#OnThisDay April.03: 1996: Croatia Flight USAF CT-43 Crashed into a mountainside whilst on approach to Dubrovnik while on an official trade mission #AceHistoryDesk report 45

#AceHistoryReport – Apr.03: The aircraft, a Boeing 737-200 originally built as T-43A navigational trainer and later converted into a CT-43A executive transport aircraft, was carrying United States Secretary of CommerceRon Brown and 34 other people, including The New York Times Frankfurt bureau chief Nathaniel C. Nash.[1] While attempting an instrument approach to Dubrovnik Airport, the airplane crashed into a mountainside.

#OTD 1996 Croatia USAF CT-43 crash: ‘On April 3, 1996, a United States Air Force Boeing CT-43A (Flight IFO-21) crashed on approach to Dubrovnik, Croatia, while on an official trade mission.

USAF CT-43A crash 1996.jpg

An Air Force Technical Sergeant survived the initial impact, but died en route to a hospital. Everyone else on board died at the scene of the crash.[2]United States Air Force Flight IFO-21A USAFMH-53J Pave Low helicopter hovers near the wreckage of Flight IFO-21. The tail number of the accident aircraft is shortened as 31149.AccidentDateApril 3, 1996SummaryControlled flight into terrain due to pilot error and poorly designed instrument approachSite3 km (1.9 mi) north of Dubrovnik Airport, Dubrovnik, Croatia.
42°35′54″N 18°15′08″EAircraftAircraft typeBoeing CT-43AOperatorUnited States Air ForceRegistration73-1149Flight originZagreb International Airport, Zagreb, CroatiaStopoverTuzla International Airport, Tuzla, Bosnia-HerzegovinaDestinationDubrovnik Airport, Dubrovnik, CroatiaOccupants35Passengers30Crew5Fatalities35 (initially 34)Survivors0 (initially 1, died shortly after rescue)

The aircraft was operated by the 76th Airlift Squadron of the 86th Airlift Wing, based at Ramstein Air Base in Germany. Unlike civilian 737s, the military CT-43A version was not equipped with a flight data recorder nor a cockpit voice recorder.[3]

Contents

Investigation

Zagreb Pleso Airport

Tuzla Airport

Dubrovnik Čilipi Airport

Crash Site St John’s HillLocation of crash site and departure and destination airports

Summary of the NDB approach to runway 12 from the USAF accident report

The official US Air Force accident investigation board report noted several reasons that led the Boeing CT-43A, callsign “IFO-21” (short for Implementation Force),[4] to crash.[5] Chief among the findings was a “failure of command, aircrew error and an improperly designed instrument approach procedure”. The inclement weather was not deemed a substantial contributing factor in the crash.[6]

The Boeing CT-43A used for this flight was formerly a T-43A navigator training aircraft that was converted for distinguished visitor travel. The flight was on an instrument flight rules non-directional beacon (NDB) approach, which is a non-precision type of instrument approach, to Runway 12 when it strayed off course. Non-precision approaches are those that do not incorporate vertical guidance.[7] While NDB approaches are essentially obsolete in the United States, they are still used widely in other parts of the world. Because of their infrequent use in the United States, many American pilots are not fully proficient in performing them (a NASA survey showed that 60% of American transport-rated pilots had not flown an NDB approach in the last year).[3] The investigation board determined that the approach used was not approved for Department of Defense aircraft, and should not have been used by the aircraft crew.[8]The board determined that the particular NDB approach used required two operating ADFs, the instrument used to fly such an approach, on board the aircraft, but this aircraft only had one ADF installed. To successfully fly the approach, one ADF was required to track the outbound course of 119° from the Koločep NDB (KLP), while another ADF was required to observe when the aircraft had flown beyond the CavtatNDB (CV), which marked the missed approach point. The alternative available to the crew was to repeatedly switch their one ADF between the signals at the KLP and CV beacons, though this would add further workload and stress to the crew.[9] Further, the board noted that the approach was rushed, with the aircraft flying at 80 knots (150 km/h) above the proper final approach speed and had not received the proper landing clearance from the control tower.[8]

The crash site, on a 2,300 ft (700 m) hill, was 1.6 miles (2.6 km) northeast of where the aircraft should have been on the inbound course to the NDB. The published NDB approach brings the inbound aircraft down a valley, and has a minimum descent height of 2,150 ft (660 m) at the missed approach point (where they should have climbed and turned to the right if the runway was not in view), which is below the elevation of the hills to the north. The runway is at 510 ft (160 m) MSL. Five other aircraft had landed prior to the CT-43A and had not experienced any problems with the navigational aids. There was no emergency call from the pilots, and they did not initiate a missed approach, even though they were beyond the missed approach point when they hit the hill at 2:57 PM local time.[3][4]

Each country is responsible for publishing the approach charts, including minimum descent heights, for its airports, and the investigators noted that the minimum in mountainous terrain in the United States is 2,800 ft (850 m), as compared to the 2,150 ft (660 m) on the chart given to the crew of IFO-21.[9] It was a requirement of the US Air Force to review and approve all charts, and to ban flights into airports for which the charts did not meet the proper American aviation standards.[9] The commander of the 86th Operations Group, Col. John E. Mazurowski,[10] revealed that he had requested (but not yet received) approval to waive the review for Dubrovnik, as the approach had worked for years and the delay of a full review could hamper the interests of the American diplomatic mission.[9]

Outcomes

Dubrovnik Airport was singled out for an improperly designed approach and landing procedure.[9]

A number of US Air Force (USAF) officers were found to have contributed to a failure of command. The general commanding the 86th Airlift Wing, Brig. Gen. William E. Stevens, vice-commander Col. Roger W. Hansen and the commander of the 86th Operations Group, Col. John E. Mazurowski, were all relieved of their posts.[10][11] Mazurowski was later found guilty of a dereliction of duties and was demoted to major, while twelve other officers were reprimanded. [9]

