Snapshot of History: “Banana Wars” and the Preservation of American Interests in the Area

English: US Marines with the captured flag of ...

English: US Marines with the captured flag of Augusto César Sandino in Nicaragua in 1932. 中文: 1932年,美國海軍陸戰隊在尼加拉瓜桑地諾與捕獲奧古斯托塞薩爾的旗幟合照。 Русский: Американские военные в Никарагуа позируют с трофейным флагом партизан сандинистов во время Банановых войн. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

#AceHistoryNews says The Banana Wars were a series of occupations, police actions, and interventions involving the United States in Central America and the Caribbean between the Spanish–American War (1898) and the inception of the Good Neighbour Policy (1934). These military interventions were most often carried out by the United States Marine Corps. The Marines were involved so often that they developed a manual, The Strategy and Tactics of Small Wars, in 1921. On occasion, the Navy provided gunfire support and Army troops were also used.

With the Treaty of Paris, Spain ceded control of CubaPuerto Rico, and the Philippines to the United States. Thereafter, the United States conducted military interventions in PanamaHondurasNicaraguaMexicoHaiti, and the Dominican Republic. The series of conflicts only ended with the withdrawal of troops from Haiti under President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Reasons for these conflicts were varied but largely economic. The conflicts were called “Banana Wars”, a term that arose from the connections between these interventions and the preservation of American commercial interests in the region.

Most prominently, the United Fruit Company had significant financial stakes in production of bananastobaccosugar cane, and various other products throughout the Caribbean, Central America and Northern South America. The U.S. was also advancing its political interests, maintaining a sphere of influence and controlling the Panama Canal which it had recently built, critically important to global trade and naval power.



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“Baptism to Christenings”


Baptism of Christ. Jesus is baptized in the Jo...

Baptism of Christ. Jesus is baptized in the Jordan River by John. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

#AceHistoryNews says “Baptism” goes back to the time of Christ being immersed into water, when John the Baptist was in charge of the ceremony. Though the word and meaning of to be baptised goes back even further and the word Baptism comes (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptismasee below) is a Christian rite of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into theChristian Church generally and also a particular church tradition. The canonical Gospels report that Jesus was Baptised a historical event to which a high degree of certainty can be assigned. Baptism has been called a sacrament and an ordinance of Jesus Christ. In some traditions, baptism is also called christening, but for others the word “Christening” is reserved for the baptism of infants.

The usual form of baptism among the earliest Christians was for the candidate to be immersed, either totally (submerged completely under the water) or partly (standing or kneeling in water while water was poured on him or her). While John the Baptist‘s use of a deep river for his baptism suggests immersion, pictorial and archaeological evidence of Christian baptism from the 3rd century onward indicates that a normal form was to have the candidate stand in water while water was poured over the upper body. Other common forms of baptism now in use include pouring water three times on the forehead; a method called affusion.

Baptism_-_Saint_CalixteMartyrdom was identified early in Church history as “baptism by blood”, enabling martyrs who had not been “Baptised” by water to be saved. Later, the Catholic Church identified a baptism of desire, by which those preparing for baptism who die before actually receiving the sacrament are considered saved.As evidenced also in the common Christian practice of infant baptism, baptism was universally seen by Christians as in some sense necessary for salvation, until Huldrych Zwingli in the 16th century denied its necessity.

Today, some Christians, particularly Christian ScientistsQuakers, the Salvation Army, and Unitarians, do not see baptism as necessary, and do not practice the rite. Among those that do, differences can be found in the manner and mode of “Baptising” and in the understanding of the significance of the rite. Most Christians Baptise in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit” (following the Great Commission), but some “Baptise” in Jesus’ name only. Most Christians baptize infants; many others hold that only believer’s baptism is true baptism. Some insist on submersion or at least partial immersion of the person who is baptized, others consider that any form of washing by water, as long as the water flows on the head, is sufficient. The term “baptism” has also been used to refer to any ceremony, trial, or experience by which a person is initiated, purified, or given a name.


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