#OnThisDayInHistory After its first bid for statehood was vetoed by President Andrew Johnson, Colorado entered the Union on August 1, 1876, the year the United States celebrated its centennial. Thus, the thirty-eighth state is known as the Centennial State #AceHistoryDesk

After its first bid for statehood was vetoed by President Andrew Johnson, Colorado entered the Union on August 1, 1876, the year the United States celebrated its centennial. Thus, the thirty-eighth state is known as the Centennial State.Ute Indian Camp, Garden of the Gods, Shan Kive, 1913. [Colorado]. Stewart Brothers, c1913. Panoramic Photographs. Prints & Photographs Division

Among the early inhabitants of the land encompassed by Colorado were the Anasazi cliff dwellers. They were forced by drought and other factors to abandon their Mesa Verde homes in the late 1200s. At the time of European exploration and settlement Colorado’s population was made up of Arapaho, Cheyenne, and Ute peoples. Their territory was explored by the Spanish who, after Napoleon’s conquest of Spain, turned over its title to the French.

The United States acquired the eastern part of Colorado in 1803 through the Louisiana Purchase and the western portion in 1848 through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. In 1850, the federal government also purchased a Texas claim in Colorado. This combined property eventually became the Colorado Territory in 1861.

Rocks and stream along the Million Dollar Highway, Ouray County, Colorado. Russell Lee, photographer, Oct., 1940. Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Color Photographs. Prints & Photographs Division

The 1858 discovery of gold caused a population influx in Colorado, just as it had in California in 1849. After Horace Greeley notified readers of the New-York Tribune of this news, as many as 5,000 miners per week poured into the territory. By 1900 gold production had reached over $20,000,000 annually at Cripple Creek, one of the world’s richest gold camps.

Colorado proved rich in other minerals as well, and smelting ores to separate gold and other valuable metals became commercially profitable. As late as the 1940s, mountain streams in Ouray County, Colorado, ran yellow because of the tailings from the gold mills, as documented by Farm Security Administration photographer Russell Lee.

Railroad lines with names such as the Denver, Cripple Creek and Southwestern Railroad brought even more travelers and settlers to Colorado. Railroad traveler Sue A. Pike Sanders recorded the following impressions in her journal of an overnight stay in Denver in the summer of 1886:

Denver is a beautiful city of some 75,000 inhabitants, built mostly of stone and brick. It contains the usual amount of fine buildings. One in particular we are lead to observe, and that, Tabor’s Opera House, the largest in the world, excepting one in Paris, France. This building cost $850,000. The County Court House occupies an entire block, with buildings and ground. There are two large smelting works here…

A Journey to, on and from the “Golden Shore,” by Sue A. Sanders. Delavan, Ill.: Times Printing Office, 1887. “California as I Saw It”: First-Person Narratives of California’s Early Years, 1849 to 1900. General Collections

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#AceHistoryDesk report …………Published: Aug.01: 2020: Loc.Gov/

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#OnThisDayInHistory – On July 30, 1932, U.S VP Charles Curtis declared, “I proclaim open the Olympic Games of LA & Henry Ford was born on July 30,1863, on his family’s farm in what is present-day Dearborn, Michigan #AceHistoryDesk report

On July 30, 1932, United States Vice President Charles Curtis declared, “I proclaim open the Olympic Games of Los Angeles, celebrating the tenth Olympiad of the modern era.”

Automobile manufacturer Henry Ford was born on July 30,1863, on his family’s farm in what is present-day Dearborn, Michigan:

Sterling Publishing & Media News, [Jul 30, 2020 at 13:05] Read More: https://loc.gov

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FEATURED: Supreme Court Report: Purchase documents claim it is a transparent attempt to whitewash an act of cultural appropriation and annihilation on a massive scale. It is useful to recall exactly how Hagia Sophia became a mosque on May 29, 1453 #AceHistoryDesk report

The History of Jihad From Muhammad to ISIS tells the full story: Once they breached the walls of Constantinople, Muslims raided monasteries and convents, emptying them of their inhabitants, and plundered private houses. They entered Hagia Sophia, which for nearly a thousand years had been the grandest church in Christendom. The faithful had gathered within its hallowed walls to pray during the city’s last agony. Inside the great cathedral, the Muslims killed the elderly and weak and led the rest off into slavery.