The USAF ordered all military aircraft to be equipped with a flight data recorder and a cockpit voice recorder.[9]

American military aircraft are no longer allowed to fly into airports without explicit approval from the United States Department of Defense, not even for high ranking diplomatic missions.[9]

Legacy

The area of the crash site is identified by a large stainless steel cross on Stražišće peak. Hikers can reach the peak via the “Ronald Brown Path”, which is named in commemoration of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce who died in the crash.[12]

A memorial room has been installed in the Ronald Brown memorial house in the old city of Dubrovnik. It features portraits of the crash victims as well as a guest book.[13]

The head of navigation at Čilipi Airport, Niko Jerkuić, was found dead three days after the accident with a bullet wound to his chest. The police investigation concluded that the case was a suicide.[14]

In popular culture

The crash of IFO-21 was covered in “Fog of War”, a Season 4 (2007) episode of the internationally syndicated Canadian TV documentary series Mayday.[9]

References

  1.  “List of crash victims”. CNN. April 4, 1996.
  2.  “Najpotresnije zrakoplovne nesreće u hrvatskoj povijesti”Index.hr. August 22, 2008.
  3. a b c Hughes, David “USAF, NTSB, Croatia Probe 737 Crash”, Aviation Week & Space Technology, 8 April 1996
  4. a b Transcript of US Department of Defense News briefing held on 7 June 2006 “Results of the Accident Investigation Report of the CT-43 Accident”. Retrieved: 29 November 2008
  5.  Walters, James M.; Sumwalt, Robert L. III (2000). Aircraft Accident Analysis: Final Reports. McGraw Hill.
  6.  “The weather at the time of the approach was reported as 400 feet broken, 2,000 feet overcast, 8 km or about 5 miles visibility, rain, surface winds for 120, 12 knots, because of the weather, the crew is required to fly an instrument approach procedure into Dubrovnik.” Transcript of US Department of Defense News briefing held on 7 June 2006 “Results of the Accident Investigation Report of the CT-43 Accident”. Retrieved: 29 November 2008
  7.  FSF ALAR Briefing Note 7.2 – Constant Angle Nonprecision Approach Flight Safety Foundation
  8. a b DoD news release Archived September 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  9. a b c d e f g h i “Fog of War“. Mayday. Season 4. Episode 8. Cineflix. 2007-06-03. Discovery Channel Canada.
  10. a b “Press Briefing”United States Department of Defense. 1996-05-31. Retrieved 2020-04-22.
  11.  Shenon, Philip (1996-05-31). “Air Force Ousts 3 From Duties In Brown Case”The New York Times. Retrieved 2020-04-22.
  12.  Dubrovnik Online website Archived 2014-03-12 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 17 October 2009
  13.  “Ronald Brown memorial house”. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
  14.  “Avionom je, ipak, najsigurnije (By plane, However, Is The Safest)”Slobodna Dalmacija. 9 September 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-09-09.

External links

#AceHistoryDesk report ……….Published: Apr.03: 2021:

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports by https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all our posts, also links can be found at here for Twitter and Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

#airline, #crash, #croatia

#OnThisDay April.02: 1865: At approximately 7:00 a.m. on that Sunday Ulysses S. Grant’s army attacked Confederate lines at Petersburg, Virginia #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – Apr.02: By mid-afternoon, Confederate troops had begun to evacuate the town.

#OTD Today in History – April 2: 1865: ‘The Union victory ensured the fall of Richmond, the capital of the Confederacy, located just twenty-five miles north of Petersburg’

President Jefferson Davis received word of the events in Petersburg while attending services at St. Paul’s Church in Richmond. He abandoned the capital late that night on a train bound for Danville, Virginia. 

I think it is absolutely necessary that we should abandon our position tonight…

Telegram from Robert E. Lee, in Petersburg, to Jefferson Davis, in Richmond, April 2, 1865. 1

Petersburg, Va. General view. Timothy H. O’Sullivan, photographer, [1865]. Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints. Prints & Photographs Division

Richmond, meanwhile, burned, as fires set by fleeing Confederates and looters raged out of control. Davis was eventually captured by Union soldiers, but not until May 10, 1865.2Richmond, Va. Ruins of Richmond & Danville Railroad Bridge. Alexander Gardner, photographer, [1865]. Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints.Prints & Photographs DivisionRichmond, Va. Street in the Burned District. 1865. Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints. Prints & Photographs Division

  1. Telegram from Robert E. Lee, in Petersburg, to Jefferson Davis, in Richmond, April 2, 1865, quoted in The Civil War Day By Day: An Almanac, 1861-1865, E.B. Long with Barbara Long (1971; reprint, New York: Da Capo Press, 1971), 663. (Return to text)
  2. Ibid., 663, 664.(Return to text)

Learn More

  • Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints includes numerous photographs of the siege of Petersburg and Richmond in 1865. To narrow the selection, try searching the collection on Petersburg AND UnionPetersburg AND Confederate, or Richmond AND burned
  • By 1861 telegraph lines networked much of the United States and were an important means of wartime communication. Less than twenty years earlier, on May 24, 1844, the first telegram was sent by inventor Samuel F. B. Morse. See the Samuel F. B. Morse Papers at the Library of Congress, 1793 to 1919 for more information about the invention of the telegraph.
  • Long after the fall of Richmond, the Confederate States of America echoed on in Southern culture. Julia A. Wood’s 1877 sheet music, Virginia Cotillions (which pays homage to Confederate heroes Jeff Davis, Robert E. Lee, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, P. G. T. Beauregard, James Longstreet, and “Jeb” Stuart) is found in Music for the Nation: American Sheet Music, ca. 1870 to 1885, consisting of tens of thousands of pieces of sheet music registered for copyright during the post-Civil War era. The cotillion was a popular ballroom dance in both the antebellum and post-Civil War periods.
  • Search on Petersburg and Richmond to view maps, charts, and atlases depicting battles, troop positions and movements, engagements, and fortifications in  Civil War Maps

