderthals found in close juxtaposition, create a “unique assemblage” that caused the researchers to wonder if they routinely returned to this location to bury their dead.

A rather large triangular rock was also found prominently placed near the skull of Shanidar Z, likely as a grave marker.

A labeled view of the Neanderthal remains. A labeled view of the Neanderthal remains.

“The new excavation suggests that some of these bodies were laid in a channel created in the cave floor by water, which had then been intentionally dug to make it deeper,” Barker said. “There is strong early evidence that Shanidar Z was deliberately buried.”

Researchers are really just getting to know Shanidar Z. CT scans revealed that the petrous bone is intact at the base of the skull, which could contain ancient DNA and tell them more about the Neanderthals that once lived in this region.

Neanderthal-like human relatives had hands similar to modern humans, study says

Plant material was also found over the rib fragments, and an analysis of it is currently underway. They are also studying the Neanderthal remains to determine the individual’s diet, health and potential genetic relationship to the other remains.

The researchers believe that Shanidar Z was placed on their back, head rotated to the left side and resting on its hand, with the head and shoulders raised. The lower half of the skeleton is missing, but researchers haven’t ruled out that it could be elsewhere in the cave.

“In recent years we have seen increasing evidence that Neanderthals were more sophisticated than previously thought, from cave markings to use of decorative shells and raptor talons,” Pomeroy said.

“If Neanderthals were using Shanidar cave as a site of memory for the repeated ritual interment of their dead, it would suggest cultural complexity of a high order.”

#AceHistoryDesk report …………….Published: Read and View More Images Here: https://t.me/acenewsdaily/212068 – Ace Daily News, [Feb 21, 2020 at 10:45] Skeleton found in cave could reveal Neanderthal death ritesVenezuelan Palaeontologist Rodolfo Sánchez is shown next to a male carapace of the giant turtle Stupendemys geographicus, for scale OR via Ace Worldwide News Group https://ift.tt/37MxM2s

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FEATURED: The 4th Spy at Los Alamos – part 1 / Cindy Bruchmann book review // Pacific Paratrooper

Last fall, a pair of historians revealed that yet another Soviet spy, code named Godsend, had infiltrated the Los Alamos laboratory where the world’s first atom bomb was built. But they were unable to discern the secrets he gave Moscow or the nature of his work.

However, the lab recently declassified and released documents detailing the spy’s highly specialized employment and likely atomic thefts, potentially recasting a mundane espionage case as one of history’s most damaging.

It turns out that the spy, whose real name was Oscar Seborer, had an intimate understanding of the bomb’s inner workings. His knowledge most likely surpassed that of the three previously known Soviet spies at Los Alamos, and played a crucial role in Moscow’s ability to quickly replicate the complex device. In 1949, the Soviets detonated a knockoff, abruptly ending Washington’s monopoly on nuclear weapons.

Stuart Seborer

The documents from Los Alamos show that Mr. Seborer helped devise the bomb’s explosive trigger — in particular, the firing circuits for its detonators. The successful development of the daunting technology let Los Alamos significantly reduce the amount of costly fuel needed for atomic bombs and began a long trend of weapon miniaturization. The technology dominated the nuclear age, especially the design of small, lightweight missile warheads of enormous power.

Mr. Seborer’s inner knowledge stands in contrast to the known espionage. The first Los Alamos spy gave the Soviets a bomb overview. So did the second and third.

Mr. Klehr, an emeritus professor of politics and history at Emory University, said the new information cast light on a furtive boast about the crime. Last fall, in the scholarly paper, the two historians noted that Mr. Seborer fled the United States in 1951 and defected to the Soviet bloc with his older brother Stuart, his brother’s wife and his mother-in-law.

Ship manifest

The paper also noted that an F.B.I. informant learned that a communist acquaintance of the Seborers eventually visited them. The family lived in Moscow and had assumed the surname Smith. The visitor reported back that Oscar and Stuart had said they would be executed for “what they did” if the brothers ever returned to the United States.

Last fall, the historians described the Seborers as a Jewish family from Poland that, in New York, became “part of a network of people connected to Soviet intelligence.” Both Oscar and Stuart attended City College, “a hotbed of communist activism,” the historians wrote.

Ethel and Julius Rosenberg

Stuart took a math class there in 1934 with Julius Rosenberg, they reported. In a notorious Cold War spy case, Mr. Rosenberg and his wife, Ethel, were convicted of giving the Soviets atomic secrets. In 1953 they were executed at Sing Sing Prison in Ossining, N.Y., orphaning their two sons, ages 6 and 10.

