SNIPPETS of AMERICAN HISTORY: ‘ First Geneva Convention Defining Basis on Which Rests Rules of International Law for Protection of Victims of Armed Conflicts ‘

#AceHistory2ResearchNews – August 23 – In 1789 the people of France brought about the abolishment of the absolute monarchy and set the stage for the establishment of the first French Republic. Just six weeks after the storming of the Bastille, and barely three weeks after the abolition of feudalism, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (French: La Déclaration des Droits de l’Homme et du Citoyen) was adopted by the National Constituent Assembly as the first step toward writing a constitution for the Republic of France.


The Declaration proclaims that all citizens are to be guaranteed the rights of “liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.” It argues that the need for law derives from the fact that “…the exercise of the natural rights of each man has only those borders which assure other members of the society the enjoyment of these same rights.” Thus, the Declaration sees law as an “expression of the general will,“ intended to promote this equality of rights and to forbid “only actions harmful to the society.”


The First Geneva Convention, for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field, is one of four treaties of the Geneva Conventions. It defines "the basis on which rest the rules of international law for the protection of the victims of armed conflicts." The Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field was adopted in 1864.

It was significantly revised and replaced by the 1906 version, the 1929 version, and later the First Geneva Convention of 1949. It is inextricably linked to the International Committee of the Red Cross, which is both the instigator for the inception and enforcer of the articles in these conventions.

Successive Conventions and Treaties:

The First Geneva Convention was a precursor to successive acts of legislation related to humanitarian law. These included the 1899 treaties, concerning asphyxiating gases and expanding bullets. In 1907, 13 separate treaties were signed, followed in 1925 by the Geneva Gas Protocol, which prohibited the use of poison gas and the practice of bacteriological warfare.

In 1929, two more Geneva Conventions dealt with the treatment of the wounded and prisoners of war. In 1949, four Geneva Conventions extended protections to those shipwrecked at sea and to civilians.

The Hague Convention on the Protection of Cultural Property was signed in 1954, the United Nations Convention on Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Techniques followed in 1977, together with two Additional Protocols to the Geneva Conventions of 1949, extending their protections to civil wars.

There is no one "Geneva Convention." Like any other body of law, the laws of war have been assembled piecemeal, and are, in fact, still under construction.

References:

  1. http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/INTRO/120?OpenDocument
  2. http://www.redcross.lv/en/conventions.htm
  3. http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/INTRO/120?OpenDocument

External Links:

See Also:

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SNIPPETS FROM HISTORY: ‘ Two Headless Sphinxes Emerge From Burial Site ‘

#AceHistory2ResearchNews – EGYPT – August 22 – Two headless sphinxes emerged from a massive burial site in northern Greece as archaeologists began removing large stones from the tomb’s sealing wall Discovery News reported.


​The headless, wingless 4.8-foot-high sphinxes each weigh about 1.5 tons and bear traces of red colouring on their feet.

They would have been 6.5 feet high with their heads, the Greek Culture Ministry said in a statement.

The statues are believed to have been placed there to guard the burial, which is the largest tomb ever uncovered in Greece.

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SNIPPETS FROM HISTORY: ‘ Mayan Temples Discovered in Mexican Jungle ‘

#AceHistory2ResearchNews – MEXICO – August 22 – A monster mouth doorway, ruined pyramid temples and palace remains emerged from the Mexican jungle as archaeologists unearthed two ancient Mayan cities Discover News reported.

​Found in the south-eastern part of the Mexican state of Campeche, in the heart of the Yucatan peninsula, the cities were hidden in thick vegetation and hardly accessible.
"Aerial photographs helped us in locating the sites," expedition leader Ivan Sprajc, of the Research Center of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts (ZRC SAZU), said.

Academy of Sciences and Arts (ZRC SAZU), said.

Photos: Ancient Cities Found in Mexican Jungle

The ancient Mayan city was quite complex, Discovery News noted:

He also found remains of a number of massive palace-like buildings arranged around four major plazas. A ball court and a temple pyramid almost 65 ft high also stood in the city, while 10 stelae (tall sculpted stone shafts) and three altars (low circular stones) featured well-preserved reliefs and hieroglyphic inscriptions.

According to preliminary reading by epigrapher Octavio Esparza Olguin from the National Autonomous University of Mexico, one of the stelae was engraved on November 29, A.D. 711 by a “lord of 4 k’atuns (20-year periods).”

W


​The massive remains as they further explored the area around Chactun, a large Maya city discovered by the Slovenian archaeologist in 2013.

No other site has so far been located in this area, which extends over some 1800 square miles, between the so-called Rio Bec and Chenes regions, both known for their characteristic architectural styles fashioned during the Late and Terminal Classic periods, around 600 – 1000 A.D.

One of the cities featured an extraordinary facade with an entrance representing the open jaws of an earth monster.

The site was actually visited in the 1970s by the American archaeologist Eric Von Euw, who documented the facade and other stone monuments with yet unpublished drawings.

However, the exact location of the city, referred to as Lagunita by Von Euw, remained lost.

All the attempts at relocating it failed.

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SNIPPETS OF HISTORY: ‘ New York Times Sends First Telegram Around the World By Commercial Service on This Day 1911 ‘

#AceHistory2Research – August 20 – On this day in 1911, a dispatcher in the New York Times office sends the first telegram around the world via commercial service.

​Exactly 66 years later, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sends a different kind of message–a phonograph record containing information about Earth for extraterrestrial beings–shooting into space aboard the unmanned spacecraft Voyager II.