The London Post: ““Sultan Mehmet ‘Bought’ Haiga [sic] Sophia before converting into (Mosque) Masjid – Purchase documents submitted to Turkish Supreme Court,” by Shahid Qureshi, July 13, 2020: Sultan Mehmet ‘Bought’ Haiga [sic] Sophia before converting into (Mosque) Masjid –

When the slaughter and pillage was finished, the Sultan Mehmet II, the Conqueror, ordered an Islamic scholar to mount the high pulpit of Hagia Sophia and declare that there was no God but Allah, and Muhammad was his prophet: The magnificent old church was turned into a mosque; hundreds of other churches in Constantinople and elsewhere suffered the same fate. Millions of Christians joined the ranks of the dhimmis; others were enslaved, and many were killed:

But now there is a document circulating, claimed to be the bill of sale of Mehmet the Conqueror, when he bought Hagia Sophia: The Turkish Supreme Court apparently used it as one justification for converting the cathedral into a mosque once again. This document could possibly be authentic, but it is noteworthy that it was never spoken of until now. I’ve never seen mention of it in numerous histories of the conquest. Also, if this “sale” did take place, it was obviously done under duress. The Muslims took over Hagia Sophia on May 29, 1453, as they were plundering Constantinople and murdering or enslaving Christians wholesale. The building was considered to have become a mosque when Mehmet sent the muezzin up to the pulpit to proclaim the Islamic shahada, not upon some sales agreement. The Ecumenical Patriarch or Emperor or whoever was deemed to be its owner was in no position to refuse to sell:

If someone came into your house, stole your possessions, killed your grandparents, enslaved your wife and children, and publicly announced that the house was his, and later gave you a bill of sale, would you consider this to be a fair-and-square real estate transaction?

When Sultan Mehmet conquered Constantinople at the age of 21 and ended Byzantine Empire in the 1453, he purchased the property of Hagia Sophia from his personal wealth before converting it into a Masjid (Mosque). The details of the transaction are still stored in the Turkish Museum, as can be seen in the photo below.This is the main reason why the court ordered Aya Sofya to be re converted into a Masjid.

Therefore, the credit the really goes to the forward thinking Sultan Mehmet, the conqueror of Constantinople for purchasing the church and then creating a waqf (endowment). Had it not been for his wisdom, Kemal Ataturk’s decision would not have been able to be legally overturned.

#AceNewsDesk reports ……………..Published: July.17: 2020:

Snippets of History: “A documentary about the history of Japanese orphans in China after the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression (1931-45) will be filmed under cooperation between two companies from China and Japan, according to a press conference held in Changchun, Northeast China’s Jilin Province on Wednesday #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – July.16: The film’s director Liu Guojun said at the conference that Japanese children (under 13 years old) were abandoned in China and raised by Chinese people after the war: China has about 5,000 Japanese orphans, about 90 percent of whom are distributed in the three provinces in Northwest China and North China’s Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region:

File photo shows Lugou Bridge occupied by Japanese invaders in Beijing. China was the first nation to fight against fascist forces. The struggle started on September 18, 1931, when Japanese troops began their invasion of northeast China. It was intensified when Japan’s full-scale invasion began after a crucial access point to Beijing, Lugou Bridge, also known as Marco Polo Bridge, was attacked by Japanese troops on July 7, 1937. (Xinhua) Global Times” https://t.co/MsMSVq9pOr

The film will be based on the stories of the Chinese adoptive parents, Japanese orphans and their descendants: The documentary will be filmed by a joint team from Changchun TV station based in Jilin Province and commercial television news network All-Nippon News Network from Japan………..Experts from China and Japan will be invited to hold script seminars and conduct extensive and in-depth research and interviews………….The documentary is scheduled to be officially filmed in the winter of 2020, and will be broadcast in China and Japan after its production, according to a report by China News.

#AceHistoryDesk report ………….Published: July.16: 2020:

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Snippets of History: Five Xumishan Grottoes dating back to over 1,500 years ago in Northwest China’s Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region reopened to the public on Wednesday after being closed for 38 years #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – July.16: The reopening aims to allow tourists to enjoy the ancient Chinese cultural heritage more closely, according to a report by China News.