#AceHistoryDesk report ………Published: Apr.02: 2021:

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#confederate, #petersburg, #virginia

#OnThisDay March.31: 1761: #Earthquake & North Atlantic tsunami of Portugal occurred in the Atlantic Ocean, south of the Iberian Peninsula. This violent shock which struck just after noon on March 31, 1761, was felt across many parts of Western Europe #AceHistoryDesk report

#OnThisDay 1761 Lisbon #Earthquake Its direct effects were even observed far north in Scotland and Amsterdam, and to the south in the Canary Islandsof Spain.

The estimated surface-wave magnitude 8.5 event was the largest in the region, and the most significant earthquake in Europe since the Great Lisbon earthquake of 1755.1761 Lisbon earthquake and Transatlantic tsunami

For other uses, see Lisbon earthquake (disambiguation).

1761 Lisbon earthquake is located in North Atlantic

1761 Lisbon earthquake (North Atlantic)Local dateMarch 31, 1761Local time12:01 pm WETDuration8 minutesMagnitude8.5 MsEpicenter34.5°N 13.0°WAreas affectedAtlantic OceanMax. intensityIX (Violent)Tsunami2.4 meters (Transatlantic)AftershocksYes

Records of this disaster are sparse as the Portuguese Government censored much information in order to avoid panic in the already ruined city. 

Contents

Tectonic setting

The Azores-Gibraltar Fault form part of the complex and poorly defined plate boundary between the African and Eurasian plates that converge at a rate of 3.8 mm/yr. Here, a collection of strike-slip and thrust faultsaccommodate motion between the two plates, including the Horseshoe Fault, Marques Pombal Fault, Gorringe Bank Fault and Cádiz Subduction Zone.[1]

The earthquake is thought to have been sourced from a thrust fault located beneath the Coral Patch Seamount with an estimated rupture dimension of 200 km by 50 km.[2] The Coral Patch Thrust Fault is a component in the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary.[3] From an analysis of the reported duration of shaking, the rupture was suggested to propagate northwards, from the northern end of the 1755 rupture. This earthquake is likely to be a result of stress transfer from the 1755 event.[4] Based on measuring the tsunami run-up height, the estimated tsunami magnitude for this earthquake is 8.5, and is unlikely to be larger than the 1755 event.[5]

Earthquake

At noon on March 31, the Portuguese city Lisbon was rocked by an earthquake that lasted up to three minutes. Ruins in the city left by the 1755 earthquake collapsed while frightened residents ran outside. Shipping vessels offshore felt jolts during the earthquake. It was felt in many Spanish cities including Madrid and Aranjuez. Other European locations that felt the earthquake include Bayonne, Bordeaux and Roussillon in France, Amsterdam in The Netherlands, Cork, Ireland, and the Azores Islands.[6]

Much of the damage in Lisbon was directed at older houses, and buildings already compromised by the 1755 earthquake. The city shook for at least five minutes. Piles of debris from the previous quake collapsed. The nearby mountain ranges were affected by rockslides. Shaking damaged a prison, and some 300 inmates managed to escape.[7] Surprisingly, no lives were lost in Lisbon but the damage was greater than 20,000 moidores. On the Modified Mercalli intensity scale, the earthquake reached an estimated VI (Strong) to VII (Very strong). The greatest destruction was in Setúbal and Vila Franca. In Porto, the city suffered heavy damage worse than those sustained in 1755, resulting in several people being killed. In Madeira, rockfalls were triggered, tumbling into the sea and destroying a church. Four people died as a result, with two being crushed while fishing when boulders tumbled on them.[7]

In Madrid, ground motions went on for five to 23 minutes. Some houses shook violently causing furniture to topple. Frightened residents ran out of their houses for fear of them collapsing. This prompted an inquiry from the Council of Castile and Diocese of Cartagena to obtain more information about the earthquake.[7]

In Fort Augustus, Scotland, the water level at Loch Ness rose some two feet (0.6 m) and then subsided. The unusual lake behavior continued for forty-five minutes to an hour. In Amsterdam, the chandelier of a church started vibrating in the afternoon, possibly caused by the earthquake.[6]

Cork, Ireland saw strong shaking, more violent than the 1755 quake.[7]

Tsunami

One hour and 25 minutes after the earthquake was felt in Lisbon, waves measuring up to eight feet (2.4 m) was observed approaching the coast and damaging ships. The sea retreated and advanced repeatedly even 13 hours after the earthquake, continuing into the night.[8]

Along the coasts of Spain, changes to the sea were witnessed but there were no records of the tsunami arriving, nor their heights.[citation needed]

In Barbados, waves between 18 inches (0.45 m) and four feet (1.2 m) that swept along the coast were attributed to the earthquake.[7][8]

On Terceira Island in the Azores, the tsunami picked up boats and smashed them against the rocky coastline.[citation needed]

At Mount’s Bay in Cornwall, a tsunami of up six feet (1.8 m) advanced five times at 5 p.m. for an hour. In the Isles of Scilly, the sea rose up to four feet (1.2 m) at the time waves were seen in Cornwall. Penzance saw waves up to six feet (1.8 m) arriving in the early evenings five times. At Newlyn, the sea rose nearly six feet. Along the Irish coasts, the same phenomena were observed. At Kinsale, at about 6 p.m., the sea rose suddenly 2 feet (0.6 m) and retreated rapidly in 4 minutes, this being repeated, though to a less extent, several times. At Carrick, at 4 pm, the surface of the River Suir rose one foot (0.3 m). in five minutes. At Dungarvan, the sea ebbed and flowed five times between 4 and 9 pm. At Waterford, the sea advanced 30 feet (9 m) along the shore, while at Ross, County Wexford, a violent agitation of the river occurred at 7 p.m.[8][9]

