NEW YORK CITY: Celebrates the 240th anniversary of the Revolutionary War’s Battle of Brooklyn – @Ace HistoryNews

#AceHistoryNews – Aug.25:.NYC Celebrates 240th Anniversary Of Revolutionary War’s ‘Battle Of Brooklyn’

Also known as the Battle of Long Island, this historic event pitted Gen. George Washington’s Continental Army against a larger British-led force on Aug. 27, 1776 . The redcoats defeated the Americans, but Washington and his army escaped to Manhattan to continue the fight for independence.

Historic Fraunces Tavern in Lower Manhattan is hosting a talk Thursday evening by Patrick K. O’Donnell, author of “Washington’s Immortals,” which tells the story of the Maryland regiment’s heroism and sacrifice at Brooklyn.

At the Old Stone House in Park Slope, where much of the fighting took place, a new permanent “Old Stone House: Witness to War” exhibit on the battle opens Friday.

According to the museum’s website, the exhibit provides a closer look at the Battle of Brooklyn, as well as the lives of area families during the Revolutionary War.

The Sons of the Revolution will also host a parade at the Green-Wood Cemetery on Aug. 28 — on the site where the battle originally took place.

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SNIPPETS OF HISTORY: On this day on Aug.23: 1991 we say Happy 25th birthday to the World Wide Web that was known affectionately as ‘ Internaut Day ‘ – @AceHistoryNews

#AceHistoryNews – Aug.23: Happy 25th birthday to the World Wide Web

Happy 25th birthday to the World Wide WebOn this day in history: On August 23, 1991, new users for the first time were able to access the World Wide Web.

The occasion is known as Internaut Day….

Editors Notes:

I would remind you that this blog is produced free for the public good and you are welcome to republish or re-use this article or any other material freely anywhere without requesting further permission.

News & Views welcome always published as long as NO bad language or is not related to subject matter.

To keep online information secure, experts recommend keeping your social media accounts private, changing your passwords often, and never answering unsolicited emails or phone calls asking for your personal information. Need help and guidance visit https://acepchelp.wordpress.com and leave a comment or send a private message on Telegram @Aceone31

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FEATURED: “Art is an infinitely precious possession, a refreshing and warming drink that restores th e stomach and the mind to the natural balance of the ideal.” – @AceHistoryNews

#AceHistoryNews – Aug.18: Baudelaire on the Political and Humanitarian Power of Art: An Open Letter to Those in Power and of Privilege

“Art is an infinitely precious possession, a refreshing and warming drink that restores the stomach and the mind to the natural balance of the ideal.”

FEATURED: Orientalism: Mostly Gérôme – Micheline Walker

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A bashi-basouk by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1869 (wikiart.org)

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Black bashi-basouk by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1868 (MMA, NY)

There have long been war artists. In North Africa, Horace Vernet (30 June 1789 – 17 January 1863) painted the battles that led to the French conquest of Algiers which had been part of the Ottoman Empire until 1830. The French did not conquer Lebanon and Syria, their future protectorates, but these countries had belonged to the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330-1204 and 1261-1453) that fell to the Ottoman Empire in 1453. After World War I, Britain and France would partition the defeated Ottoman Empire into protectorates. (See Zykes-Picot Agreement, Wikipedia.)

Exoticism and Orientalism

Vernet had painted the battles that led to the conquest of Algiers, at which point he became an Orientalist. Colonialism was Eurocentrism, but exoticism was ethnocentrism and it is a characteristic of the 19th century, expressed in several areas: the fine arts, music, and design in general.

Jean-Léon Gérôme

I have mentioned Horace Vernet, the painter of battles fought in Algeria. There were in fact many Orientalists in various fields. However, our featured artist is French painter and sculptor Jean-Léon Gérôme (11 May 1824 – 10 January 1904).

French-born Jean-Léon Gérôme is associated with Academicism. He did not join avant-garde movements. He, in fact, applied for the coveted Prix de Rome, but he failed to be selected. However, having chosen Academicism, Gérôme could show his work at the Salon, the official art exhibition of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris, held annually or bi-annually since the 17th century (1667) in Paris, held annually or bi-annually since the 17th century (1667). In 1846, he painted The Cock Fight (1846) which earned him a medal at the Salon of 1847, but, perhaps more importantly, the painting was praised by writer and critic Théophile Gautier.

Gérôme travelled to Egypt in 1856, but did not do so on an official basis. He travelled as a tourist and artist. Gérôme was a history painter. Consequently, he did paint Napoléon, although Napoléon’s campaign in Egypt and Syria (1798-1801) was a military failure. (See French campaign in Egypt and Syria, Wikipedia.)

Gérôme’s other subject matter was mythology, but in Egypt he became an Orientalist. In my last post, I featured the portrait of a black bashi-basouk. A bashi-basouk, also called delibaş, litterally a “crazy head,” was an irregular soldier in the Ottoman Army. Bashi-bazouk often chose to fight when they expected to rape and pillage. (See Bashi-basouk, Wikipedia.) As portrayed by Gérôme, bashi-basouk are colourful and seem harmless, but they committed atrocities, much as ISIL, Muslim radicals, does. One of their better-known massacres is the Batak massacre of 1876, in Bulgaria.

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Bashi-bazouk chieftain by Gérôme, 1881 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

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Arnaut from Cairo by Gérôme, 1867 (Photo credit: wikiart.org)

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Arnaut with Two Whippet Dogs, by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1867 (wikiart.org)

Literature and Music

Gérôme did paint bashi-bazouk, but his range of oriental subject matter is wider and 19th-century exoticism straddles disciplines. It also includes Victor Hugo‘s Les Djinns, a famous and dazzling poem about invisible Arabian creatures, published in Hugo’s 1829 collection entitled Les Orientales.