Xumishan Grottoes in Northwest China’s Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region Photo: Snapshot of Xinhua News: Global News Times: https://t.co/Ynb2gdwXXM

China’s Ministry of Culture and Tourism announced Tuesday to resume group tours across China: The Xumishan Grottoes, originally built in the late period of the Northern Wei Dynasty (386-534), have 162 caves and more than 1,000 statues, which are scattered on eight mountain peaks that are two kilometers long:

As a main stretch of the ancient Silk Road, it is one of the top ten grottoes in China and was listed as a key state-level cultural site in 1982: Due to destructive human behaviors and natural disasters, cultural relic experts from across China began its restoration project in April, according to reports.

#AceHistoryDesk report ……………..Published: July.16: 2020:

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(ALGERIA) #OnThisDay July.05: 1962: The country at last buried the remains of 24 fighters decapitated for re sisting French colonial forces in the 19th century, in a ceremony Sunday rich with symbolism marking the cou ntry’s 58th anniversary of independence #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – July.06: The fighters’ skulls were taken to Paris as war trophies and held in a museum for decades until their repatriation to Algeria on Friday, amid a growing global reckoning with the legacy of colonialism: Algerian President Abdelmadjid Tebboune said he’s hoping for an apology from France for colonial-era wrongs.“We have already received half-apologies. There must be another step,” he said in an interview broadcast Saturday with France-24 television. He welcomed the return of the skulls and expressed hope that French President Emmanuel Macron could improve relations and address historical disputes:

Country finally buries the remains of 24-fighters who were decapitated and their skulls were taken as war trophies and held in a museum for decades:

Tebboune presided over the interment of the remains Sunday in a military ceremony at El Alia cemetery east of Algiers, in a section for fallen independence fighters: Firefighters lay the coffins, draped with green, white and red Algerian flags, in the earth.The 24 took part in an 1849 revolt after French colonial forces occupied Algeria in 1830.

Algeria formally declared independence on July 5, 1962 after a brutal war: Algeria’s veterans minister, Tayeb Zitouni, welcomed “the return of these heroes to the land of their ancestors, after a century and a half in post-mortem exile.”Algerians from different regions lined up to pay respect to the fighters on Saturday, when their coffins were on public display at the Algiers Palace of Culture.Mohamed Arezki Ferrad, history professor at the University of Algiers, said hundreds of other Algerian skulls remain in France and called for their return, as well as reparations for French nuclear tests carried out in the Algerian Sahara in the early 1960s:

#AceNewsDesk reports, [Jul 5, 2020 at 17:39] https://t.me/acenewsgroup/1021415

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TRIBUTE: #OnThisDay that led to #OnThatDay July 9, 1776, a rowdy group of American colonists banded together at a political rally in New York City and did something that today would be called “badass.” After they had just been treated to a public reading of the ‘ Declaration of Independence ‘ which Congress had officially adopted less than a week earlier #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – July.04: Editor says today 4th July Americans celebrate independence but with all the protests over monuments that don’t or do depict colonial history its easy to dismiss it: But with the rise of so many groups of people many in favour of one thing or another, its easy to forget that this is a rise by peoples of how they see their country and its leaders …good or bad, patriot or enemy of the state for or against racism its still on this day to recognise the great achievements pioneered by Americans in their rise to become a nation:

Our country is in chaos. But it’s a great time to be an American

Analysis by John Blake, CNN

Updated 0901 GMT (1701 HKT) July 4, 2020:

They had just been treated to a public reading of the Declaration of Independence, which Congress had officially adopted less than a week earlier. After hearing calls to “dissolve the political bands” of tyranny, they marched to a public park that featured a statue of King George III, Britain’s ruler, and knocked the 4,000-pound statue off its 15-foot pedestal: The head of the statue was then decapitated and perched on top of a spike, and much of the rest was melted down to make 42,000 musket balls for American soldiers: The historian Erika Doss thought of that scene recently while watching protesters toppling statues of Confederate heroes. Doss, who recounts the 1776 episode in her book, “Memorial Mania,” sees a parallel between the colonists who fought against Great Britain and protesters who rail against Confederate monuments today:
A man holds a Black Lives Matter sign during a protest against racial inequality on June 23, 2020, in Boston.

