‘How I Came to Kill Your Brother’: A Confederate Reveals an Irish-American’s Final Moments

Irish in the American Civil War

I have come across many extraordinary stories during my time researching the Irish in the American Civil War. None surpass that of Sergeant Peter Donnelly of Company C, 1st Vermont Heavy Artillery. Almost uniquely, the historical record has combined to provide us with details of this ordinary Irish-American’s death from the perspectives of both friend and foe. I am extremely grateful to Peter Patten for initially alerting me to this remarkable account.* 

A soldier of the 11th Vermont (1st Vermont Heavy Artillery) poses with soldiers from three other regiments (Library of Congress) A soldier of the 11th Vermont (1st Vermont Heavy Artillery) poses with soldiers from three other regiments (Library of Congress)

John Donnelly and his wife Rose emigrated to the United States from the parish of Drumlane, Co. Cavan sometime before the mid-1840s. By the time of the 1850 Census they were living in Castleton, Rutland County, Vermont. John was then a 43-years-old and working as a laborer, his wife Rose was 36. 80-year-old Molly Hoy Donnelly (probably John’s…

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‘ Hundredth Anniversary of the Famous Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Triggering World War 1 and the Mass Slaughter of an Entire Generation of Young Men ‘

#AceHistory2ResearchNews – SERBIA (Sarajevo) June 27 – On 28 June it is the Hundredth Anniversary of the famous political assassination in Sarajevo, Serbia, that was the spark that started World War I, the war that was widely called “the war to end all wars”, because of the unendurable mutual mass slaughter of an entire generation of young European men (on all sides of the war).


​(Archduke and Wife Leaving City Hall Prior to his Assassination)

On June 28, 1914, the heir to the throne of the Austria-Hungarian Empire, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, one of the wealthiest men in Austria, was murdered in Sarajevo.

The Victim

Besides his excess luxury wealth and his over-privileged position in life, there were lots of traits to despise. As an over-privileged Hapsburg family member, he joined the military at an early age and, what was typical for his elevated status in life, he was frequently and rapidly promoted in rank. He was given the rank of lieutenant at age fourteen, captain at twenty-two, colonel at twenty-seven and major general at age thirty-one.

The Archduke had no significant experience as a commanding officer in wartime. Europe had been in a prosperous peacetime economy for generations. A year before his assassination, Franz Ferdinand had been appointed Inspector General of the empire’s armed forces, and he was in Sarajevo discharging his duties while the empire’s occupying army was on manoeuvres

Archduke Franz Ferdinand with his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg and their three children (from left), Prince Ernst von Hohenberg, Princess Sophie, and Maximilian, Duke of Hohenburg in 1910.


​The Archduke was also a compulsive trophy hunter.

Today many would call him a “slob” hunter. In his own diaries, he documented over 300,000 game kills over his lifetime, 5000 of which were deer (100,000 of his hunting trophies were on exhibit at one of his castles).

For every oppressed Serb, the autocratic Archduke and his empire were just the latest cruel colonial powers that were occupying Serbia, oppressing and taxing the Slavic people and denying freedom for those unfortunate indigenous folks who had lived, toiling and suffering there for centuries.

Contributions from Global Research.

 

World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, was a global war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. From the time of its occurrence until the approach of World War II, it was called simply the World War or the Great War, and thereafter the First World War or World War I.

In America, it was initially called the European War. More than 9 million combatants were killed; a casualty rate exacerbated by the belligerents’ technological and industrial sophistication, and tactical stalemate. It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, paving the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved.

The war drew in all the world’s economic great powers, which were assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies (based on the Triple Entente of the United Kingdom, France and the Russian Empire) and the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary.


​Although Italy had also been a member of the Triple Alliance alongside Germany and Austria-Hungary, it did not join the Central Powers, as Austria-Hungary had taken the offensive against the terms of the alliance.


​These alliances were both reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war: Italy, Japan and the United States joined the Allies, and the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria the Central Powers.


​Ultimately, more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history.

#AH2RN2014

#archduke, #archduke-franz-ferdinand-of-austria, #austria-hungary, #franz-ferdinand, #russian-empire, #sarajevo, #serbia, #world-war-i

‘ In Honour of the Patriots of the Great Patriotic War 1941 – 1945 Youth Action Toy Boats of Dream Commemorate Their Actions ‘

#AceHistory2ResearchNews – SEVASTOPOL – June 22 – A traditional youth action called the Toy Boats of Dream took place in the federal city of Sevastopol at four o’clock in the morning on Sunday.

​(Toy Boats of Dream Full Size Models of Course No Pictures of the Event)

Thousands of young people came to the city’s Grafskaya Pristan (count’s moorage) to put down paper-made toy boats into the Black Sea in memory of the first victims of the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945).

​(Toy Boats of Dream Full Size Models of Course No Pictures of the Event )

By tradition, they wrote their sacred wishes on their boats.

The idea to hold the action was born six years ago.

