SNIPPETS OF HISTORY: Arctic Research Foundation: 2nd of 2 British explorer ships that vanished in the Arctic nearly 170 years ago has been found – AP – @AceHistoryNews

#AceHistoryNews – Sept.12: Arctic Research Foundation: 2nd of 2 British explorer ships that vanished in the Arctic nearly 170 years ago has been found – AP

http://bit.ly/2cqFdAk

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JERUSALEM: Restores mosaic flooring of a Jewish temple that dates back to the days of Herod with fragments f ound near the Temple Mount or Haram al-Sharif where Jesus will soon stand and bring peace to the world by hi s word – Amen🙏-@AceHistoryNews

#AceHistoryNews – Sept.10: Jerusalem Biblical Temple floor designs ‘restored’_91043216_8-pointed-starmodulenoborder.jpgArchaeologists in Jerusalem say they have for the first time reconstructed likely designs of a Biblical Jewish temple floor using original fragments.

Experts reassembled pieces of tiles found amid tons of earth from the site known to Jews as the Temple Mount and to Muslims as Haram al-Sharif.

They say the tiles date from the period of the Second Temple, during the time of King Herod about 2,000 years ago.

The temple was destroyed by the Romans in 70 AD during a Jewish rebellion.

Some 600 segments of coloured stone floor have been found since archaeologists began examining the debris from the hilltop site in 2004.

The plateau where the temples stood is the most sacred site in Judaism. It is joined by the Western Wall, venerated by Jews as part of the original supporting wall of the temple compound.

Haram al-Sharif (Noble Sanctuary) is also the place where the Koran says the Prophet Muhammad ascended to Heaven, and is the third holiest site in Islam.

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I would remind you that this blog is produced free for the public good and you are welcome to republish or re-use this article or any other material freely anywhere without requesting further permission.

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SNIPPETS OF HISTORY: ETHIOPIA: Three million year old mystery of ‘ Lucy Australopithecus afarensis ‘ cold case solved – @AceHistoryNews

#AceHistoryNews – Aug.31: A 3-million-year-old cold case solved

When Lucy, the world’s most well-known fossil, was discovered sticking out of a shallow Ethiopian stream bed in 1974, she provided new insight about life for early human ancestors 3.18 million years ago.

The image of her skeleton — which is estimated to be 40% complete and considered the best representation of her species, Australopithecus afarensis — became iconic…..

Editors Notes:

I would remind you that this blog is produced free for the public good and you are welcome to republish or re-use this article or any other material freely anywhere without requesting further permission.

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To keep online information secure, experts recommend keeping your social media accounts private, changing your passwords often, and never answering unsolicited emails or phone calls asking for your personal information. Need help and guidance visit https://acepchelp.wordpress.com and leave a comment or send a private message on Telegram @Aceone31

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NEW YORK CITY: Celebrates the 240th anniversary of the Revolutionary War’s Battle of Brooklyn – @Ace HistoryNews

#AceHistoryNews – Aug.25:.NYC Celebrates 240th Anniversary Of Revolutionary War’s ‘Battle Of Brooklyn’

Also known as the Battle of Long Island, this historic event pitted Gen. George Washington’s Continental Army against a larger British-led force on Aug. 27, 1776 . The redcoats defeated the Americans, but Washington and his army escaped to Manhattan to continue the fight for independence.

Historic Fraunces Tavern in Lower Manhattan is hosting a talk Thursday evening by Patrick K. O’Donnell, author of “Washington’s Immortals,” which tells the story of the Maryland regiment’s heroism and sacrifice at Brooklyn.

At the Old Stone House in Park Slope, where much of the fighting took place, a new permanent “Old Stone House: Witness to War” exhibit on the battle opens Friday.

According to the museum’s website, the exhibit provides a closer look at the Battle of Brooklyn, as well as the lives of area families during the Revolutionary War.

The Sons of the Revolution will also host a parade at the Green-Wood Cemetery on Aug. 28 — on the site where the battle originally took place.

Editors Notes:

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SNIPPETS OF HISTORY: On this day on Aug.23: 1991 we say Happy 25th birthday to the World Wide Web that was known affectionately as ‘ Internaut Day ‘ – @AceHistoryNews

#AceHistoryNews – Aug.23: Happy 25th birthday to the World Wide Web

Happy 25th birthday to the World Wide WebOn this day in history: On August 23, 1991, new users for the first time were able to access the World Wide Web.

The occasion is known as Internaut Day….