A man holds a Black Lives Matter sign during a protest against racial inequality on June 23, 2020, in Boston.

“They’re patriots,” says Doss, an American studies professor at the University of Notre Dame, of today’s protesters. “They’re looking at the symbols and these visual and martial emblems and icons in their midst and they’re saying this doesn’t stand for who we are today.”

It’s easy to be cynical this Fourth of July weekend as the US celebrates its birth: The country seems like a mess. Racial protests have rocked every major city. Unemployment has soared. And Americans can’t even agree if they should wear face masks in the middle of a pandemic.

But what some see as chaos, others see as an explosion of patriotism: They see it in the armies of Americans that took to the streets to protest racism. They see it in the companies that are taking unprecedented stands against racial and social injustice.

Even the Americans who are wearing masks for the health of their neighbors — they, too, are reasons to wave the flag.

A group of Bostonians dressed as Native Americans dump crates of imported British tea into Boston Harbor as a protest against the British Tea Act in 1773.

A group of Bostonians dressed as Native Americans dump crates of imported British tea into Boston Harbor as a protest against the British Tea Act in 1773.

All of these different groups have declared their independence from symbols and ideas that they’ve decided no longer represent them, Doss and others say.

They are doing what their ancestors did in 1776, Doss says: “They are reimagining themselves and the nation.”

America is bending toward justice

The evidence of this reimagining is reflected in the headlines.

Something has shifted in America when the Mississippi state flag, which bears the cross of the Confederate battle flag, is taken down while the popularity of the Black Lives Matter movement soars to an all-time high. Recent polls suggest that this year’s BLM protests, which drew as many as 26 million people, were the largest movement in US history.

Black Lives Matter has been described as everything from a hashtag to a “symbol of hate.” But the movement has rarely been described as something else: one of the finest examples of patriotism in modern America.

The protesters who flooded the streets this spring to protest racism exemplify the revolutionary spirit of America just as much as the white colonists in powdered wigs, says Melanye Price, a professor at Prairie View A&M University in Texas who specializes in African-American politics.
A protester carries a US flag upside down, a sign of distress, next to a burning building on May 28, 2020, in Minneapolis.

A protester carries a US flag upside down, a sign of distress, next to a burning building on May 28, 2020, in Minneapolis.

“The people who are out yelling in the streets today are no different than Paul Revere yelling ‘The British are coming!”’ says Price. “It’s the American way to voice criticism of the government and to rebel against oppressive forces.”

In some ways, the protesters who took to the streets this year did a better job of honoring the words of the Declaration of Independence than the Founding Fathers, she says.

Many of our nation’s founders were slave owners who treated Black Americans as tools for economic profit. When they said, “all men are created equal,” that didn’t include Black people, who were not considered fully human. They didn’t consider women equal, either.

But Black people extracted concepts from the Declaration of Independence, like the right to protest, and “turned them into tools for American citizenship,” Price says. “They took the words of the founders and rammed them up their damn throats.”

We’ve expanded the definition of an American hero

It’s easy to forget, but the person who became the catalyst the American Revolution was not a White man. He was half Black and half Native American. His name was Crispus Attucks, and he was killed during the 1770 Boston Massacre, an event that sparked the Revolutionary War.

The person who sparked the unprecedented wave of racial protests this year was also a Black man. George Floyd, who died while being arrested in May by Minneapolis police, is in some ways a modern-day Attucks, says Jerald Podair, a historian at Lawrence University in Wisconsin.

“Attucks died not knowing what his impact and significance would be, as did George Floyd,” says Podair.

History textbooks tell us that American heroes are almost always White men carrying guns. A reader has to dig to learn about people like Sacagawea, the Native American woman whose language skills and bravery saved the vaunted Lewis & Clark expedition of the early 19th century.

An image based on an iconic painting, "Spirit of '76," that depicts American patriots of the colonial era.

An image based on an iconic painting, “Spirit of ’76,” that depicts American patriots of the colonial era.

This year’s protests, though, have enlarged the definition of a what an American hero looks like. Some of the leaders and participants in Black Lives Matter protests are LGBTQ. The movement is multiracial and multiethnic.

And in some ways these protesters are just as tough as their colonial forebears.