It was inspired by an episode from a play by local playwright Aksinya Normanskaya titled “I am waiting for you at Grafskaya” in which school-leavers of Sevastopol schools come to the seaside to meet dawn and at that time the first bombs started falling on them.

About a thousand young people gathered on Grafskaya moorage in the early hours of morning on Sunday. This year’s school-leavers were the first to put down their toy boats. They went down to the sea on a road lined with lit candles.

“I wrote one wish on my toy boat – peace. The current events in Eastern Ukraine are repeating what happened here (during the war). I am praying that my relatives are not affected,” student Yekaterina Podbello said.

Several young people had laid down flowers to the monuments of the first WWII victims prior to coming to Grafskaya moorage. It was built at a place where the first German mines burst on the night to June 22, 1941. Eighteen people were killed and 136 were injured.


​An official rally to commemorate the start of the Great Patriotic War that broke out on June 22, 1941 will be held outside the monument later in the day.


​A memorial chapel in memory of the residents of Sevastopol who died during WWII will be unveiled at Victory Park.


Great Patriotic War of 1941 – 1945

The initial phase of the Russian campaign, following Germany’s massive surprise attack on 22 June 1941, was extremely successful for the aggressor and catastrophic for the Soviets. The size of the invading army had no precedent in history: over 5.3 million men, over 4,000 tanks, 4,500 aircraft, and over 47,000 pieces of ordnance, attacking along an 1,800-mile-long front.
war5.jpg In the first five months of the invasion German armored units drove deep into Soviet territory, advancing to some 750 miles at some points past the Russian front. They reached the outskirts of Moscow, captured most of the Ukraine and the Crimean Peninsula in the south, and encircled Leningrad in the north, imposing a blockade on Russia’s second largest city.

The Red Army suffered losses unparalleled in military history: by 1 December 1941 it had lost 7 million (dead, missing, or taken prisoner), about 22,000 tanks, and nearly 25,000 military aircraft. In practice, nothing remained of the Red Army units formed prior to the German invasion.

The catastrophic defeats and losses of the initial stage of the war were clearly the result of the fundamental miscalculation of the Stalinist leadership that had chosen to ally the Soviet Union with the Nazi regime.


​The collusion with Hitler had deprived Russia of the critical buffer of Poland, allowing Germany to amass troops along the Soviet border and launch the surprise attack.


​In addition, the Soviet troops, deployed in the recently annexed eastern provinces of Poland, did not have enough time to set up powerful defensive positions.

#AH2RN2014

‘ China Declares WWII Japanese Military Brothel Protected Historic Site ‘

#AceHistory2ResearchNews – CHINA – June 20 – China has declared a WWII Japanese military brothel protected historic site amid modern-day tensions between the two states, AFP reported.


​(Comfort Station in World War II)

The seven-building complex in the eastern city of Nanjing housed more than 200 “comfort women” forced to have sex with Japanese soldiers during World War II.

​(It was the largest such facility in Asia, according to Xinhua)

The designation comes as China seeks to increase attention on Japanese imperial aggression during the early 20th century, while at the same time acting more assertively over disputed islands in the East China Sea controlled by Tokyo.

(Inquirer) – Relations between the two Asian giants soured in 2012 when Tokyo nationalised a few of the long-disputed islands, known as Diaoyu in China and Senkaku in Japan.


​(Dispute over Islands Continues)

Japan invaded China in the 1930’s and the two countries fought a full-scale war from 1937 until Tokyo’s defeat in World War II in 1945.


​(Credit DDCS)

The Second Sino-Japanese War (July 7, 1937 – September 9, 1945), called so after the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894–95, was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from 1937 to 1941. China fought Japan, with some economic help from Germany (see Sino-German cooperation), the Soviet Union (see Soviet Volunteer Group) and the United States (see American Volunteer Group). After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, the war merged into the greater conflict of World War II as a major front of what is broadly known as the Pacific War.


​(Massacre and Rape of Nanjing)

In February this year Beijing approved national remembrance days to commemorate Japan’s defeat and the "Rape of Nanjing" — six weeks starting in December 1937 in which Japanese soldiers rampaged across the city.

The Nanking Massacre, also known as the Rape of Nanking, was an episode of mass murder andmass rape committed by Japanese troops against Nanking (current official spelling: Nanjing) during the Second Sino-Japanese War. The massacre occurred during a six-week period starting December 13, 1937, the day that the Japanese captured Nanking, which was then the Chinese capital

Chinese estimates of the dead run as high as 300,000, although some respected foreign academics put the number significantly lower.

In February Nanjing applied to UNESCO to include documents relating to the event in its Memory of the World Register.


​(Photograph of Nanjing Massacre)

The documents are first-hand materials that recorded the massacre, and are of historical importance, said Zhu Chengshan, curator of the memorial hall of the victims, on Wednesday.

Preparation work began in 2009, and the application process started in March this year, when the State Archives Administration handed the documents to the Memory of the World secretariat, according to Zhu, who initiated the application.

The documents, which include diaries, films, photographs and testimonies, depict the brutality of Japanese invaders in the massacre, Zhu told Xinhua.