See also

References

  1.  Wronna, Martin; Baptista, Maria Ana; Miranda, Jorge Miguel (2019). “Reanalysis of the 1761 transatlantic tsunami”Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences19 (2): 337–352. doi:10.5194/nhess-2018-30.
  2.  M. A. Baptista (2019). “Tsunamis Along the Azores Gibraltar Plate Boundary”Pure and Applied Geophysics117: 1713–1724. doi:10.1007/s00024-019-02344-8.
  3.  Roy Barkan, Uri S. ten Brink, Jian Lin (2009). “Far field tsunami simulations of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake: Implications for tsunami hazard to the U.S. East Coast and the Caribbean” (PDF). Marine Geology264: 109–122. doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2008.10.010.
  4.  Robert Muir-WoodArnaud Mignan (2009). “A Phenomenological Reconstruction of the Mw9 November 1st 1755 Earthquake Source. In: The 1755 Lisbon Earthquake: Revisited”Geotechnical, Geological, and Earthquake Engineering7: 121–146. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-8609-0_8.
  5.  Baptista, M. & Miranda, Jym & Luis, Joaquim (2006). “In Search of the 31 March 1761 Earthquake and Tsunami Source”Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America96: 713–721. doi:10.1785/0120050111.
  6. a b National Geophysical Data Center / World Data Service (NGDC/WDS): NCEI/WDS Global Significant Earthquake Database. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. “Significant Earthquake Information PORTUGAL: LISBON”doi:10.7289/V5TD9V7K. Retrieved 2021-02-01.
  7. a b c d e Borlase, William (1 January 1761). LXV. Some account of the extraordinary agitation of the waters in Mount’s-bay, and other places, on the 31st of March 1761: In a letter to the Reverend Dr. Charles Lyttelton, Dean of Exeter, from the Reverend William Borlase, M. A. F. R. S. The Royal Society.
  8. a b c NCEI Global Historical Hazard Database. “Tsunami Event Information SW PORTUGAL”www.ngdc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2021-02-01.
  9.  M. A. Baptista and J. M. Miranda (2009). “Revision of the Portuguese catalog of tsunamis” (PDF). Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences9 (1).

#AceHistoryDesk report ……Published: Mar.31: 2021:

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#otd, #tsunami

(PORTUGAL) #OnThisDay March: 29: 1848: An enormous ‘Ice Dam’ at source of the ‘Niagara River’ on the eastern shore of Lake Erie on March 29, 1848. Just after midnight, the thunderous sound of water surging over the great falls came to a halt as the flow of water became severely restricted due to the ice jam #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – Mar.29: The eerie silence persisted throughout the day and into the next evening until the waters of Lake Erie broke through the blockage and resumed their course down the river and over the falls:

#OnThisDay in History – March 29: ‘An enormous ice dam formed at the source of the Niagara River on the eastern shore of Lake Erie on March 29, 1848: Just after midnight, the thunderous sound of water surging over the great falls at Niagara came to a halt as the flow of water became severely restricted due to the ice jam’

The eerie silence persisted throughout the day and into the next evening until the waters of Lake Erie broke through the blockage and resumed their course down the river and over the falls.[Niagara Falls, General View from Hennepin Point, Winter]. A.G. Landreth, c1914. Panoramic Photographs. Prints & Photographs Division

By 1848, Niagara Falls was already a popular tourist spot, attracting thousands of visitors each summer. Daguerreotypist Platt Babbitt set up a studio and began taking images of tourists watching the falls in 1853.American Falls from Goat Island, Niagara. c1908. Detroit Publishing Company. Prints & Photographs Division

The commercial development of the land surrounding the falls sparked a movement to preserve the falls’ natural beauty through public ownership. These efforts culminated in the July 15, 1885, opening of the 400-acre Niagara Reservation State Park. Now known as the Niagara Falls State Park, it is the oldest state park in the country.

In his address at the opening of the park, James T. Carter, an eminent New York lawyer and legal scholar, made an eloquent plea for the preservation, through public ownership, of scenic wonders. “These visions of Infinite Beauty here unfolded to the eye are not a property,” Carter insisted, “but a shrine—a temple erected by the hand of the Almighty for all the children of men.” Carter’s address is featured in The Evolution of the Conservation Movement, 1850-1920.

#AceHistoryDesk report ……..Published: Mar.29: 2021

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports by https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all our posts, also links can be found at here for Twitter and Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

#lake-erie, #niagara-river

(BERLIN) #OnThisDay On March 21, 1871, the German parliament convened in the Reichstag for the first time, exactly 150 years ago. It was an important step to democracy, though the chamber did not hold the German Empire’s real power #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – Mar.21: The Bundestag today is the calling card of German democracy. Housed in Berlin’s Reichstag building, topped with a glass dome symbolizing political transparency, 709 elected members decide on laws and, amongst other things, the foreign deployments of the German military. They elect the German chancellor, keep tabs on the government’s work and publicly debate the right political path. This is everyday democratic life today.

Germany remembers dawn of democracy in Reichstag: ‘On March 21, 1871, the German parliament convened in the Reichstag for the first time, exactly 150 years ago. It was an important step to democracy, though the chamber did not hold the German Empire’s real power’

Parliamentarians in session in the plenary chamber of the Reichstag in 1889

When the Reichstag met for its first session in Berlin on March 21, 1871, it was hard to imagine a representative body with such far-reaching powers. Power was primarily held in the hands of two men: Emperor Wilhelm I, also King of Prussia, and the Reich Chancellor he appointed, Otto von Bismarck.

