SNIPPETS OF HISTORY: ‘ Operation Linebacker ll A/KA Christmas Bombings of North Vietnam ‘

#AceHistory2ResearchNews – USA:Dec.18 – On December 14 1972 with Henry Kissinger being unable to find any common ground acceptable to both Vietnamese parties in two renewed rounds of negotiations, Nixon ordered massive B–52 attacks on the North Vietnamese heartland called the “Christmas Bombing.” or operation Linebacker ll

​United States Air Force B-52 bombing crews at Andersen Air Base in Guam being briefed on the U.S.’s final major aerial bombing campaign in North Vietnam, Operation Linebacker II.

Meanwhile he continued to exert intense pressure on Thieu, threatening to cut off U.S. economic, military, and political support of South Vietnam if Thieu refused to accept the agreement.

Negotiations resumed on January 8, 1973, and the United States and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam initialed the agreement on January 23.

Thieu reluctantly accepted the settlement despite his continued misgivings, and the peace agreement was signed on January 27.


SNIPPETS OF HISTORY: ‘ Chattel Slavery is Abolished ‘

#AceHistory2ResearchNews – USA:Dec.18 – Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of chattel slavery that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries. Slavery had been practiced in British North America from early colonial days, and was recognized in the Thirteen Colonies at the time of the Declaration of Independence in 1776.

When the United States was founded, even though some free persons of color were present, the status of slave was largely coincident with being of African descent, creating a system and legacy in which race played an influential role. After the Revolutionary War, abolitionist laws and sentiment gradually spread in the Northern states, while the rapid expansion of the cotton industry from 1800 led to the Southern states strongly identifying with slavery, and attempting to extend it into the new Western territories. The United States was polarized by slavery into slave and free states along the Mason-Dixon Line, which separated Maryland (slave) and Pennsylvania (free).

Although the international slave trade was prohibited from 1808, internal slave-trading continued, and the slave population would eventually peak at four million before abolition.[1][2]

As the West opened up, the Southern states believed they needed to keep a balance between the numbers of slave and free states, in order to maintain a balance of power in Congress. The new territories acquired from Britain, France, and Mexico were the subject of major political compromises. By 1850, the newly rich cotton-growing South was threatening to secede from the Union, and tensions continued to rise. With church ministers under pressure to preach slavery doctrine conforming to the local politics, the Baptist and Methodist churches split into regional organizations. When Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 election on a platform of no new slave states, the South finally broke away to form the Confederacy. This marked the start of the Civil War, which caused a huge disruption of the slave economy, with many slaves either escaping or being liberated by the Union armies.

The war effectively ended slavery, before the Thirteenth Amendment (December 1865) formally outlawed the institution throughout the United States.


SNIPPETS OF HISTORY: ‘ Mayflower Transported Pilgrims to the New World ‘

#AceHistory2ResearchNews – Dec.18 – The Mayflower was the ship that transported mostly English Puritans and Separatists, collectively known today as the Pilgrims, from Plymouth England to the New World. There were 102 passengers and the crew is estimated to be approximately 30 but the exact number is unknown.

​This voyage has become an iconic story in some of the earliest annals of American history, with its story of death and of survival in the harsh New World winter environment.

The culmination of the voyage in the signing of the Mayflower Compact is an event which established a rudimentary form of democracy, with each member contributing to the welfare of the community.