"These documents truthfully record the atrocities," Zhu said. (XINHUA)

#AH2RN2014

‘ Zaian War Fought Between France and Berber Tribes 1914 – 1921 in Morocco ‘

#AceHistory2ResearchNews – MOROCCO – June 15 – The Zaian War was fought between France and the Zaian confederation of Berber tribes in Morocco between 1914 and 1921.

Morocco had become a French protectorate in 1912, and Resident-General Hubert Lyautey (pictured) sought to extend French influence through the Middle Atlas mountains towards French Algeria.

​The war began well for the French, but they incurred heavy losses, including over 600 troops killed at the Battle of El Herri.

The French retained most of their territory during the First World War, despite the withdrawal of some troops for service at home and continuing raids by the Zaians, who were supported by the Central Powers.

​After the signing of the Armistice with Germany in November 1918, significant forces of tribesmen remained opposed to French rule.

The French resumed their offensive in the Khénifra area in 1920, and entered negotiations with the Zaians.

A split between those who supported submission and those still opposed led to infighting, and the French responded with a strong, three-pronged attack into the Middle Atlas that pacified the area.

Some tribesmen fled to the High Atlas and continued a guerrilla war against the French well into the 1930’s.

Contributions from Wiki-Media

#AH2RN2014

‘ Mettaspriggina a Tiny Fish Unlocks Earth’s Vertebrate’s Secrets ‘

#AceHistory2ResearchNews – June 12 – (Reuters) – This is certainly not just another fish tale. A tiny jawless fish that lived more than half a billion years ago is providing scientists with a treasure trove of information about the very dawn of vertebrate life on Earth.

​1 OF 2. Metasprigina fossil from Marble Canyon, which lived about 514 to 505 million years ago during the Cambrian period is shown in this handout image.
CREDIT: REUTERS/JEAN-BERNARD CARON/ROM/HANDOUT VIA REUTERS

Researchers on Wednesday described about 100 fossil specimens of the fish unearthed at the Burgess Shale site in the Canadian Rockies and other locales, many exquisitely preserved showing the primitive body structures that would later evolve into jaws.


​2 OF 2. An artist illustration of Metaspriggina, which lived about 514 to 505 million years ago during the Cambrian period is shown in this handout image. CREDIT: REUTERS/MARIANNE COLLINS/CONWAY MORRIS AND CARON/HANDOUT VIA REUTERS

The fish, Metaspriggina, lived about 515 to 500 million years ago amid the astonishing flourishing of complex life during the Cambrian Period. While two fragmentary specimens had been found previously, the new ones revealed unprecedented detail about one of the earliest known vertebrates.

Creatures like Metaspriggina began the lineage of vertebrates – animals with backbones – that later would include the whole range of jawed fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals including people.

"It allows an understanding of where we come from and what our most distant relatives might have looked like," said Jean-Bernard Caron, a paleontologist at the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto. "Because of its great age – more than half a billion year old – Metaspriggina provides a deep down view at the origins of the vertebrates."

Read More: Reuters (History News)

The study was published in the journal Nature.

(Reporting by Will Dunham; Editing by Tom Brown)

#AH2RN2014

George Jonas: Uncle Black Sheep feeds the dog

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Mark Sakamoto: Remembering my grandmother’s 1943 interment among chicken coops and horse manure

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‘ Singora Precursor to Present Day Town of Songkhla ‘

#AceHistory2ResearchNews – THAILAND – June 07 – The Sultanate of Singora was a short-lived port city in southern Thailand and precursor of the present-day town of Songkhla.

The city was founded in the early 1600’s by Dato Mogol, a Persian Muslim who recognized Siamese suzerainty.

From its inception, it was designated a duty-free port and vied with the neighbouring Sultanate of Pattani for trade.

An important trading centre for tin, lead and pepper, Singora flourished during the reign of Doto Mogol’s son, Sultan Sulaiman Shah, but was destroyed by Siamese troops in 1680 after decades of conflict.

Remains of the city include fourteen forts (example pictured), city walls and the tomb of Sultan Sulaiman Shah.

A cannon from Singora bearing the seal of Sultan Sulaiman Shah was captured by Siamese forces.

It was seized in the 18th century by Burmese troops and in the 19th century by the British, and is now displayed in the grounds of the Royal Hospital Chelsea, London.

The sultanate’s history was documented in accounts, letters and journals written by British and Dutch East India Company traders; its destruction was discussed in books and reports authored by representatives of the French embassies to Siam in the mid-
1680’s.

Courtesy of Wikipedia and Wikimedia

#AH2RN2014

The forecast for northwest France on June 6, 1944 stands as history’s most important weather forecast. Conditions at Omaha Beach and the other landing zones within about 50 miles of Normandy, France had to be just right so as to allow troops to parachute to their landing zones, as well as maneuver their way onshore via amphibious vehicles.

This D-Day Weather Map is the Most Important in History: http://mashable.com/2014/06/06/most-important-weather-map-in-history/

via DuckDuckGo for iOS

Sent from my iPad