The scholarly paper, written with John Earl Haynes, a former historian at the Library of Congress, appeared in the September issue of Studies in Intelligence. The journal, a C.I.A. quarterly, is published for the nation’s intelligence agencies as well as academic and independent scholars.

The Times’s article ran on Nov. 23, a Saturday. Four days later, a reporter sent the scholarly paper to Los Alamos and asked if the lab’s archive had any photos of Mr. Seborer or relevant documents.

Two weeks later, on Dec. 10, the lab emailed 10 pages of newly declassified documents from 1956. The material consists mainly of a correspondence between a top security official at Los Alamos and the lab’s branch of the Atomic Energy Commission, a federal agency that oversaw the weapons development site. The letters discussed an F.B.I. investigation of Mr. Seborer’s espionage but gave no specifics on what he may have delivered to Moscow. Instead, the exchange dwelled on the secrets available to him.

The documents include pages from a 1945 Los Alamos telephone directory as a way of confirming the suspect’s lab employment.

All three previously known Los Alamos spies told the Soviets of a secret bomb-detonation method known as implosion. The technique produced a bomb far more sophisticated than the crude one dropped on Hiroshima on Aug. 6, 1945. A prototype of the implosion device was tested successfully in the New Mexican desert in July 1945, and a bomb of similar design was dropped on Nagasaki weeks later, on Aug. 9. Four years later, the Soviets successfully tested an implosion device.

The early bombs relied on two kinds of metallic fuel, uranium and plutonium. The bomb that was dropped on Hiroshima worked by firing one cylinder of uranium fuel into a second one, to form a critical mass. Atoms then split apart in furious chain reactions, releasing huge bursts of energy.

In contrast, the implosion bomb started with a ball of plutonium surrounded by a large sphere of conventional explosives. By design, their detonation produced waves of pressure that were highly focused and concentrated. The waves crushed inward with such gargantuan force that the dense ball of plutonium metal was compressed into a much denser state, triggering the atomic blast.

To be continued………..

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Book Review – “Inside The Gold Plated Pistol” by: Cindy Bruchmann

I am not adept at doing book reviews and I rarely do one for a fiction piece, but our fellow blogger and U.S. Navy Veteran, Cindy Bruchmann, has created a very unique volume.

Inside the Gold Plated Pistol, Cynthia Bruchmann

As characters are being introduced, you are following the plot through the eyes of that person. With each view, the story-line progresses. Early on you will discover what is Inside the Gold Plated Pistol, but you will need to continue reading to see what becomes of the people surrounding the mystery.

I enjoyed Cindy’s insistence on researching 1928 and on into the 1930’s era. The Native American relationship with the white man (or woman). Her use of detail only enhances the tale. I was amazed to learn that Hershey’s Kisses were around that long ago, what the movie industry was like or that Bob’s Big Boy diners started back then – who knew?

I don’t think I should continue any further, lest I give huge spoilers away – and that is not my intent. But I do hope I piqued your interest!!

Check it out!!

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Military spy Humor –

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Farewell Salutes –

John T. Avella – brn: Solopaca, ITA/Tom’s River, NJ; US Army, WWII, ETO, 405th Infantry, Bronze Star

George Correia Sr. – Tiverton, RI; US Navy, WWII

Verne Hinkle – Jackson, MI; US Army, WWII, infantry

Andrew Klein – Forest Grove, OR; US Navy, WWII, PTO, Lt. JG, USS Sanborn, navigator

Ruth McVaden (100) – MS; US Army WAC, WWII, ETO, Specialist, nurse

John J. Murphy – Chicago, IL; US Air Force, Vietnam, jet engine mechanic

Ryan S. Phaneuf – Hudson, NH; US Air Force, Afghanistan, Captain, 37th Bomb Squadron, KIA (E-11 crash)

Charles Ruggles – Tucson, AZ; US Army Air Corps, WWII,PTO, Co. I/511/11th Airborne Division

Lester Sanders – San Augustine, TX; US Army, WWII, ETO, Bronze Star

Ryan K. Voss – Yigo, Guam; US Air Force Afghanistan, Lt. Col., HQ Air Control Command, KIA (E-11 crash)

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Source: // Pacific Paratrooper

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports are provided at https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all our posts, links can be found at here Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

Featured Report: Further Trial Information // Pacific Paratrooper #AceHistoryDesk report

Tokyo trials, Japanese war criminals

The Allies also established the United Nations War Crimes Commission (the UNWCC) in 1943. The UNWCC collected evidence on Axis war crimes and drew up lists of suspected war criminals for Allied prosecution after the war. In 1944, a sub-commission of the UNWCC was established in Chungking to focus on the investigation of Japanese atrocities.