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FEATURED: “Art is an infinitely precious possession, a refreshing and warming drink that restores th e stomach and the mind to the natural balance of the ideal.” – @AceHistoryNews

#AceHistoryNews – Aug.18: Baudelaire on the Political and Humanitarian Power of Art: An Open Letter to Those in Power and of Privilege

“Art is an infinitely precious possession, a refreshing and warming drink that restores the stomach and the mind to the natural balance of the ideal.”

FEATURED: Orientalism: Mostly Gérôme – Micheline Walker

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A bashi-basouk by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1869 (wikiart.org)

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Black bashi-basouk by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1868 (MMA, NY)

There have long been war artists. In North Africa, Horace Vernet (30 June 1789 – 17 January 1863) painted the battles that led to the French conquest of Algiers which had been part of the Ottoman Empire until 1830. The French did not conquer Lebanon and Syria, their future protectorates, but these countries had belonged to the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330-1204 and 1261-1453) that fell to the Ottoman Empire in 1453. After World War I, Britain and France would partition the defeated Ottoman Empire into protectorates. (See Zykes-Picot Agreement, Wikipedia.)

Exoticism and Orientalism

Vernet had painted the battles that led to the conquest of Algiers, at which point he became an Orientalist. Colonialism was Eurocentrism, but exoticism was ethnocentrism and it is a characteristic of the 19th century, expressed in several areas: the fine arts, music, and design in general.

Jean-Léon Gérôme

I have mentioned Horace Vernet, the painter of battles fought in Algeria. There were in fact many Orientalists in various fields. However, our featured artist is French painter and sculptor Jean-Léon Gérôme (11 May 1824 – 10 January 1904).

French-born Jean-Léon Gérôme is associated with Academicism. He did not join avant-garde movements. He, in fact, applied for the coveted Prix de Rome, but he failed to be selected. However, having chosen Academicism, Gérôme could show his work at the Salon, the official art exhibition of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris, held annually or bi-annually since the 17th century (1667) in Paris, held annually or bi-annually since the 17th century (1667). In 1846, he painted The Cock Fight (1846) which earned him a medal at the Salon of 1847, but, perhaps more importantly, the painting was praised by writer and critic Théophile Gautier.

Gérôme travelled to Egypt in 1856, but did not do so on an official basis. He travelled as a tourist and artist. Gérôme was a history painter. Consequently, he did paint Napoléon, although Napoléon’s campaign in Egypt and Syria (1798-1801) was a military failure. (See French campaign in Egypt and Syria, Wikipedia.)

Gérôme’s other subject matter was mythology, but in Egypt he became an Orientalist. In my last post, I featured the portrait of a black bashi-basouk. A bashi-basouk, also called delibaş, litterally a “crazy head,” was an irregular soldier in the Ottoman Army. Bashi-bazouk often chose to fight when they expected to rape and pillage. (See Bashi-basouk, Wikipedia.) As portrayed by Gérôme, bashi-basouk are colourful and seem harmless, but they committed atrocities, much as ISIL, Muslim radicals, does. One of their better-known massacres is the Batak massacre of 1876, in Bulgaria.

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Bashi-bazouk chieftain by Gérôme, 1881 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

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Arnaut from Cairo by Gérôme, 1867 (Photo credit: wikiart.org)

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Arnaut with Two Whippet Dogs, by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1867 (wikiart.org)

Literature and Music

Gérôme did paint bashi-bazouk, but his range of oriental subject matter is wider and 19th-century exoticism straddles disciplines. It also includes Victor Hugo‘s Les Djinns, a famous and dazzling poem about invisible Arabian creatures, published in Hugo’s 1829 collection entitled Les Orientales.

Hugo’s Les Djinns inspired composers. One is Gabriel Fauré‘s Op.12, entitled Les Djinns. Les Djinns is also a Poème Symphonique for piano and orchestra, M 45, composed in 1884 by César Franck. Hugo’s poem is splendid and can be read online in French, English and German, at Les Djinns, Op 12.

Conclusion

We’ve devoted several posts to Japonisme and have now entered Orientalisme. Gérôme’s Orient is d’un goût étranger, as in Marin Maraisviol pieces. (See Suitte d’un goût étranger, Wikipedia). Exoticism may depict an inner truth in an oblique way, which is one of the characteristics of works of art. Fiction is oblique.
Love to everyone.

—ooo—

César Franck‘s Les Djinns
Arnhem Philharmonic Orchestra (conductor Roberto Benzi)
François-Joël Thiollier (piano)
Recorded in 1995

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Arnaut fumant (smoking), 1865 (Christie’s Images)

© Micheline Walker
15 August 2016
WordPress

Original Article: https://michelinewalker.com/2016/08/15/orientalism-mostly-gerome/

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