Hugo’s Les Djinns inspired composers. One is Gabriel Fauré‘s Op.12, entitled Les Djinns. Les Djinns is also a Poème Symphonique for piano and orchestra, M 45, composed in 1884 by César Franck. Hugo’s poem is splendid and can be read online in French, English and German, at Les Djinns, Op 12.

Conclusion

We’ve devoted several posts to Japonisme and have now entered Orientalisme. Gérôme’s Orient is d’un goût étranger, as in Marin Maraisviol pieces. (See Suitte d’un goût étranger, Wikipedia). Exoticism may depict an inner truth in an oblique way, which is one of the characteristics of works of art. Fiction is oblique.
Love to everyone.

—ooo—

César Franck‘s Les Djinns
Arnhem Philharmonic Orchestra (conductor Roberto Benzi)
François-Joël Thiollier (piano)
Recorded in 1995

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Arnaut fumant (smoking), 1865 (Christie’s Images)

© Micheline Walker
15 August 2016
WordPress

Original Article: https://michelinewalker.com/2016/08/15/orientalism-mostly-gerome/

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RUSSIA: Kremlin’s 14th Century monastery destroyed by Bolsheviks set to become museum on the site – @AceHistoryNews

#AceHistoryNews – Aug.01: Site of historic Kremlin monastery destroyed by Bolsheviks set to become museum
Preview A museum complex will be built on the site of the 14th century Chudov Monastery, which was destroyed by the Bolsheviks and transformed into administrative buildings in Soviet Russia, the Kremlin has said….

Editors Notes:

I would remind you that this blog is produced free for the public good and you are welcome to republish or re-use this article or any other material freely anywhere without requesting further permission.

News & Views welcome always published as long as NO bad language or is not related to subject matter.

To keep online information secure, experts recommend keeping your social media accounts private, changing your passwords often, and never answering unsolicited emails or phone calls asking for your personal information. Need help and guidance visit https://acepchelp.wordpress.com and leave a comment or send a private message on Telegram @Aceone31

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About 30 pieces of Scythian gold have been found in a kurhan (burial mound) in Bilsk, Kotelevsky District, Poltava Oblast – @AceHistoryNews

#AceHistoryNews – Aug.01: Archaeologists discover Scythian treasure in Poltava Oblast

Plaque in the form of panthersAbout 30 pieces of Scythian gold have been found in a kurhan (burial mound) in Bilsk, Kotelevsky District, Poltava Oblast. Video in Ukrainian and Russian (4 min) Scholars and archaeologists started exploring the ancient city of Gelonus 110 years ago.

According to the Greek historian Herodotus (484–425 BC), Gelonus was the capital of the Scythian tribe Budini.

The post Archaeologists discover Scythian treasure in Poltava Oblast appeared first on Euromaidan Press.

Editors Notes:

I would remind you that this blog is produced free for the public good and you are welcome to republish or re-use this article or any other material freely anywhere without requesting further permission.

News & Views welcome always published as long as NO bad language or is not related to subject matter.

To keep online information secure, experts recommend keeping your social media accounts private, changing your passwords often, and never answering unsolicited emails or phone calls asking for your personal information. Need help and guidance visit https://acepchelp.wordpress.com and leave a comment or send a private message on Telegram @Aceone31

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Researchers recover a ‘lost’ Ancient language spoken 8,000 years ago – @AceHistoryNews

Researchers have posted a fascinating study where you can actually hear how our ancestors spoke 8,000 years ago.

Scientists from the universities of Cambridge and Oxford have managed to reproduce some of the words that originated from a language which disappeared from the face of the Earth thousands of years ago.

The Proto-Indo-European language is believed to have been a mother language that would give birth to hundreds of languages on planet Earth including Roman, Germanic, Baltic, Slavic, and Indo-Iranian. The mother language was spoken sometime from 6000 to 3500 BC by ancient people inhabiting the region of the Caspian Sea, in the territories of what are now Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan.

Since there is no written evidence, researchers have had to work for centuries to rebuild the original mother language that gave rise to a number of different languages.

According to an article posted on the website of the University of Cambridge: “No matter whether you speak English or Urdu, Walloon or Waziri, Portuguese or Persian, the roots of your language are the same. Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the mother tongue – shared by several hundred contemporary languages, as well as many now extinct, and spoken by people who lived from about 6,000 to 3,500 BC on the steppes to the north of the Caspian Sea.”

So far no one was able to figure out that this language sounded like. However, scientists from the British universities of Oxford and Cambridge have applied a methodology of acoustic-phonetic statistical processing, called ‘statistical forms’ which allowed the to recover LOST sounds of words and how they sounded like 8,000 years ago.

This is how scientists were able to reproduce the origin of some of the words still in use today, as the number ONE in English that comes from the word ‘OINOS’ from the PIE language. They were also able to reconstruct some words used in modern Romance languages tracing back their origin to Latin.

According to writings on the website of the University of Cambridge: The longest path of development simulated so far goes backwards 8,000 years from English one to its PIE ancestor oinos, and likewise for other numerals. They have also ‘gone forwards’ from the PIE penkwe to the modern Greek pente, modern Welsh pimp and modern Englishfive, as well as stimulating change from Modern English to Anglo-Saxon (or vice versa), and from Modern Romance languages back to Latin.

“We’ve explicitly focused on reproducing sound changes and etymologies that the established analyses already suggest, rather than seeking to overturn them,” says Coleman, whose research was funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council.

Scientists say it is possible to extrapolate the languages into the future, although they note that considerable changes in spoken language will hardly take place over the next couple of centuries.

Interestingly, the statistics of shape are not just being used to show how different languages relate to each – they are also being used to improve the analysis of medical images.