Wilhelm became emperor with the founding of the German Empire on January 18, 1871. As Reich Chancellor, Bismarck directed the political affairs of the first German nation-state, which had emerged from a confederation of states under Prussian leadership.

wooden engraving showing Emperor Wilhelm I checking out a piece of paper and a pensive-looking Bismarck

The real power lay with Emperor Wilhelm I (right) and Reich Chancellor Bismarck who directed the political affairs rather than the parliament

The imperial constitution, which was largely designed by Bismarck, granted far-reaching prerogatives to the monarchical executive: “The military, foreign policy, and the imperial administration remained largely removed from the influence of parliament and, above all, the appointment of the government depended (…) solely on the confidence of the emperor, not on the majority conditions in parliament,” according to the Bundestag’s explanation of the history of German parliamentarism. In this aristocratic world, citizens had one role above all: That of imperial subjects.

The apprenticeship of democracy

Nevertheless, the emperor and the imperial chancellor could not simply rule unchecked. “There had already been a parliament in Prussia since 1850, and they simply didn’t dare ignore it,” historian Christoph Nonn of Heinrich Heine University in Düsseldorf told DW. The German Revolution of 1848/49, which fought to democratize the German Confederation, was already “a clear signal that it was not possible without the population participating in politics.”

Although the Reichstag was conceived as a kind of fig leaf for popular participation, “it never really was from the beginning, because the parliamentarians were very self-confident,” Nonn explained. After all, parliament had a say in the implementation of laws and had budgetary authority.

“A government that did not get majorities in the Reichstag was practically incapable of acting because, with the exception of foreign and military policy, it could not legislate in any central policy area,” Andreas Biefang of the Commission for the History of Parliamentarianism and Political Parties, a Bundestag research institute, told DW.

  • The painting Proclamation of the Kaiser by Anton von Werner, made in 1885, shows Kaiser Wilhelm I.standing on a stage surrounded by princes as officers and soldiers in the hall cheer on.The Proclamation of the German Empire, 150 years ago The Kaiser’s proclamationOn January 18, 1871, Otto von Bismarck read out the proclamation of the Emperor of Prussia in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles. The German Reich was founded after Germany won the 1870-1871 war against France. The painter Anton von Werner was an eyewitness to the event and documented it in this painting made in 1885. Wilhelm I is standing on a stage surrounded by princes.

More power for the bourgeoisie

At first, the power of the Reichstag was still limited by the Bundesrat, which decided on laws alongside parliament. This assembly of imperial princes, largely controlled by Prussia, was intended as a kind of conservative bulwark to prevent democratic tendencies emerging from the Reichstag. To weaken the parliament’s position, the emperor could dissolve the Reichstag with the consent of the Bundesrat.

But economic and social developments gave bourgeois co-determination a boost. “Industrialization, with the mass movements of labor, weakened the old rural aristocratic elites and strengthened the new industrial bourgeois elites,” explained Nonn. “This led to the population becoming increasingly self-confident and demanding much more influence through their parties.”

Through its legislative activity and its resonance with the public, the Reichstag became increasingly emancipated. Both the population and the government eventually accepted its political roles as an expression of popular opinion. To the same extent that the parliament became a symbol of the young nation-state, the Bundesrat became less important.

Bismarck meldet sich zu Wort # 01.02.2012 19 Uhr # Journal Englisch

Weighted against urban centers

Despite their increased importance, however, the lives of Reichstag deputies were hardly enviable: For a long time, they received no parliamentary allowances, had neither staff nor their own offices.

The electoral system for the Reichstag also repeatedly fueled criticism. Due to the majority voting system and the division of constituencies, urban areas, where there had been a large increase in population, were significantly underrepresented. The conservatives benefited from this, while left-wing parties in the urban centers suffered. Moreover, in the early years, elections did not always have official ballots, voting booths or ballot boxes.

And there was a demographic and social imbalance. Only men who had reached the age of 25 were allowed to vote. Women and soldiers in active military service were excluded from voting for the Reichstag. So were recipients of poverty relief. “The reasons for this lie in the idea of the political maturity of male electoral citizens,” explained Biefang.

Part of the idea was that one should have been economically self-sufficient, “while soldiers were forbidden civic rights so they wouldn’t carry political conflicts into the army.”

The Reichstag dome, Berlin (picture-alliance/dpa/D. Kalker)Reichstag in Berlin: Landmark and home to democracyGlass domeThe Reichstag dome, created by celebrated architect Sir Norman Foster, is a must-see for Berlin tourists. At the top, the view from a height of 40 meters (about 130 feet) stretches over the government quarter and Brandenburg Gate. The glass dome was the express wish of the Bundestag. The plenary hall sits just below, symbolically allowing the people to monitor their members of parliament.

As a result, only about 20% of the population of the newly founded empire had the right to vote in the first Reichstag election on March 3, 1871, Biefang said. Turnout was 50%. By the German Empire’s last Reichstag election before World War I in 1912, that had increased to more than 84%.

According to Biefang, voting became increasingly important to people. “They felt that participation in the Reichstag election mattered to them personally. And that was because many of the decisions made by the Reichstag affected their lives,” says the historian.

Today’s Bundestag can only dream of such interest. In any case, historian Nonn wishes the Reichstag’s descendants more of the public attention and appreciation that the parliament of the empire received: “What was debated there was the talk of the day. At the barbers, at markets, in laundries — everywhere people talked about what was the issue at the Reichstag.”