​The Times decided to send its 1911 telegram in order to determine how fast a commercial message could be sent around the world by telegraph cable. The message, reading simply "This message sent around the world," left the dispatch room on the 17th floor of the Times building in New York at 7 p.m. on August 20.

After it travelled more than 28,000 miles, being relayed by 16 different operators, through San Francisco, the Philippines, Hong Kong, Saigon, Singapore, Bombay, Malta, Lisbon and the Azores–among other locations–the reply was received by the same operator 16.5 minutes later.

It was the fastest time achieved by a commercial cablegram since the opening of the Pacific cable in 1900 by the Commercial Cable Company.

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“SNIPPETS OF HISTORY: ‘ Rose Schneiderman Leading Union Organiser and Women’s Rights Advocate Dies ‘

#AceHistory2Research – POLAND (Warsaw) – August 11 – Rose Schneiderman Dies.

This Day in Jewish History / Leading union organizer and women’s rights advocate dies
by David B. Green

Rose Schneiderman, born poor in Poland, went on to lead major textile-workers’ strikes in New York, run for the U.S. Senate and serve as an adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Rose Schneiderman (April 6, 1882 – August 11, 1972) was a prominent United States labour unionleader, socialist, and feminist of the first part of the twentieth century. She is credited with coining the phrase "Bread and Roses", later used as the title of a poem and set to music and interpreted by several performers.

Rose Schneiderman was born Rachel Schneiderman on 6 April 1882 (1884 or 1886 in some sources), the first of four children of a religious Jewish family, in the village of Sawin, 14 kilometres (9 miles) north of Chełm in Russian Poland. Her parents, Samuel and Deborah (Rothman) Schneiderman, worked in the sewing trades. Schneiderman first went to Hebrew school, normally reserved for boys, in Sawin, and then to a Russian public school in Chełm. In 1890 the family migrated to New York City’s Lower East Side. Schneiderman’s father died in the winter of 1892, leaving the family in poverty. Her mother worked as a seamstress, trying to keep the family together, but the financial strain forced her to put her children in a Jewish orphanage for some time. Schneiderman left school in 1895 after the sixth grade, although she would have liked to continue her education.[1] She went to work, starting as a cashier in a department store and then in 1898 as a lining stitcher in a cap factory in the Lower East Side. In 1902 she and the rest of her family moved briefly to Montreal, where she developed an interest in both radical politics and trade unionism.

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SNIPPETS OF HISTORY: ‘ Michigan State Highway On Foot, Horse or on Bicycle Until 2005 Only State Highway Without any Auto-Mobile Accidents ‘

#AceHistory2ResearchNews – MICHIGAN – August 09 – M-185 is a state trunk-line highway in the US state of Michigan that circles Mackinac Island, a popular tourist destination.

​A narrow paved road of 8.004 miles (12.881 km), it offers scenic views of the Straits of Mackinac dividing the Upper and the Lower peninsulas of Michigan, Lake Huron, and Lake Michigan.

It has no connection to any other state highways and is accessible only by passenger ferry. M-185 passes several key sites within Mackinac Island State Park, including Fort Mackinac, Arch Rock, British Landing, and Devil’s Kitchen.

Outside of the down-town area, it runs between the water’s edge and woodlands.

​Traffic on is by foot, on horse, by horse-drawn vehicle, or by bicycle; motorized vehicles have been banned since the 1890’s, and only a few vehicles have been permitted on the island other than emergency vehicles. It is the only state highway in the US where cars cannot drive.

The highway was built during the first decade of the 20th century by the state and designated as a state highway in 1933.

It was paved in the 1950’s, and portions were rebuilt to deal with shoreline erosion in the 1980’s.

Until 2005, it was the only state highway without any auto mobile accidents.

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SNIPPETS OF HISTORY: ‘ 23rd Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Kama 2nd Croatian ‘

AceHistory2ResearchNews – August 09 – The 23rd Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Kama (2nd Croatian) was a German mountain infantry division of the Waffen-SS, the armed wing of the German Nazi Party that served alongside but was never formally part of the Wehrmacht during World War II. It was composed of German officers and Bosnian Muslim soldiers.

​Named Kama after a small dagger used by Balkan shepherds, it was one of the thirty-eight divisions fielded by the Waffen-SS during World War II.

Formed on 19 June 1944, it was built around a cadre from the 13th Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Handschar (1st Croatian) but did not reach its full strength and never saw action as a formation. Elements of the division fought briefly against Soviet forces in southern Hungary in early October 1944 alongside the 31st SS Volunteer Grenadier Division.

They were soon disengaged from the front line in Hungary and had begun a move to the German puppet state, the Independent State of Croatia, to join the 13th SS Division when the Bosnian Muslim soldiers of the Kama division mutinied on 17 October 1944.

The cadre quickly regained control, but the mutiny resulted in the division being formally dissolved on 31 October 1944.

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What’s Behind Russia’s Revival of a Soviet-Era Song Contest?

Fantastic post and shared on Ace History News #AHN2014

Global Geopolitics

Russia will revive the Cold War-era Intervision Song Contest this October, according to July 25 reports.

Intervision was first established back in 1977 as a direct rival to the Europe-oriented Eurovision Song Contest. Few people in the participating Soviet nations had private telephones, so Intervision’s television viewers would turn on their house lights if they liked a certain song, or off if they didn’t. The state energy company would then record the size of each power spike, and report the results to the television company to determine points for each contestant. As the Soviet Union began to weaken in the early 1980s, Intervision was discontinued.

Now, Putin is reviving this relic of the Soviet Union’s “glory days,” as he recently has with so many others including a military prep fitness program, the “Hero of Socialist Labor” award, and a grip on domestic media that would earn a hat tip…

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