.The Itza, the Yalain, the Kowoj, and other Maya populations in Petén were engaged in a complex web of alliances and enmities before the conquest. Petén was first penetrated by Hernán Cortés with a sizeable expedition that crossed the territory from north to south in 1525.
In 1622 a military expedition from Yucatán led by Captain Francisco de Mirones was massacred by the Itza.
In 1695 another expedition tried to reach Lake Petén Itzá from Guatemala. Martín de Ursúa y Arizmendi captured Nojpetén, the island capital of the Itza kingdom, in 1697, defeating the last of the independent native kingdoms in the Americas and incorporating them into the Spanish Empire.
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