Today, he says, debates in modern parliament receive far less attention. In some respects, this leads to “members of the Bundestag doing things that they might not do if they were watched more closely,” says the history professor, alluding to the recent lobbying scandal involving representatives of the conservative Christian Democratic Union (CDU).

This article was translated from German by DW.Com/

While you’re here: Every Tuesday, DW editors round-up what is happening in German politics and society, with an eye toward understanding this year’s elections and beyond. You can sign up here for the weekly email newsletter Berlin Briefing, to stay on top of developments as Germany enters the post-Merkel era.

#AceHistoryDesk report ……..Published: Mar.21: 2021:

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports by https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all our posts, also links can be found at here for Twitter and Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

FEATURED: Blogger GP – A Brief Background for War #AceHistoryDesk report

Teddy Roosevelt For centuries Asian products were desired, but one of the most profitable trade routes operated from India to China, introducing …

A Brief Background for War

For centuries Asian products were desired, but one of the most profitable trade routes operated from India to China, introducing opium into that country.  This market accounted for 20% of the British Empire’s revenue and was the basis of the Roosevelt family wealth. Teddy Roosevelt, an aristocrat, was taught thru his youth and at Harvard, of Aryan supremacy in government and intellect.  Columbia University professor John Burgess impressed him with white American world domination.  With this ideology, he followed the European nations in absorbing colonies.  He pushed for control of the Philippines where the American behavior was deplorable, but overlooked. The U.S. Minister to Japan, DeLong, encouraged “General” Charles LeGendre to go to Japan and instruct them on invasion tactics and instigate his “Monroe Doctrine” for Asia. (Three decades later it would be known as the Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere of WWII).  When Japan invaded Manchuria, Roosevelt said, “I was thoroughly pleased with the Japanese victory for Japan is playing our game.”  Although U.S. advisors assured Korea that America was their “Elder Brother,” in 1905 Roosevelt closed the embassy and said, “I should like to see Japan have Korea.”  The Nobel prize committee did not know of his secret meetings with Japan during the Russo-Japanese War and gave him the Peace prize anyway. Roosevelt had not only opened the door for Japan to conquer neighboring nations, he gave them the ideal instructor and plans to do it with.  For detailed information see: The Imperial Cruise, by James Bradley.https://www.thriftbooks.com/browse/?b.search=the%20imperial%20cruise#b.s=mostPopular-desc&b.p=1&b.pp=30&b.oos&b.tile

“The Imperial Cruise” by: James BradleyBeing that Japan found it necessary to import food, fuel and American plane parts, here was the edge that FDR needed to coax the U.S. public into war.  When Germany failed to declare war, he froze Japan’s assets on July 26, 1941.   Relations between Japan and the ABCD countries had basically reached a point of no return.  The New York Times newspaper called this action, “…the most drastic blow short of war.” The ABCD powers (American, British, Chinese & Dutch) followed suit and this became a choke chain around Japan’s neck which FDR jerked as he saw fit until Pearl Harbor exploded into a scene of destruction.  This action not only got the U.S. into the war, but FDR made certain that the major effort would be to assist his friend Winston Churchill – not the Pacific.

FDR campaigning in Warms Springs, GA, 4 April 1939For a more detailed look into the world that led into WWII, I have a 3-part ‘East/West series’ that starts here… https://pacificparatrooper.wordpress.com/2014/07/10/east-and-west-1/ FDR cabled Philippine President, Manuel Quezon, “I can assure you that every vessel available is  bearing the strength that will eventually crush the enemy… I give to the people of the Philippines my solemn pledge that their freedom will be retained… The entire resources in men and materials of the U.S. stand behind that pledge.” Gen. George Marshall, FDR’s Army Chief of Staff, radioed MacArthur:  ‘A stream of 4-engine bombers, previously delayed by foul weather, is enroute…Another stream of similar bombers started today from Hawaii…” ################################################################################################################

Political Humor – 

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Farewell Salutes – 

Patricia Adams – Fitchburg, MA; Civilian, WWII, Civil Corps, plane spotter Joseph Bange – Dayton, OH; US Army, WWII, ETO, Signal Corps

Robert Benden (101) – Brooklyn, NY; US Army, WWII, ETO, x-ray technician Michael Glockler Sr. – Chicago, IL; US Army, Vietnam, Co. B/2/505/82nd Airborne Division, Bronze Star Wilton Jackson (100) – Little River, TX; US Army Air Corps, WWII, ETO, Captain, 17th Bomb Group Emil J. Kapaun – Pilsen, KS; US Army, Korea, Chaplain, 3/8/1st Cavalry Division, POW, Medal of Honor, KIA (Chinese Camp 5) Frank Lopez – East Lost Angeles, CA; US Navy, WWII, PTO, aircraft maintenance Kenneth “Rock” Merritt – Warner, OK; US Army Air Corps, WWII, ETO, Sgt. Major, 82nd Airborne Division / Korea & Vietnam, Silver Star, (Ret. 35 y.) Robert Renner – Wautoma, WI; US Army Air Corps, Japanese Occupation / US Army, Korea, 187th RCT John Garvis Smith – Winston-Salem, NC; US Navy, WWII, USS Southerland########################################################################################################################################################################################################################################################################

AceHistoryDesk report ……….Published: Mar.20: 2021:

#OnThisDay 1865 During March and April troops under command of Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston fought General William T. Sherman’s60,000-man force as it marched north through the Carolinas during the final weeks of the Civil War #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – Mar.11: Prior to Sherman’s arrival many Southern women worked at the Fayetteville Arsenal, turning out the .58 caliber lead ball cartridges called “minnies” as well as rockets and shells. Approximately 900,000 rounds of small arms munitions were manufactured at the Fayetteville Arsenal over a seven-month period in 1864. Much of the arsenal’s machinery was manufactured at Harper’s Ferry prior to the war:

#TodayInHistory On March 11, Sherman captured the town of Fayetteville, North Carolina, and promptly destroyed the Fayetteville arsenal: During March and April of 1865, troops under command of Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston fought General William T. Sherman’s60,000-man force as it marched north through the Carolinas during the final weeks of the Civil War.