The history books love to tell stories of the Minutemen, the elite band of Revolutionary War soldiers who were ready at a minute’s notice to rush into battle. The Black Lives Matter protesters and others who recently took to the streets to demonstrate were not that different. They risked their lives, often on short notice via a text or social media alert, to demonstrate against racism in the middle of a pandemic.

Age made no difference. Many of those demonstrators were young — some even too young to vote. They took rubber bullets to the face and swallowed tear gas. And then they came back the next day, like soldiers.

If you think that characterization is hyperbolic, listen to the words of another American hero who praised millennials — people born between 1981 and 1996 — in a recent speech. He said the country’s youth make him optimistic about the future.

“They’re not a lot like my generation — in many ways, they are better,” he said. “They care so much about their friends, they care about the issues, they question things in a way that I’m not sure we baby boomers questioned. They will take a stand on issues.”

The speaker? Retired Adm. William McRaven, the Navy SEAL who oversaw the Osama bin Laden raid.

A man waves an American flag with the words "Not Free" on it at a Juneteenth rally in Washington on June 19, 2020.

A man waves an American flag with the words “Not Free” on it at a Juneteenth rally in Washington on June 19, 2020.

The coronavirus pandemic has also enlarged the definition of an American hero. We’ve learned that courage isn’t just manifested in a SEAL team raid. It also can be summoned in mundane places like a health clinic, a grocery store or a meatpacking plant.

The pandemic has led many Americans to realize how dependent they are on these service workers, who risk their lives to keep the country running.

The colonists often invoked the term “liberty” to celebrate a form of rugged individualism where government and rules left them alone so they could live their version of freedom. So do many modern-day Americans. But democracy also depends on a sense of shared community, says Podair, the Lawrence University historian.

“Our life and health depends on the behavior of other people,” he says. “We depend on our neighbor, sometimes to get us food or just to remain healthy — and they on us. Because of the pandemic, America is a more democratic nation today than it was in February.”

Our country is finally facing one of its original sins

The Black Lives Matter protesters may exceed the Founding Fathers in another way — they’re forcing the nation to face its racism.

When Thomas Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence, he added language that described the slave trade as a perverse plot by an evil English king to contaminate the colonies, Joseph J. Ellis recounts in “Founding Brothers,” his Pulitzer Prize-winning book.

That passage, though was deleted by the Continental Congress in the final draft. The issue was so contentious and ingrained in colonial society that many founders thought abolishing slavery would kill the young nation in its infancy, Ellis wrote.

But a new generation of Americans are determined to do what the Founding Fathers refused to do.

The Rev. William Barber, president of Repairers of the Breach, speaks in Washington on June 12, 2019.

The Rev. William Barber, president of Repairers of the Breach, speaks in Washington on June 12, 2019.

Americans are devouring books on racism and corporate America is taking a stand against racial injustice. Ordinary people are talking about racism with a new depth that’s remarkable, says Doss, the historian.

“It has been so interesting to see how words like white supremacy and imperialism are part of daily American vocabulary in ways now that were not a couple of years ago,” she says.

This change didn’t just happen. It took years of planning and activism.

“A multiracial fusion coalition has shifted public opinion in this country, and we’ve seen a tipping point in the past month,” says the Rev. William Barber II, a 2018 MacArthur Foundation “genius” grant winner and president of Repairers of the Breach, a nonpartisan group that seeks to build a moral agenda around issues of poverty and racism.

“Many of us have been building this coalition for years, taking up the work of those who came before us,” he says. “We never knew when the tipping point would come, but we are now in a moment where there is a public consensus that America must address the legacy of her original sin in systemic racism.”

At the same time, there appears to be flagging interest in white grievance. It’s not just Confederate monuments that are coming down. A core political tactic that relied on coded racist appeals may also be starting to topple.

A statue of Confederate Commander Richard W. Dowling is removed in Houston, Texas, on June 17, 2020.

A statue of Confederate Commander Richard W. Dowling is removed in Houston, Texas, on June 17, 2020.

In the 1960s the Republican Party quietly began its “Southern Strategy” of using terms like “forced busing” and “state’s rights” to play on racial fears and win elections. Democrats have also used such appeals, but not to the extent Republicans have.
But racial dog whistles just don’t hunt like they used to. President Trump is offering proof. He’s opposing any effort by the US military to rename bases that bear the name of Confederate commanders. He also called Black Lives Matter a “symbol of hate.”
And as of now he’s losing badly to Democratic challenger Joe Biden in the polls.