Japanese war crimes’ spectator pass

By the later part of 1945, the Allied Powers had agreed on war crimes trials as a means of pursuing justice. This set the stage for post-WWII trials. A select group of higher-ranking military and political Axis leaders would be jointly tried by the Allies at the Nuremberg Trial (19 November 1945 – 1 October 1946) and the Tokyo Trial (3 May 1945 – 12 November 1945). In addition and separate from the Nuremberg and Tokyo Trials, individual Allied Powers and countries held national trials of Axis defendants in various locations, including Singapore.

Trials Chart (1)

Upon Japan’s surrender, the Allies began organizing war crimes investigations and prosecutions throughout Asia. At the Tokyo Trial, the Allies prosecuted only 28 high-ranking ‘Class A’ suspects from various government and military departments on charges linked to the waging of war and war crimes. Hundreds of lower-ranking ‘Class B’ and ‘Class C’ suspects of diverse ranks were prosecuted at other Allied trials operating across Asia.

It is hard to arrive at the exact number of Allied trials held in Asia, as there continues to be access restrictions to some national trial records. Some latest estimates of the number of war crimes trials held by different national authorities in Asia are as follows: China (605 trials), the US (456 trials), the Netherlands (448 trials), Britain (330 trials), Australia (294 trials), the Philippines (72 trials), and France (39 trials). In 1956, China prosecuted another four cases involving 1062 defendants, out of which 45 were sentenced and the rest acquitted. The Allies conducted these trials before military courts pursuant to national laws of the Allied Power concerned. Altogether 2244 war crimes prosecutions were conducted in Asia. 5700 defendants were prosecuted: 984 defendants were executed; 3419 sentenced to imprisonment; and 1018 acquitted.

Trials in Singapore

The British conducted national war crimes trials (the Singapore Trials) pursuant to a 1945 Royal Warrant adopted by the British executive under royal prerogative powers (1945 Royal Warrant). The British military was given the responsibility of implementing these trials in different locations across Asia and Europe. 330 trials were organized by the British military in Asia. Of these, 131 trials were conducted in Singapore.

From: Trove newspaper archives

As of mid-1946, the British military had established 12 war crimes courts in Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Rangoon, Hong Kong, and Borneo. Eight of 12 courts established were located in Singapore. There were also ‘travelling courts’ that made their way to particular locations to hear a case.

Darwin, Japanese crime trials

Singapore served as the base for the British military’s war crimes investigations and prosecutions in Asia. Investigations were conducted out of Goodwood Park Hotel. Post-war conditions in Singapore posed many challenges to the organizing of these trials. There was a shortage of food, basic necessities, and qualified personnel in post-war Singapore.

Trials conducted in Singapore concerned not only Japanese military atrocities perpetrated in Singapore but those committed in other parts of Asia (see Tials Chart 1 above).

Trial Courtroom Judges

A substantial number of trials addressed the abuse and neglect of POWs and civilian detainees in prisons and camps, such as Changi Prison, Sime Road Prison, Outram Road Gaol, and Selarang Barracks.

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Military Humor –

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Farewell Salutes –

Elbert Ausley – Schaumburg, IL; US Navy, WWII, USS Gambier Bay survivor

From: Cora Metz posters

Donald Campbell – Ponca City, OK; US Army Air Corps

William Duffy Sr. – Shannondell, PA; US Army, WWII, ETO, Lt. Colonel

Raymond M. Giles – Srague, WA; US Army Air Corps, WWII, PTO, P-38 pilot, Lt. Col. (Ret.)

Bertha Holtwick – Boston, MA; US Army WAC, WWII, nurse

Jack Isaacs – USA; US Army Air Corps, WWII, ETO, 194/17th Airborne Division

James Milstead – Chicago, IL; USMC, WWII, CBI

Cyril Newdick – Maketu, NZ; RNZ Air Force # 79638, Sgt.

Emery Sutton – FL; US Navy, WWII, PTO / ETO, USS Wasp

C-130 Hercules crash victims in Australia

Final Mission

Rick A. DeMorgan Jr. – Navarre, FL; US Air Force, Flight Engineer / Firefighter

Paul Clyde Hudson – Buckeye, AZ; USMC, Naval Academy graduate, Lt. Col (Ret. 20 y.) / Firefighter, 1st Officer

Ian H. McBeth – Great Falls, MT; WY & MT National Guard, Lt. Col. / Firefighter, Captain

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Source: // Pacific Paratrooper

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