March: 11: 2021:

Portrait of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, Officer of the Confederate Army. Brady’s National Photographic Portrait Galleries (Washington, DC), [between 1860 and 1865]. Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints. Prints & Photographs Division’

During the Civil War, women were active on both home fronts. In Fayetteville, women formed groups like the Soldier’s Aid Society, the Sick Soldier’s Relief Society, and the North Carolina Soldier’s Benevolent Society. In Richmond, Mrs. Robert E. Lee and others made bandages for the wounded. Women North and South scraped cotton to make lint for packing wounds, and knit socks to keep their soldier’s feet warm and dry. A few, Louisa May Alcott among them, braved the battlefront as nurses.

In a 1939 interview, Moina Belle Michael placed her grandmother’s story within the context of a popular new novel:

Oh, what a time people had in those days, I think it was remarkable how my grandmother carried on after her father died…she was only eighteen…she took the plantation over and managed it successfully. He was a large land owner and had many slaves. But Sherman’s March…changed all that. I think that the things in Margaret Mitchell’s book ‘Gone With The Wind’ were true…When I was a child and saw those stately men and women so noble and fine it never occurred to me a bad person ever lived.

[“The Poppy Lady”]. Moina Belle Michael, interviewee; Athens, Georgia, February 8-9, 1939. American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers’ Project, 1936 to 1940. Manuscript Division

Fredericksburg, Va. Nurses and Officers of the U.S. Sanitary Commission. James Gardner, photographer, May 1864. Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints. Prints & Photographs Division

#AceHistoryDesk report ………Published: Mar.11: 2021:

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#OnThisDay March 08: Joe Frazier and Muhammad Ali battle in ‘The Fight of the Century’; Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370, a Boeing 777 with 239 people on board, vanishes #AceHistoryDesk report

#OnThisDay in History: March 8: ‘Joe Frazier and Muhammad Ali battle in ‘The Fight of the Century’; Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370, a Boeing 777 with 239 people on board, vanishes to name but a few’

#AceHistoryReport- Mar.08: 1971: Joe Frazier defeats Muhammad Ali by decision in what is billed as “The Fight of the Century” at Madison Square Garden in New York City.

6 hours ago

FILE - Joe Frazier hits Muhammad Ali with a left during the 15th round of their heavyweight title fight at New York's Madison Square Garden, in this March 8, 1971, file photo. Frazier was a relentless puncher filled with rage toward a fighter who couldn’t help but belittle him.(AP Photo/File)

On this day, March 8 …

Also on this day: 

  • 1618: German astronomer Johannes Kepler devises his third law of planetary motion.
  • 1702: England’s Queen Anne accedes to the throne upon the death of King William III.
  • 1948: The Supreme Court, in McCollum v. Board of Education, strikes down voluntary religious education classes in Champaign, Ill., public schools, saying the program violates separation of church and state.
  • 1965: The first U.S. combat troops land in South Vietnam as 3,500 Marines arrive to defend the U.S. airbase at Da Nang.
  • 1975: The first International Women’s Day is celebrated.
  • 1979: The technology firm Philips demonstrates a prototype compact disc (CD) player during a press conference in Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
  • 1983: In a speech to the National Association of Evangelicals convention in Orlando, Fla., President Ronald Reagan refers to the Soviet Union as an “evil empire.”
Joe DiMaggio
  • 1999: Yankee legend and baseball Hall of Famer Joe DiMaggio dies in Hollywood, Fla., at age 84.
  • 2004: Abul Abbas, the Palestinian guerrilla leader who’d planned the 1985 hijacking of the Achille Lauro passenger ship, dies while in U.S. custody in Baghdad, Iraq
  • 2004: Actor Robert Pastorelli, 49, is found dead in his Hollywood Hills, Calif., home.
  • 2008: President George W. Bush vetoes a bill that would ban the CIA from using simulated drowning and other coercive interrogation methods to gain information from suspected terrorists.
This Day in History: March 8

Video

  • 2014: Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370, a Boeing 777 with 239 people on board, vanishes during a flight from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing, setting off a massive search. (To date, the fate of the jetliner and its occupants has yet to be officially determined. The plane is presumed to have crashed in the far southern Indian Ocean. Some have speculated the plane’s disappearance was an act of mass murder-suicide by the pilot.)
  • 2018: U.S. and South Korean officials say President Trump has agreed to meet with North Korean leader Kim Jung Un by the end of May to negotiate an end to North Korea’s nuclear weapons program.
  • 2018: Mississippi lawmakers pass one of the most restrictive abortion laws in the nation, making the procedure illegal in most cases after 15 weeks of pregnancy. (A federal judge would later strike down the law as unconstitutional.)
Jussie Smollett (Richard Shotwell/Invision/AP)

#AceHistoryDesk report ………Published: Mar.08: 2021:

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FEATURED: Chinese noblemen were using cosmetics made from animal fat and cave ‘milk’ on their faces some 2,700 years ago, a study has reported #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – Feb.16: Experts from the Chinese Academy of Sciences excavated a nobleman’s tomb filled with assorted grave goods at the Liujiawa site in northern China:

Fancy some moonmilk moisturiser? Analysis of 2,700-year-old face cream reveals ancient Chinese noblemen used cosmetics made from animal fat and cave ‘milk’

‘During the so-called ‘Spring and Autumn’ period (771–476 BC), before China was unified by the Qin dynasty, Liujiawa was the capital of a vassal state named Rui’

14:00, 8 February 2021

  • Researchers excavated a tomb at the site of Liujiawa, the capital city of Rui
  • This was a vassal state prior to the unification of China by the Qin Dynasty
  • Bronze funerary weapons in the tomb indicated that it belonged to a nobleman
  • The team also found an ornate bronze vessel full of a yellow-white cosmetic
  • It would have turned the wearer’s face white and may have been a status symbol
  • Alternatively, the moonmilk in the cream may have been thought magical 

By Ian Randall For Mailonline

Published: 13:47, 8 February 2021 | 

Amid the nobleman’s possessions were characteristic bronze funerary weapons and also an ornate bronze jar containing the remains of the ancient face cream.