“When we look back, we may well realize that there was indeed one last presidential election that could be won on white racial resentment — but that election happened in 2016,” Paul Waldman said in a recent Washington Post column.

Willie Townsend, an employee of the Mississippi State Capitol, on June 30, 2020, hours before Mississippi Governor Tate Reeves signed a bill into law replacing the current state flag.

Willie Townsend, an employee of the Mississippi State Capitol, on June 30, 2020, hours before Mississippi Governor Tate Reeves signed a bill into law replacing the current state flag.

Protesters in 2020, though, want more than an end to racist speech. Barber, for example, has helped launch a Poor People’s Campaign and his group plans an array of activities around the Fourth of July this weekend.

“We can’t get sidelined into little reforms around the edges,” Barber says. “This isn’t just about bringing down a flag or banning chokeholds. We are in a moment that demands a Third Reconstruction to guarantee freedom and equal justice. We must push to become the America that has never yet been.”

That kind of America may seem far off right now. But we no longer have to look to the Founding Fathers to celebrate the spirit that makes this nation special.

We can look to the faces of the millions of Americans who took to the streets this year to reimagine the nation. We can look to the nurse who takes our temperature, or the other essential and brave workers who drive buses, deliver groceries and restock store shelves.

That’s the paradox of this Fourth of July. It is an awful time to be an American. It is a great time to look forward to a New America.

All the people who took to the streets this spring are living monuments to a New America — a land that never was, “and yet must be.”

#AceHistoryDesk report ………….Published: July.04: 2020:

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(PHILADELPHIA) Yellow Fever Plague ………Americans never saw it coming hardly anyone in the nation ’s temporary capital, noticed the first to die in the summer of 1793, a few weeks after the celebrat ion of Independence Day: a few foreigners, an oyster seller in the waterfront slums died AceHistoryDesk repo rt

#AceHistoryReport – July.02: When more poor began to die, respectable people shrugged it off as a passing “putrid fever” brought on by rotted fish or perishables heaped on the docks: Then the young, healthy wife of a Baptist minister died, then at an ever-accelerating pace businessmen, ministers, magistrates, law officers, federal officials, men and women, the old and the young, masters and servants, the pious and the dissolute alike. It quickly became clear that no one was safe:

Yellow Fever Plague of 1793 ….Of the past shows very similar reaction and lack of awareness with todays pandemic as it was a learning curve and still is during times of crisis !

The plague that was sweeping through the city was yellow fever, one of the deadliest and least-understood contagions of the time: It was the nation’s first epidemic and it threatened not only to destroy what was then its largest city, home to some 40,000 people, but also its fragile new government, which had formed barely four years earlier: It was a terrifying warning that life as Americans knew it could be snuffed out overnight by a phenomenon that no one could control.

Businesses collapsed. Schools and newspapers closed: The post office shut. For weeks, not a single ship dared to enter Philadelphia’s harbour: Each morning yielded a new crop of corpses. They lay putrefying where they fell in homes and streets. Frightened neighbors nailed shut the doors and windows of their infected neighbors’ homes, leaving them to die. The most basic bonds of civility and the most intimate family ties frayed and snapped.

Doctors, fearing for their own lives, abandoned the ill: The poorhouse turned away the needy. Parents abandoned their infected children, and children their parents, husbands their wives, and wives their husbands: An estimated 20,000 people fled, or tried to: Terrified refugees seeking hoped-for safety in rural New Jersey or further afield were driven from town to town, many of them to die alone by the roadside.For nearly two months, the United States had no government. George Washington, a vulnerable sixty years old, was convinced to escape to the safety of Mount Vernon. He handed over management of the government to Secretary of War Henry Knox, who panicked and fled north in hope of reaching New York, but then was stuck for weeks in forced quarantine at Elizabeth, New Jersey.

Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton caught the fever and almost died, while every member of his staff left town: Some claimed the city’s suffering was God’s just punishment for Philadelphians’ sinful pride: Others swore that tobacco smoke, or camphor slung around the neck, or clouds of gunpowder would stem infection; for a time, soldiers rolled cannon around the streets, firing every few yards.

Benjamin Rush, the city’s most celebrated physician, preached a horrific regimen of relentless purges and bloodletting, asserting that while effete Europeans probably couldn’t endure such a treatment it was perfectly suited to hearty, republican Americans: He bled one man twenty-two times and drained him of 176 ounces of blood…………………He probably killed more patients than he saved…………….When the city’s fate seemed most hopeless, its least respected citizens stepped forward to do what no one else would. It was at first believed – erroneously, as would soon be seen — that Africans were far less susceptible to infection.

Although slavery would soon end in Pennsylvania, it was still legal under certain conditions and racism was widespread: Black people were mostly restricted to the lowliest jobs: Rush, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and an early abolitionist, begged the leaders of the city’s 2,000 free Black people for help: Absalom Jones and Richard Allen, the founders of the first AME churches, agreed: If their followers acted now as a people, they reasoned, then possibly whites would abandon their prejudices and embrace them as brothers:

#AceHistoryDesk report ……………..Published: July.04: 2020:

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#OnThisDay June 23: In the summer of 1770, Amos Throop sold a “compleat Assortment of MEDICINES” at his shop in Providence, appropriately identified by “the Sign of the Golden Pestle and Mortar.”

June 23 What was advertised in a colonial American newspaper 250 years ago today?Providence Gazette (June 23, 1770).

“Supplied with genuine Medicines, very cheap.”

In the summer of 1770, Amos Throop sold a “compleat Assortment of MEDICINES” at his shop in Providence, appropriately identified by “the Sign of the Golden Pestle and Mortar.”  His inventory included a variety of popular patent medicines imported from London, including “Hooper’s, Lockyer’s, and Anderson’s genuine Pills,” “Stoughton’s Elixir,” and “Hill’s Balsam of Honey.”

In an advertisement in the Providence Gazette, the apothecary addressed different sorts of prospective customers: He informed “Country Practitioners” that he could fill their orders “as cheap as they can be served in Boston, or elsewhere.”  Throop competed in a regional market; druggists in other port towns also imported medicines from London.  Prospective customers could send away to Boston, Newport, or even New York if they anticipated bargain prices, but Throop sought to assure them that they did not need to do so.  Throop may have anticipated particular benefits from cultivating this clientele.  “Country Practitioners” were more likely than others to purchase by volume.  Their patronage indirectly testified to the efficacy of Throop’s medicines and his standing as a trusted apothecary.

Those factors may have helped him attract other customers who did not practice medicine: Throop also invited “Families in Town and Country” to shop at the Golden Pestle and Mortar.  He promised them low prices, but he also emphasized customer service, stating that they “may depend on being used in the best Manner.”  In addition, he also attempted to allay concerns about purchasing counterfeit remedies.  Throop pledged to supply his customers “with genuine Medicines,” putting his own reputation on the line as a bulwark against bogus elixirs and nostrums.  When it came to patent medicines, the fear of forgeries merited reiterating that his inventory was “genuine” when he listed the choices available at his shop.

The neighborhood pharmacy is ubiquitous in the twenty-first century, but that was not the kind of business that Throop operated in Providence in the eighteenth century: Instead, he served both local residents and “Country Practitioners” and “Families in Town and Country,” competing with apothecaries in Boston and other towns.  To do so effectively, he had to depict the many advantages of choosing the Golden Pestle and Mortar, from low prices to authentic medicines to good customer service.

#AceHistoryDesk report …………….Published: June.23: 2020:

On VJ Day 74: Letters between the generations // Pacific Paratrooper

RFHG

On the 74th anniversary of VJ Day, Ashley Prime writes for RFHG about his father, Lance Corporal Ashley Prime – a former prisoner of war in Singapore and Thailand – whose moving post-war letters have been published open access for all to read.

Ashley Prime Lance Corporal Ashley Prime. Courtesy of Ashley Prime

I had of course always known that my father had been a Japanese Prisoner of War. I grew up with that always in our minds in our home, but it was never really seen as a negative. It was just there, and from my childhood, I recall kindly former colleagues of his visiting our home. They were always kind and I never felt any anger in the way they were. At least to me as a small child.

Later in life, I was living in West Germany in my early twenties, and whilst back in London on holiday, I…

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// Pacific Paratrooper

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