Chinese noblemen were using cosmetics made from animal fat and cave 'milk' on their faces some 2,700 years ago, a study has reported. Pictured, the ornate jar containing the remains of the face cream dating back to China's so-called 'Spring and Autumn' period (771–476 BC)

WHAT IS MOONMILK? 

Moonmilk is a soft plastic carbonate mud, that forms on the ceilings of certain limestone and dolomite-based cave systems.

When wet, it’s gooey and pasty, with a texture like cream cheese, becoming crumbly and powdery when dry. 

Previous studies have identified micro-organisms such as bacteria, algae, and fungus in moonmilk.

According to the researchers, they immediately suspected that the soft, yellow-white material in the ornate bronze jar was a cosmetic cream.

This was confirmed by chemical analyses, which identified the two main ingredients as being fat from a well-fed ruminant animal (most likely cattle reared in pens) and a white, creamy substance known as moonmilk.

Moonmilk is a soft plastic carbonate mud, that dries into a powder, that forms on the ceilings of certain limestone and dolomite-based cave systems. 

‘The residue, made of ruminant adipose fat mixed with monohydrocalcite coming from cave moonmilk, was likely used as cosmetic face cream by the nobleman of ancient Rui State,’ the researchers wrote in their paper.

‘This work provides an early example of cosmetic production in China and, together with the prevalence of similar cosmetic containers during this period, suggests the rise of an incipient cosmetics industry.’

Experts from the Chinese Academy of Sciences excavated a nobleman's tomb — filled with assorted grave goods — at the Liujiawa dig site in northern China. Amid the nobleman's possessions were characteristic bronze funerary weapons and also an ornate bronze jar containing the remains of the ancient face cream, pictured
According to the researchers, they immediately suspected that the soft, yellow-white material in the ornate bronze jar — pictured after being cleaned up — was a cosmetic cream

The cream, the team said, would have made the user’s face white, and may have represented either a way for the wearer to stand out, or else an influence of the early Taoist Schools of religion which believed that caves minerals had magic properties. 

According to the researchers, this face cream is the earliest known example from China to have been associated with a man, with the next oldest examples dating from the Three Kingdoms Period (from 220–280 AD), a millennia later.

In contrast, evidence for the use of cosmetics in China by women goes back much further. 

Amid the nobleman's possessions were characteristic bronze funerary weapons and also an ornate bronze jar containing the remains of the ancient face cream. Pictured, an aerial view of the excavated tomb, with the location of the cosmetics jar highlighted in red
According to the researchers, this face cream is the earliest known example from China to have been associated with a man — with the next oldest examples dating from the Three Kingdoms Period (from 220–280 AD), a millennia later. Pictured, a graph of the artefacts found in the tomb, with the nobleman's remains centre and the cosmetics jar highlighted in red
'The residue, made of ruminant adipose fat mixed with monohydrocalcite coming from cave moonmilk, was likely used as cosmetic face cream by the nobleman of ancient Rui State,' the researchers wrote in their paper. Pictured: two parts of the cream seen under the microscope
Moonmilk is a soft plastic carbonate mud, that dries into a powder, that forms on the ceilings of certain limestone and dolomite-based cave systems, as pictured

In 2016, for example, the researchers found red cosmetic sticks which were thought to have been used between around 1980–1450 BC.

In Africa, meanwhile, ancient Egyptians were thought to be using cosmetic as early as 2,000 BC.

The full findings of the study were published in the journal Archaeometry.

'This work provides an early example of cosmetic production in China and, together with the prevalence of similar cosmetic containers during this period, suggests the rise of an incipient cosmetics industry,' the experts wrote. Pictured, the Liujiawa site, with the tomb highlighted
During the so-called 'Spring and Autumn' period (771–476 BC) — before China was unified by the Qin dynasty — Liujiawa was the capital of a vassal state named Rui

Researchers are able to work out what our earliest ancestors had for dinner through modelling and studying bones

Researchers recently concluded that people living in southern Scandinavia during the Stone Age were more reliant on fish than was previously believed.

They reached this conclusion by studying the bones of 82 individuals who lived thousands of years ago.

The researchers employed Bayesian statistical modeling to learn about human diets following the melting of ice from the last ice age.

In addition to looking at human bones the scientists examined animal bone material in order to ‘gain an insight into how diets vary between different places’, the study said.

The report states that fish were essential for people living in territories both coastal and inland.

The analysis explains: ‘The results show that the water’s resources dominated protein intake in both marine and fresh water environments.

‘The results also show there are considerable local variations in the preferred species but that fishing has been highly significant for human subsistence, and the significance of fishing appears to constantly increase.’ 

#AceHistoryDesk report …….Published: Feb.16: 2021:

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Snippets of History – Frederick Douglass ╽Escaping Slavery – A Story Of Risk, Freedom & Triumph

Today In History – Frederick Douglass is born on February 14th, 1818. He was a social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, and statesman after …

Frederick Douglass ╽Escaping Slavery – A Story Of Risk, Freedom & Triumph